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Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

This course is all about the beauty of


research: why research, what type of
research, what to research, who is the
research about, how to design a research,
who to research, how to get data, how to
analyze and how to finally tie the research
questions to the answers (usually tentative
answers. We never have absolute truth, but
versions or parts of the truth)

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

We all are researchers of sorts. We cannot


live without being one. We see, seek, search,
imitate, develop beliefs (making sense
-conceptualising & hypothesising) and
constantly test these beliefs (our personal
theories about the world around us) against
our experience (data, empirical) either to
change it or to fortify it. This course is to
educate you on the rules and rigor of
scientific research.
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511
Datuk Mokhtar Hashims Murder Trial

Prosecutor: Can you tell the court your name and occupation?
Witness: My name is Ali bin Ahmad and I am a paddy farmer.
Prosecutor: One the night of the shooting, were you walking back to your home from the surau?
Witness: Yes, I was.
Prosecutor: Did you see a man walking away from Pn Sarinahs house?
Witness: Yes, I saw Datuk Mohktar leaving Pn. Sarinahs house in a hurry.
Prosecutor: It was at night, wasnt it?
Witness: Yes, but I saw him clearly.
Defense: Pak Cik Ali, you saw this person around after Ishak prayers?
Witness: Yes.
Defense: Can you be certain that you saw this man?
Witness: Yes, I am certain.
Defense: Have you seen a doctor recently about eye problems cataract, shortsightedness etc.?
Witness: Yes, for mild cataract.
Defense: So you must be lying about clearly seeing this man! With your eyesight you cannot be
sure? Did any one here tell you what to say? Your honour, this witness is plainly lying or he was coached.
Judge: Mr. Counsel, he (the witness) is a simple god faring farmer. This people, unlike city folks,
do not lie.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: What is Research?


Lecture objectives:
Everyone is researching everyday. This lecture is intended
Personal to provide a working
definition of research.
observations, mental models,
standards,
theories, bias, prejudices and Points to ponder:
beliefs. We are all researchers?
Everyday is an
It is an organised and systematic empirical/conceptual
effort experience.
What personal theories
to investigate a problem that needs
do you hold?
a Research is purposive
solution (Sekaran, 1994:4) People use theories to
define the situation,
Research is also seeking to better choose alternatives
and take action.
understand the world around us in You no theories you
the hope name must be Rigor
that we can improve the human Mortis
Hazman
condition;
Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: The Learning Outcomes


Explicit Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
List and explain the elements of to outline the learning
outcomes of this
empirical research. course.
Formulate and develop a written
proposal that meets the norms. Points to ponder:
Can select and utilize the statistical
If the required readings
tools to analyse data. are not carried out, will
it compromise the
Implicit learning? Probably
Without experience,
can I pull this off? Yes,
Write clearly and logically you can.
All key points referenced (hence well Are they samples or
researched) examples to follow?
Can select important theoretical, Many, just need to look
for it around you.
conceptual or practical problems
Smart use of online facilities

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: What is Research?


Lecture objectives:
Everyone is researching everyday. This lecture is intended
Personal to provide a working
definition of research.
observations, mental models,
standards,
theories, bias, prejudices and Points to ponder:
beliefs. We are all researchers?
Everyday is an
It is an organised and systematic empirical/conceptual
effort experience.
What personal theories
to investigate a problem that needs
do you hold?
a Research is purposive
solution (Sekaran, 1994:4) People use theories to
define the situation,
Research is also seeking to better choose alternatives
and take action.
understand the world around us in You no theories you
the hope name must be Rigor
that we can improve the human Mortis
Hazman
condition;
Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Why Do Research?


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Explore things we dont know to introduce the
risky to think we know all importance and value
testing what we know of research.
To understand the variables/dynamics
Points to ponder:
social world is complex
figuring out what the elements are Do we know why
to prevent biases, popular beliefs etc students melepak? Is
it important we know
driving decisions this from them?
To examine the relationships between What makes teenagers
them smoke?
think are not what they seem What motivates
knowledge workers?
interactions are dynamic and complex
Money, security,
necessary to solve everyday growth opportunities,
problems, seek better methods, just workplace,
predict and avoid problems community spirit.
We know or we just
assume knowledge!
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Basic vs. Applied Research


Lecture objectives:
Basic research: discovery, This lecture is intended
exploration, understanding, to characterize types of
research
explanation. Concerned with
building blocks. Basic research is
developing new knowledge. E.g. Points to ponder:
Understanding the concept and Is commercializable
meaning of melepak research basic or
applied?
Applied research: prediction, Understanding the
problem is the key to
forecasting, productivity and
an effective solution.
performance improvement, outcome All too often, we rush
enhancement. Applied research to explain the problem
takes existing knowledge to solve without knowing
enough about the
problem problems. Evaluating the
problem itself.
impact cozy and private of parks on
melepak phenomenon in Selangor.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is
intended to
Quantitative

Assumes objective social reality characterize types of


Social reality is relatively constant research
across time and space Points to ponder:
Sees causal relationships among
social phenomena from a Can we quantify
most things social?
mechanistic perspective We do but is it right?
Quantifying the
unquantifiable a
Social reality is constructed scientific fraud?
Qualitative

Most people can see


by its participants
the simple and the
Social reality is continuously obvious no ability
constructed in local situations or interest in deeper
Human intentions play major level of analysis?
Two different worlds
role in explaining causal or two ends on a
relationships among social continuum?
phenomena
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is
intended to
Quantitative

Takes objective, detached stance toward characterize types of


research participants and their setting. research
Studies populations or samples that Points to ponder:
represent populations.
Studies behavior and other observable Can we quantify
most things social?
phenomena. We do but is it right?
Quantifying the
unquantifiable a
scientific fraud?
Most people can see
Qualitative

Becomes personally involved with research


the simple and the
participants--sharing perspectives and obvious no ability
assuming a caring attitude. or interest in deeper
Studies cases. level of analysis?
Two different worlds
Studies the meanings that individuals create or two ends on a
and other internal phenomena continuum?
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research


Quantitative Qualitative Lecture objectives:
This lecture is
intended to
Studies human behavior in Studies human actions in characterize types of
research
natural or contrived natural settings.
settings. Points to ponder:

Analyzes social reality into Makes holistic Can we quantify


most things social?
variables. observations of the total
We do but is it right?
context within which Quantifying the
social action occurs. unquantifiable a
Uses preconceived Discovers concepts and scientific fraud?
concepts and theories to theories after data have Most people can see
determine what data will been collected. the simple and the
be collected. obvious no ability
or interest in deeper
level of analysis?
Two different worlds
or two ends on a
continuum?
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data:ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research


Quantitative Qualitative Lecture objectives:
This lecture is
intended to
Generates numerical data Generates verbal and characterize types of
to represent the social pictorial data to represent research
environment. the social environment.
Uses statistical methods to Uses analytic induction to Points to ponder:

analyze data. analyze data. Can we quantify


most things social?
Uses statistical inference Generalizes case findings b We do but is it right?
procedures to generalize y searching for other Quantifying the
findings from a sample to a similar cases. unquantifiable a
scientific fraud?
defined population. Most people can see
the simple and the
Prepares impersonal, objective Prepares interpretive obvious no ability
reports of research findings. reports that reflect or interest in deeper
researchers constructions level of analysis?
of the data and an Two different worlds
awareness that readers or two ends on a
will form their own continuum?
constructions
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Sciencefrom what
& Policy is
Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: What is Scientific Research?


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to introduce students
Purposive: specific objective the multifaceted nature
Testability: can be verified of social products.
Rigour:great care in examination
Points to ponder:
Replicability: others can do it
Precision & confidence: definitional What is science?
clarity What are the basic
assumptions of science
Objectivity: researchers biases are
about the physical and
reduced or social world?
removed How do we make the
Generalisability: can be applied to trade-offs between
different elements of
similar cases the research?
Parsimony: identification of the major
causes or
consequences

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: What Kind of Research is Required?


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to introduce the
Original well some originality at least students to the type of
Empirical primary data collection, research that is
fieldwork expected for this
Points
course to ponder:
To some extent analytical
relationship What kind of research
between variables with possible cause is useful?
What you mean by
-effect
analytical?
Scientific testable, verifiable Can I do qualitative
Demonstrates the ones study?
understanding of
research elements and processes
Possible within 2 semester: 1 semester
for
planning and another for fieldwork
and writing
up(20 weeks)
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Standard Elements of a Research Report


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Title of the study to provide a common
Statement of the problem structure to the
research and the report
Research questions and objectives
Scope of the study Points to ponder:
Significance of the study
What is bothering me
Literature review
about this problem?
Research method Is there a difference
research design between methodology
population, sample, sample size and method?
and
sampling
unit of analyses
measurement/operationalisation

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Standard Elements of a Research Report


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to provide students a
Research method common structure for
data collection the research and
data analysis report.
Points to ponder:
Findings
Discussion & conclusions How much should I
References state under each of
these elements?
Appendices How much of statistics
must I know to carry
out this study?
Who will be reading my
research report?
What about the writing
style? Flowery, formal,
jargon filled,
conversational etc.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: How To Choose A Research Topic?


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to provide students
Stick closely to familiar areas with basis to choose
Focus on current issues and areas/problem to
research.
phenomena Points to ponder:
Stay away from issues where the
concepts are Why am I interested in
unclear and you havent the skills to this topic?
Will my respondents
deal with it participate?
Do not choose extremely sensitive Are the concepts too
topics difficult for me to
Issues or topics should be researchable handle?
Do I have some
within background knowledge
time given on this topic?
Concepts and their variables easy to
measure
Plenty of references available
Issues or topics which are of interest to
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

ic: Basic Concepts and Terminologies in Research


Concepts: tools for organising and Lecture objectives:
categorising This lecture is intended
events or phenomenon for to provide students
with the meaning of
communication the basic jargon in
Theories: two or more concepts having research
propositional Points to ponder:
relations. How well do I
Models: representations of a process or
understand these
phenomenon. terms?
Phenomenon: an event or occurrence What is the use of
which is ill- theories?
What is the difference
understood between theories and
Variables: measures that can take one or models?
more Can one variable be
dependent and
values
independent at the
Independent variables
same time?
Dependent variables
Moderating variables
Mediating/intervening
Hazman variables
Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Statement of the Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Explains the nature of the problem to to provide students
be with some
researched. understanding of
Provide some authoritative support for problem statement.
Points to ponder:
the
problem. Problems can be
Outline the lack of understanding or looked at from many
perspectives.
void or Problems are not
unsatisfactory state of affairs which necessarily negative.
needs Not knowing why a
clarifying or researching business is successful
Is there a gap in our present is a problem
knowledge void.
understanding?
Is the gap an important one to study
Examples

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Statement of the Research problem


Lecture objectives:
Turnover\absenteeism This lecture is intended
High reject rate, low to provide students
productivity, low sharing with some
Symptoms of knowledge understanding of
(Indicators) problem statement.
Points to ponder:
Causal connections Symptoms are
are inferred from
manifestations of some
theory, logic,
underlying conditions
experience, hunch Causes are the
etc.
Problems problems
A gap in the literature
(Causes)
Low morale, lack job is not a problem.
Practical or theoretical
satisfaction, job conflict,
problem
role clarity, trust/distrust,
self preservation

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to provide students
Data, statistics, reports, with some
Symptoms statements etc adduced understanding of
(Indicators) to show the existence problem statement.
of the symptoms Points to ponder:

Symptoms are
manifestations of some
underlying conditions
Causes are the
problems
The causes are posited, A gap in the literature
Problems claimed, alleged is not a problem.
(Causes) through systematic Practical or theoretical
analysis problem

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to provide students
Better performance of with some
Symptoms national types schools understanding of
(Indicators) in critical subjects problem statement.
Points to ponder:

Symptoms are
manifestations of some
underlying conditions
Causes are the
problems
Principals leadership A gap in the literature
Problems behavioral & is not a problem.
(Causes)
motivation style Practical or theoretical
problem

Balasandran (2007) DBA Thesis, School


of Management, USM 2007

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
to provide students
Strict division of with some
Symptoms duties, slow decision understanding of
(Indicators) making, unhappy line problem statement.
execs. Points to ponder:

Symptoms are
manifestations of some
underlying conditions
Causes are the
problems
A gap in the literature
Problems Low empowerment of is not a problem.
(Causes)
line, lack of trust in Practical or theoretical
ability, not risk taking problem

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data:ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Client charter not revised to provide students
with some
Symptoms Client charter not known
understanding of
(Indicators) Client charter not serious problem statement.
Points to ponder:

Symptoms are
manifestations of some
underlying conditions
Causes are the
problems
CC not linked to budget A gap in the literature
Problems CC not linked to is not a problem.
(Causes) performance Practical or theoretical
CC not part of strategic problem
goals

Hazman & Munirah (2003) IRDC


Research UiTM

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Chinese schools better in to provide students
with some
Symptoms Maths, Eng & Science
understanding of
(Indicators) than national schools problem statement.
Points to ponder:

Symptoms are
manifestations of some
underlying conditions
Causes are the
problems
A gap in the literature
Problems
is not a problem.
(Causes) Leader quality differences Practical or theoretical
problem

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511
Topic: Research problem
II Perspective I
Lecture objectives:
i ve
This lecture is intended
to provide students
t
pec

with some
rs

understanding of
Pe

problem statement.
Points to ponder:

Multiple causation Perspectives change


problem
Multiple perspectives understanding.
There are multiple
Per

causes of the problem


s

The challenge is to
pe c

make the case for the


tiv

most compelling one


eI

On what basis theory,


evidence, logic,
II

experience etc.
Perspective IV

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS1: The universities
have failed -

log d - ts
employers

cio ile en
so ve fa par

fai
ec - e
PS omy nom
s
ist

led
on c o
ha The

2:
Many ways to look at

Th has st
6:

the same problem

e
PS

i
Unemployed
Graduates
PS have ersit

en s
5:

tud ha
e

ts
Th faile s

fai vern 3: Th
un

- s ent
es d-
iv

led m
go PS
tud
en
ie

ts

PS4: The employers


have failed -
universities
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS1: The universities
have failed -
Research questions
employers
1. How do universities develop

Broad
curriculum?
Many ways to look at 2. Are employers involved in
the same problem curriculum development and
approval?
Unemployed
Graduates Research objectives

Specific
1. Determine type of market study
2. Categorise information sought
from employers.
3. Ascertain level of match or
mismatch.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS2: The economy
has failed -
economist
Research questions
1. Is there enough job creation?

Broad
2. Where is the job creation?
Many ways to look at
the same problem

Research objectives
Unemployed

Specific
1. Ascertain trend in job creation
Graduates between 1990-2004.
2. Determine the job and econ
growth relationship in the k-
industries.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS3: The
government has
failed - opposition
Research questions
1. Is the government policy of

Broad
Many ways to look at
the same problem expansion wise?
2. Should the government limit
admission into social science?
Unemployed
Graduates Research objectives

Specific
1. To ascertain the opinions of VCs
about the expansion.
2. To examine the mechanisms
used to control the universities.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS4: The employers
have failed -
universities
Research questions

Broad
Many ways to look at 1. Are employers sexist?
the same problem 2. Are they prepared to train new
employees?
Unemployed
Graduates Research objectives

Specific
1. To determine if male grads are
favoured over female.
2. To examine the level of new
employee training.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS5: The students
have failed Job Research questions
counselors 1. Are student aware of the job
market?

Broad
2. Do students choose courses
Many ways to look at
based on market or personal
the same problem
likes?

Unemployed Research objectives


Graduates 1. Determine the students level of

Specific
awareness of job market.
2. Examine students reasons for
enrolling in a course.
3. Extent of counseling sought
before enrolment.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem


PS6: The parents
have failed Research questions
Sociologists 1. Are parents aware of job
prospects?

Broad
2. Going to university or train for
Many ways to look at
job?
the same problem

Unemployed Research objectives


Graduates 1. The role of parents in their

Specific
childrens choice of courses.
2. Parents concern for employability.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research problem The conceptual framework

PS1: The universities have


failed - employers Education/

el
Training

od
Research questions orientation

M
1. How do universities H1

d e
Broad

lat
develop curriculum?

s tu
2. Are employers involved in University

Po
curriculum development Curriculum Level
and approval? H2
Devt Policy of
match
Research objectives H5
Market H3
1. Ascertain level of match or
Specific

mismatch. study
Job market
2. Determine type of market
Soft - hard
study
3. Categorise information Information H4
sought from employers. from
employers

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Exercise
A key problem in KM is the lack of sharing Lecture objectives:
of knowledge amongst employees within This lecture is intended
the organisation. to provide students a
clear understanding of
research objectives
Examine why there is low knowledge
sharing from different perspectives Points to ponder:

What is the difference


Time: 10 minutes
between research
questions and
objectives?
1.Law I was not contract to do that How many objectives is
2.Management people share if this behavior is enough?
measured, monitored and reinforced Should I state it in
3.Sociology Sharing in in-groups, not out-groups paragraph or point
4.Economics Information is valuable resource form?
5.Politics creates power asymmetry between the
haves and have-nots

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research Objectives


Points to the issues to be researched
Lecture objectives:
univariate objectives This lecture is intended
bivariate/correlational objectives to provide students a
Multivariate objectives clear understanding of
research objectives
Should stated as specifically as possible
Sets the scope of the research Points to ponder:
Literature review bounded/guided by it
Conceptual framework must consistent What is the difference
between research
Dictates the research design questions and
choices/trade-offs objectives?
Basis for the evaluation of the quality of How many objectives is
the enough?
Should I state it in
research paragraph or point
Should start with form?
to examine,
to ascertain,
to determine,
to establish,
to discover,
to identify,
Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: Research Objectives


Example
Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
To ascertain the level of smoking among to provide students a
university students UNIVARIATE clear understanding of
To determine public perception of research objectives
corruption in government
To examine the relationship between the Points to ponder:
students and the parents smoking habit
BIVARIATE Are my objectives
To examine the relationship between clear?
religiosity and perception of corruption in How does the
government conceptual framework
To examine the influence of allowance relate to my
received by the students on his smoking objectives?
To determine the influence of friends in Are my objectives,
smoking practically achievable?
To determine the relative influence of reality check
parents, friends and allowance in smoking
MULTIVARIATE
To determine the relative influence of
religiosity, instrumentalism and moral maturity
on perception of corruption in government

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: The Scope of the Research


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Marks out the limits of the research to provide students
Related to population, sample and with knowledge of
generalisability of study scoping issues
General basis of study scope
Points to ponder:
space/territory/geographical- Klang
Valley Why the scope is
time/temporal - Monsoon important?
level/division/categories HR Do I just state it or
should I explain why?
Department Is scope and
dimensions/aspects Process justice delimitations of the
type of subjects - Children study different?

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies


Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: The Scope of the Research


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Examples to provide students
with knowledge of
This study is focused on the smoking scoping issues
habits of university students in the 1st
year. Only students from 2 universities Points to ponder:
are involved in the study namely; Why the scope is
Universiti Teknologi MARA and Universiti important?
Selangor. Do I just state it or
should I explain why?
This study is limited to women Is scope and
executives in governmental delimitations of the
organisations in and around the Klang study different?
Valley who have been in their positions
for at least 1 year.

The study will cover newspaper


distributors in 4 districts of Selangor
namely; Shah Alam, Klang Subang Jaya
andAbdullah,
Hazman Shah Petaling Jayaof Administrative Science & Policy Studies
Faculty
Research Method & Analysis Data: ADS501/ADS511

Topic: The Significance the Research


Lecture objectives:
This lecture is intended
Why is the study important? to provide students
with knowledge of
Theoretical standpoint scoping issues
Concepts are make clear, new relationships
are tested, evaluation of models, better Points to ponder:
instrument, new design etc. Why the scope is
important?
Policy Standpoint Do I just state it or
It helps in formulating better policies. should I explain why?
Is scope and
Practical standpoint. delimitations of the
It works. Threshold before changes occur. study different?
Some levers are better than others.

Hazman Shah Abdullah, Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies