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(1946-1969

)

CONDITIONS AFTER THE WAR

For many months. there was no production Widespread unemployment Food was scarce and thousands died because of various diseases . 1946 – President Roxas appeared for the 1st time before the joint session of Congress to deliver his message on the State of the Nation. next to Poland.On June 3. oPhilippines was declared as the 2nd most devastated city during the war.

medicine and clothing for the Filipinos that would be paid by in due time. . American Aid Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) o Created by the American Army in the Philippines o Set up to help the military commander in extending relief aid to suffering people o It pays the salaries of Municipal Officers and teacher o Employed Filipino laborers in American Military projects The American Government also gave money to the Philippine Government for purchase of foodstuff.

THE GOVERNMENT REORGRANIZED .

President Osmeña reorganized the government oExecutive departments were restored oNew Department (Department of Information) was created .In March 1945.

000 Given a loan of $60. American Financial Aid The Congress of the United States appropriated $100.000.000 oto be used for operating expenses oredemption of guerilla notes issued during the war Surplus materials with sale value of P100.000 for reconstruction .000.000.

. it had to amend the Constitution in order to grant the Parity rights. Parity rights to Americans October 1945 – the American Congress passed a bill into law known as the Bell Trade Relations Act Bell Trade Relations Act – means free trade relations between Philippines and the Unites States up to 1954. sick and helpless so in order to get the financial aid. after that Philippines products entering the US would be taxed by 5% each year until the full 100% in 1974 However. It violated the Constitution of 1935 Many patriotic people objected but majority of the people were hungry. and amendment to the constitution was passed.

THE THIRD REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED .

Paul McNutt .S President Harry S. Roxas was elected President of the Commonwealth (the 1st president of the Third republic) July 4. by U. 1946 – Manuel A. The Roxas Administration (1946-1948) April 23. 1946 – proclamation of Independence at Luneta Park. Truman and was read by the last American High Commissioner in the Philippines.

The Roxas Administration (1946-1948) He began building the economy of the war-torn Country Top priorities oIndustrialization od the Philippines oPreservation of close cooperation and special relations with the United States oMaintenance of the rule of law and order .

He began building the economy of the war-torn Country Top priorities oIndustrialization od the Philippines oPreservation of close cooperation and special relations with the United States oMaintenance of the rule of law and order .

Roxas’ bilateral agreements with the American government oTreaty of General Relations oThe War Surplus Property Agreement oThe Military Bases Agreement oThe Military Assistance Agreement Failures oTo stamp-out graft and corruption bureaucracy oFailure to contain the communist insurgency (Huk Movement)  April 15. 1948 – Roxas died after 2 years in position .

The Pambansang Kaisahan ng mga magbubukid (PKM) as illegal. Jose and Jesus) o Supremo was Luis Taruc March 1948. Roxas declared the HUKBALAHAP and its peasant organization. The HUKBALAHAP Problem Hukbalahap (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon) o Their members were called “Huks” o It was founded early in 1942 o It was led by Pedro Abad Santos and Lava Brothers (Vicente. after he failed to win them over .

India. Indonesia. South Korea. China.Elpidio Quirino. and economist o Central Bank of the Philippines o Signed into the law of Magna carta or Labor and Minimum Wage o Opened trade relations with Thailand. and Australia o He created the PACSA (President’s Action Committee on Social Amelioration) o Created the establishment of ACCFA (Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration) . the 2nd president of the third republic.

a former judge. Antonio Quirino to meet with Luis Taruc Taruc asked for the following 1. Redistribution of large estates to the peasants/tenants 4. Removal of U. Scrapping of Bell Trade Act 2. so president Quirino sent his younger brother. Release of all Huk prisoners 5.S bases in the country .The HUKS continued to disrupt the development of Philippines. Industrialization 6. No trade with Japan 3.

the peace reigned in central Luzon. o So.After the Taruc-Quirino meetings o President Quirino proclaimed amnesty to all Huks and PKM members o the Huks promised to surrender their arms to the government o However. Judge Quirino denied ever agreeing to implement Taruc’s demand. . known as Huklandia lasted only for a short duration.

complexed with murder and arson. o Sentenced to life imprisonment and later reduced to 10 years . 1950 – Huk Politburo fell into the hands of Military and Police authorities o charged them by rebellion. Magsaysay and the Huks October 18.

Dr. Manunggal) in an airplane accident . Luis Taruc and caused the HUKBALAHAP movement to slow down in 1954 o In 1964. Magsaysay o Won the Presidency in 1953 with the help of American Money o He was called “President of the Common Tao” or “Man of The Masses” o Former Quirino’s Secretary of National Defense o He caused the surrender of Huk Supremo.Ramon F. 1957 in Cebu (Mt. Jesus Lava (Taruc’s successor as Huk Supremo) was captured in Manila and the HUKBALAHAP was finally broken o He was remembered for his policy of honest government o Approved Agricultural Tenancy Act o Died on March 17.

Garcia oFormer Vice President of Magsaysay oWon the presidency in the election of November in 1957 oHe anchored his program of government on austerity oProclaimed the “Filipino First” policy. Garcia and the “Filipino First” Policy (1957-1962) Carlos P. It means that the Filipinos would be masters in their own land .

Some of his greatest achievements o The propagation of the concept of Filipino Muna (Filipino First Policy) o The projection of Filipino Culture (through the world of goodwill tours of the Bayanihan Folk Dance Troupe) o The respect for human rights. Jose Rizal Centennial Commission o The Promotion of international Peace and harmony (through official visits to Japan. South Vietnam. Malaysia and United States . and maintenance of free elections o Creation of Dr.

won the Presidency in election of 1961 o Promised to solve the problem of unemployment and promote self- sufficiency in food production o The first president to adopt the decontrol policy imposed by foreign banks o Proposed an organization uniting Malay-based Countries through MAPHILINDO (Malaysia.  This is considered as a precursor of the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) . Macapagal o Candidate of Liberal Party. Philippines. and Indonesia).The Macapagal Administration (1961-1965) and Land Reform Diosdado P.

Change of Independence Day celebration from July 4 to June 12 .He was known for two things: 1. The land reform code 2.

To apply all labor laws to all irrespective of their status in life 5. To make poor farmers independent. To encourage bigger productivity to increase the income of small farmers 4. and responsible citizens in order to strengthen the Philippine democratic society o The Old Kasama system was substituted by Leasehold system  In this system.Agricultural Land Reform Code 1. To improve status of the poor farmers by freeing them form pernicious practices such as exorbitant rates of interest for loans 3. the leaseholder will pay 25% of the harvest to owner of the land . To establish and encourage the formation of family-sized farms as the basis of Philippine agriculture 2. To provide a land settlement programs and distribution of land 6. self-reliant.

The Philippine Independence Day has been celebrated on June 12 instead of July 4  July 4 – Independence Day proclaimed by the U.S President Truman  June 12 – Independence Day proclaimed by a Filipino.Independence Day oSince1962. President Aguinaldo oToday. it is customary to call July 4 as Philippine- American Friendship day . however.

Imelda R.  He agreed providing that Macapagal would serve only for one term. the liberal Vice President asked him to defer his political plan. with the help of his wife. o But when Macapagal’s term was over he refused to keep the agreement  Marcos left the Liberal Party and run under Nacionalista Party o He won the Presidency in 1965. o His slogan: “This nation can be great again. Marcos. Marcos o He wanted to run for Presidency in 1961 but Macapagal. President Marcos First Term (1965-1969) Ferdinand E. a niece of Norberto Romualdez of the Nacionalista Party.” .

Implementation of a land reform program 3. Production of more rice and diversification of crops to attain self-sufficiency in food 2. Community development . His program includes: 1.

The Holding of the Manila Summit Conference on October 24-25. schoolhouses (also called as infrastructure program) 2. 1966 . organized crime. Effective collection of taxes 6. Extension of financial and technical assistance to Filipino farmers 5. bridges. Intensive drive against smuggling. Introduction of “Miracle Rice” and additional irrigation systems 4. and the communist New People’s Army (NPA) 7.His major achievements: 1. The improvement of Philippine National Railways (PNR) 3. Building more infrastructure like roads.

. subversion and the threat of communist take-over . Marcos Second Term (1969) In the elections of November 14. 1967 o The Nacionalista party won by landslide victoru o Only one liberal party senatorial candidate was elected He was Benigno Aquino Jr. the youngest governor of Tarlac Under Marcos second term o Filipino people suffered from grave economic crisis caused by the rising oil price o His term was characterized by rampant graft and corruption in the government o There was a prevalence of crime.