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Vivek.

S
JTO, RTTC, Hyderabad
Telecom Network

User or
Access or
Core
Network Network Network
Broadband Telecom Network
Content
Broadcaster Servers

Internet / Telecom
Provider

Broadcast Internet
Network High speed
Core Core Network
IP, ATM, SDH,
Network MPLS, WDM

Headend Node

LMDS WiMAX POTS ISDN


MMDS WiFi, GSM Access xDSL fibre HFC
GPRS UMTS Network FTTH

User
Terminal
Mobile Speeds

2G
GSM/CDMA (9.6-14.4) Kbps
2.5G
GPRS 115 Kbps
EDGE 384 Kbps
CDMA 2000 1x RTT 170 Kbps
3G
EVDO 3.1Mbps
EVDV 3.1 Mbps
UMTS (144 2048) Kbps
HSDPA 14 Mbps
IEEE View of Wireless Network Technologies
WWAN
> 50 km
802.20 (proposed)

WiMAX WMAN
<50 km
75 Mbit/s
802.16d/e

Wi-Fi WLAN
<100 m
11-54 Mbit/s
802.11a/b/ g

WPAN
<10 m
802.15.1 (Bluetooth)*
802.15.3 (UWB) **
802.15.4 (ZigBee)*** * Bluetooth: ~1 Mbit/s
** UWB: 100 Mbit/s
*** ZigBee: 20-250 kbps
Source: ITU, Birth of Broadband, September 2003 and Pyramid Research
Broadband Wireless Access
Technologies
WPAN
Bluetooth
WLAN
WiFi
WMAN
WIMAX
LMDS / MMDS
FSO
WWAN - Cellular Mobile Telephony
GSMGPRS,EDGE
3G-UMTS
CDMA 2000 1x RTT EVDOEVDV
Spectrum Map of Various Wireless
Technologies
1Gbps
data rate

UWB

100Mbps
802.11a/g WLAN
10Mbps 802.16a WiMAX 802.20 WWAN
WMAN
802.11b WLAN
1Mbps 3G/4G
Bluetooth
100kbps
2G/2.5G Cell
Phone Service
10kbps RFID
Sensor
Network
Personal Local Metropolitan Wide distance
Area Area Area Area
Network Network Network Network
(<10m) (<100m) (1 to 48km) (>48km)
WIMAX Technology
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
Works in 10-60 GHz and 2-11 GHz
Provides fixed, portable, and eventually
mobile, wireless broadband connectivity
It can also provide POTS services
Speed upto 75 Mb/s
Designed to develop an air interface based
on a common MAC protocol
Designed a flexible MAC layer and
accompanying Physical layer
WiMAX - IEEE802.16
Air Interface:
OFDM, OFDMA, 64QAM, 2048 sub-carriers,
NLOS

Bands
2.3GHz, 2.4 GHz, 2.5-2.7 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 5-6
GHz
Bandwidth or Channel Sizes:
3 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 6 MHz, 7 MHz, 10 MHz, 14 MHz
and 20 MHz

Data rates:
56Mbps- 63 Mbps in a 14 MHz Channel
Maximum 74.7 Mbps in a 20MHz channel
WiMAX
Fixed
Access Portable
Small to Access
Mid size
Business

WiMAX Base Station


(Towers or rooftop antennas)
CPE

Mobile Network
Backhaul
Residential
SOHO

HotSpot
Backhaul WiFi/802.11 Cellular
Hotspot
WIMAX Architecture

13
WiMAX - Last Mile Broadband
Video
PSTN
Cellular Mobile
Telephony BTS
Internet
Enterprise Cellular
Customer backhaul

High Speed
Content &
Core Network Application
Mobile Providers
Broadband
User
BBRAS

Home User /
SOHO
EnterpriseCustomer
/Fixed outdoor
DSLAM BACKHAUL APPLICATION

Up to 20kmts

Ethernet Ethernet
CANOPY CANOPY CANOPY

Wi-Max
BTS
Wi-Max Wi-Max DSLAM
DSLAM CPE CPE Location-2
Location-1
Ethernet
Switch

BRAS INTERNET
BACKBONE
WIMAX
Last Mile Networks

WIMAX
Subscriber
Station

POTS

Wi-Fi

Access
Point

Ethernet Core Network


WiMAX Base Station
PSTN

Customer Premise Internet


(Home/Business/SOHO/HOTSPOT)
APPLICATIONS OF WIMAX
Multiple broadband users from a single
CPE (with different SLAs) Rural BB
Leased lines
MPLS VPN support
Backhaul of WiFi
Backhaul of DSLAM
IEEE 802.16 standards
802.16 Air interface for fixed BWA systems at 10-66 GHz
Common MAC definition

Multiple PHY definitions, with baseline PHY supporting

operation in 10-66 GHz, Single Carrier QAM Modulation.


Point-to-multipoint (PMP) operation

2 to 134 Mbps

Constrained to line-of-sight

Few KMs of range


IEEE 802.16 Standards
802.16a 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed bands
Point-to-multipoint BWA system

OFDM 256 point FFT waveform

TDM/TDMA scheduled downlink/uplink frames

Near LOS operation and fixed outdoor antenna

Max. Range 50 Km

Typical coverage ~ 5km - Indoor antenna in case of

802.16d
~15 km with outdoor antenna in case of 802.16a

802.16b License-exempt bands, with a focus on


5.8 GHz Band
WirelessHUMAN

(Wireless High-Speed Unlicensed Metropolitan Area


IEEE 802.16 Standards

802.16e 2.5, 3.5 GHz Licensed band


CPE native in mobile PC
It will offer mobility within a fixed service area of the
service provider at varying speed
OFDMA for taking care of Multipath Metro
Environment
802.20
Complete mobility with roaming from one network to
other network.
Work under progress
The WiMAX Vision

2004 2005 2006

Fixed Outdoor Fixed Indoor & Portable Mobile


Solution Characteristics Solution Characteristics Solution Characteristics
Fixed location Consumer self install, CPE Native in Mobile PC
Installed outside of auto provisioning User can roam within the
subscribers house Portable can move service area at varying
Requires truck roll CPE to another location speeds
in service area Always Best Connected
Applications
Applications (Simplified Network
E1/T1 Level Service for
Enterprises Last Mile Broadband Selection)
access for consumers Applications
Backhaul for Hotspots
Portable broadband Mobile Broadband
Fractional E1/T1 for access access for consumers
SMEs
Limited residential
broadband access (rural
areas)
Usage Scenarios
Fixed Nomadic Portable Simple Full Mobility
Mobility

User Mobility None None 5 km/hr >60 with >120 km/hr


during a >120 km/h
session with
degradation
Session No No Best Effort <150 ms on <50ms
Continuity layer 2
Stationary IP apps IP apps on IP apps on IP apps on IP apps on
Applications on DSL DSL. DSL DSL DSL
Applications N/A N/A Email, web, Email web, VoIP, Video
for Mobile video video streaming and
Operation streaming streaming telephony
internet
gaming, plus
simple mob
apps.
Multiple Base No No Optional Optional Yes, plus fast
Station cell switching
IEEE 802.16 MAC layer

Operates at MAC sub-layer of Data Link


Layer
MAC layer is further subdivided into
three layers
Convergence sub-layer (CS)
Common part sub-layer (CPS)
Privacy sub-layer
802.16 Physical Layer

Data rates determined


by exact modulation Channel Bit Rate Bit Rate Bit Rate
and encoding Size (Mbps) (Mbps) (Mbps)
schemes (MHz) QPSK 16-QAM 64-QAM

20 32 64 96
TDD and FDD 25 40 80 120
supported in 802.16 to 28 44.8 89.6 134.4
accommodate burst
profiling
802.16a PHY Features
256 point FFT OFDM modulation
Reduces multi-path interference in outdoor LOS and
NLOS environment
75 Mbps maximum data rate per 20 MHz carrier

Adaptive Modulation and variable forward error


correction encoding per RF burst
Ensures robust RF link while maximizing the number
of bits/ sec for each subscriber unit at optimal range
TDD and FDD duplexing support
802.16a PHY Features

Flexible channel sizes 1.75 MHz, 3.5 MHz,


5 Mhz, 7 MHz, 10 MHz etc with 20 MHz
Maximum
Provides flexibility necessary to operate in many
different frequency bands with varying channel
requirements around the world
Designed to support smart antenna
Smart antennas are fast becoming more
affordable, and as these costs come down their
ability to suppress interference and increase
system gain will become important for BWA
deployment
Multipath Environment

The use of several parallel


WiMAX
sub carriers of OFDM Base
enables much longer symbol Station
duration, which makes the
signal more robust to multi-
path dispersion.
Thus OFDMA is most suitable
and robust technology in
multi-path environment

WiMAX
CPE
Adaptive Antenna System
(Smart Antennas)
Beam Shaping
Adaptive antenna system (AAS)
equipped base stations can create
beams that can be steered, focusing
the transmit energy to achieve greater
range. When receiving, they can focus
in the particular direction of the receiver.
this helps eliminate unwanted interfere-
nce from other locations.
WiMAX - AMC
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
As distance increases, system
falls back on lower order
modulation scheme for that user.
This helps in achieving greater range
but on reduced data rate

QPSK QAM 16
QAM 64
System Components
Base Station
Controller
Macro Base station
Micro Base station
RF Units
CPE
Outdoor Unit
Indoor Self-Install
PC Card (ODMs)
Laptop integrated (Intel)

Network Management
High Capacity Scalable BST
Multi Channel BST radios
Increase capacity over the same RF
infrastructure
Scalable pay as you grow solution
Modem
#1
Scalable Modem
Radio Unit Growth Radio Unit
Modem #2 IF
RF RF
#1 Mux
Modem
#3
Modem
1x3.5MHz Channel = 18 Mbps #4
Net Capacity 4x3.5MHz Channel = 72 Mbps Net
Capacity
Interfaces at BTS
The following interfaces shall be supplied on
each BS:
Name Number
10/100 mbps 100 baseT 2
full duplex interface
Gbps SX 2
V5.2 E1 Interfaces 10
G.703 E1 Interfaces 10
Base Station Controller
NPU Network Processing Unit card (1+1)
AU Access Unit card (4+2)
NIU Network Interface Unit - 12 x E1/T1 interface card (port
redundancy)
PIU Power Interface Unit card with redundancy
AVU Air Ventilation Unit controllable fans (9+1)
PSU Power Supply Unit (3+1)

PIU PSU
Network
Processing
Unit (NPU)

Access Unit (AU) or


Network Interface
AVU Unit (NIU)
RF Units
Smart antenna 2nd, 4th order diversity
Full duplex multi-carrier radio - connects to an external antenna
High system gain and interference robustness utilizing high
transmit power and low noise figure
Support for up to 10MHz channel bandwidth
Increased capacity - multiple RF channels per sector through IF
Mux
Cell coverage using a 60o, 90o or 120o sectorized antennas

Outdoor
Configuration
Micro Base Station
1U rack mounted base-
station controller RFU Integrated
with a Sector
Antenna
1,2 or 4 RF units
configurations
Two deployment
configurations:
Sectorial - single sector coverage
Omni-type - for area coverage
Micro Base Station
Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE)
CPE types:
Indoor self installed CPE (integrated antennas) Self Install
Integrated outdoor CPE
PC Card
Laptop integrated
Outdoor

CPE benefits:
Interoperability and multiple vendor Support PC Card

Low cost through mass production

Laptop
WiMAX supports 5 classes of
application
1 Multi-player Interactive Gaming

2 VOIP & Video Conference

3 Streaming Media

4 Web Browsing & Instant Messaging

5 Media Content Downloads


WIMAX Vision: Broadband Everywhere
3 1
2
FRACTIONAL E1 for RESIDENTIAL & SoHo
SMALL BUSINESS BACKHAUL for DSL LEVEL SERVICE
Mobile
HOTSPOTS
Backhaul 4
WMAN Nomadic Coverage --
E1+ LEVEL SERVICE 802.16d 802.16d > handoff from HOT SPOTS
ENTERPRISE H
H H

H H
H
H H
802.16e H
5 = wide area
coverage outside of
Hot Spots
INTERNET
BACKBONE
BWA Operator
Network Backbone Mobility
Salient features of BSNL WI-MAX
WIMAX IN 10 CITIES-
KOLKATA, CHENNA, HYDERABAD,
BANGLORE AHMEDABAD, PUNE,
HISSAR, ROHTA, PINJORE and KARNAL
VENDOR-MOTOROLA, APERTO, SOMA
FREQ. ALLOTTED- 2 FDD SPOTS OF 3.5
MHz.
FOUR SECTORS
7.5Mbps * 4 = 30 Mbps net throughput
BS CAPACITY-1000CPE, 50 SUBs/CPE
MODEL-PM 5000 BS, PM 300i CPE.
WIMAX BS
WIMAX CPE components
Management Traffic connected to PE router via 128kbps
MLLN circuit & data traffic to Tier-II
Frequency Spectrum for WiMAX (2.3 - 5.8) GHz

MMDS 3.5GHz band Low/Mid Upper


~2500-2690 3400-3600 UNII-band UNII-band
2700-2900 (802.11a) ~5725-5850
5150-5350
3300-3400
ISM (11b/g) WRC (new)
5470-5725
2400-2480
US WCS WiMAX profiles available
2305-2320
2345-2360 Other Bands

Note : WPC has allotted two no of FDD frequencies of 3.5 MHz


(1) 3308.75 / 3358.75 MHz (2) 3312.25 / 3362.25 MHz