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# Determination of Soil Stiffness

Parameters

## Short Course on Computational Geotechnics + Dynamics

January 5-8, 2004

Stein Sture
Professor of Civil Engineering
Contents
General concepts and stiffness of sand
Hookes law
E-moduli from triaxial testing
E-moduli from oedometer testing
Examples on the estimation of E

Stiffness of clays
Undrained clay behavior
Drained clay behavior
Examples on the estimation of E
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Idealized and real stress-
strain behavior of soils

## Idealized types of stress-strain behaviors: (a) nonlinear elastic

Model, (b) linear elastic model, and (c) elastoplastic model

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stress-
strain behavior of soils

## Various types of elastoplastic behaviors: (a) strain hardening, (b)

perfectly plastic, (c) strain softening, and (d) combination of a to c.
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Hookes Law of Isotropic
Elasticity

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Hookes Law of Isotropic
Elasticity

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Standard Drained Triaxial Test on
Sand

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Standard Drained Triaxial Test on
Sand

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand

Hooke: 1 2
E (1 2 ) Eoed Eoed ( 13 )
1 3

Loose: E 2 y
ref
150 ref
p 3 p

Dense: E 2 y
ref
500 ref
p 3 p
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Oedometer Test on Sand
'x
'y 2 'x
K0

E 2 x x
Loose: 150 2 150
p ref 3 p ref p ref

Dense: E 2 x x
500 2 500
p ref 3 p ref p ref

## This implies: E E50

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Summary on Stiffness Parameters:
Sand
(Laboratory based experience)
2
E E 50 E oed 1
3
3

E ' 'x
Loose: 150 x
'x Loose: E 15MPa
ref
p p ref
EE ref p ref
p ref

Dense: E
500
'
x
Dense: E 50MPa 'x
p ref
p ref p ref

## p ref 100kPa times stiffer. small

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation

## Layer 1 (extremely loose sand ref

E 50 15MPa
Mohr-Coulomb model:

/

## Average 'y 95kPa 'x 50kPa

E 50 15000 0.5 10000kPa
Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation

## Layer 1 (dense): E 50 45MPa

ref
Layer 3 (medium): E 50ref 30MPa
ref
, 0.15 for both layers

Mohr-Coulomb model:

Layer 1: 'y 2 1.5 ' 55kPa 'x 27.5kPa
E 4 45000 27.5
100
95000kPa
Layer 3: 'x 10kPa E 4 30000 0.10 38000kPa

Computational Geotechnics
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Eoed from Cone Penetration Test in
Sands
Cone Resistance: qc

Correlation: Eoed qc

NC-Sand: = 1 to 3
Literature

Vermeers Experience: = 3

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Undrained Triaxial Test on
Clay

15000Cu
Normally consolidated clay: E u50
Ip%

## Cu = undrained shear strength (or Su) E u50 3G50

Computational Geotechnics
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters
Idealized and real stress-strain
behavior of soils

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stress-strain
behavior of soils

## Duncan & Buchignani (1976)

Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Summary on Stiffness Parameters:
Undrained Conditions Clay

Do not use empirical relationships only. Get good quality experimental data from lab tests, cone
penetration tests and vane tests

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Drained Behavior for Clays

## Computational Geotechnics Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Drained Behavior for Clays