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Determination of Soil Stiffness

Parameters

Short Course on Computational Geotechnics + Dynamics


Boulder, Colorado
January 5-8, 2004

Stein Sture
Professor of Civil Engineering
University of Colorado at Boulder
Contents
General concepts and stiffness of sand
Hookes law
E-moduli from triaxial testing
E-moduli from oedometer testing
Examples on the estimation of E

Stiffness of clays
Undrained clay behavior
Drained clay behavior
Examples on the estimation of E
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Idealized and real stress-
strain behavior of soils

Idealized types of stress-strain behaviors: (a) nonlinear elastic


Model, (b) linear elastic model, and (c) elastoplastic model

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Idealized and real stress-
strain behavior of soils

Various types of elastoplastic behaviors: (a) strain hardening, (b)


perfectly plastic, (c) strain softening, and (d) combination of a to c.
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Hookes Law of Isotropic
Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Hookes Law of Isotropic
Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Standard Drained Triaxial Test on
Sand

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Standard Drained Triaxial Test on
Sand

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Oedometer Test on Sand

Hooke: 1 2
E (1 2 ) Eoed Eoed ( 13 )
1 3

Loose: E 2 y
ref
150 ref
p 3 p

Dense: E 2 y
ref
500 ref
p 3 p
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Oedometer Test on Sand
'x
'y 2 'x
K0

E 2 x x
Loose: 150 2 150
p ref 3 p ref p ref

Dense: E 2 x x
500 2 500
p ref 3 p ref p ref

This implies: E E50


Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Summary on Stiffness Parameters:
Sand
(Laboratory based experience)
2
E E 50 E oed 1
3
3

E ' 'x
Loose: 150 x
'x Loose: E 15MPa
ref
p p ref
EE ref p ref
p ref

Dense: E
500
'
x
Dense: E 50MPa 'x
p ref
p ref p ref

p ref 100kPa times stiffer. small


Unloading: About 4
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation
Example 1 (loading):

Layer 1 (extremely loose sand ref


E 50 15MPa
Mohr-Coulomb model:

Layer 1: y0 70kPa 'y 50kPa


/

Average 'y 95kPa 'x 50kPa



E 50 15000 0.5 10000kPa
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation
Example 2 (unloading):

Layer 1 (dense): E 50 45MPa


ref
Layer 3 (medium): E 50ref 30MPa
Unloading: Eurref 4 E50
ref
, 0.15 for both layers


Mohr-Coulomb model:

Layer 1: 'y 2 1.5 ' 55kPa 'x 27.5kPa
E 4 45000 27.5
100
95000kPa
Layer 3: 'x 10kPa E 4 30000 0.10 38000kPa

Computational Geotechnics
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Eoed from Cone Penetration Test in
Sands
Cone Resistance: qc

Correlation: Eoed qc

NC-Sand: = 1 to 3
Literature


Vermeers Experience: = 3

Alternatively: Eoed (30 10) qc p ref

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Undrained Triaxial Test on
Clay

15000Cu
Normally consolidated clay: E u50
Ip%

Cu = undrained shear strength (or Su) E u50 3G50


Computational Geotechnics
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Idealized and real stress-strain
behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Idealized and real stress-strain
behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Plate Loading Tests

Duncan & Buchignani (1976)


Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Plate Loading Tests

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Summary on Stiffness Parameters:
Undrained Conditions Clay

Do not use empirical relationships only. Get good quality experimental data from lab tests, cone
penetration tests and vane tests

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters


Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters