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Mechanisms of Energy

Transport

CHENG 511

Advanced Transport Phenomena

Prof. Nader Al-Bastaki

Semester I 2016-17

1

Heat conduction in fluids can be thought of as molecular energy

transport.

Energy can also be transported by the bulk motion of a fluid, and

this is referred to as convective energy transport; this form of

transport depends on the density p of the fluid.

Another mechanism is that of diffusive energy transport, which

occurs in mixtures that are interdiffusing.

In addition, energy can be transmitted by means of radiative

energy transport, which is quite distinct in that this form of

transport does not require a material medium as do conduction

and convection.

2

FOURIER'S LAW OF HEAT CONDUCTION (MOLECULAR

ENERGY TRANSPORT)

Consider a slab of solid material of area A located between two large parallel plates a distance Y apart. We

imagine that initially (for time t < 0) the solid material is at a temperature T0 throughout.

At t = 0 the lower plate is suddenly brought to a slightly higher temperature T1 and maintained at that

temperature.

As time proceeds, the temperature profile in the slab changes, and ultimately a linear steady-state

temperature distribution is attained (as shown in Fig. 9.1-1).

of heat flow Q through the slab is required to maintain the

temperature difference DT = 1 T0.

It is found then that for sufficiently small values of AT the following

relation holds:

3

4

Taking the limit as Dy hoes to zero, gives Fouriers law of heat

conduction

thermal conductivity

5

Anisotropic Solids

known as the thermal diffusivity a is widely used. It is defined as

6

The thermal diffusivity has the same dimensions as the kinematic

viscosity namely, (length)2/time.

When the assumption of constant physical properties is made, the

quantities and occur in similar ways in the equations of change for

momentum and energy transport.

Their ratio indicates the relative ease of momentum and energy

transport in flow systems. This dimensionless ratio

Another dimensionless group that we will encounter in subsequent

chapters is the Peclet number

Thermal conductivity can vary all the way from about 0.01 W/m.K for gases to about

7

1000 W/m.K for pure metals

8

9

10

11

12

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE DEPENDENCE

OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

be found, one can make an estimate by using the corresponding-

states chart in Fig. 9.2-1, which is based on thermal conductivity data

for several monatomic substances.

This chart, which is similar to that for viscosity shown in Fig. 1.3-1, is

a plot of the reduced thermal conductivity kr = k/kc which is the

thermal conductivity at pressure p and temperature T divided by the

thermal conductivity at the critical point.

This quantity is plotted as a function of the reduced temperature Tr =

T/Tc and the reduced pressure pr = p/pc.

13

14

CONVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF ENERGY

Fourier's law of heat conduction, accounts for the energy transported

through a medium by virtue of the molecular motions.

Energy may also be transported by the bulk motion of the fluid.

In Fig. 9.7-1 we show three mutually perpendicular elements of area

dS at the point P, where the fluid velocity is v.

The volume rate of flow across the surface element dS perpendicular

to the x-axis is vx dS.

The rate at which energy is being swept across the same surface

element is then

in which

is the kinetic energy per unit volume,

and

is the internal energy per unit volume. 15

16

We can also write similar expressions for the rate at which energy is

being swept through the surface elements perpendicular to the y- and

z-axes.

If we now multiply each of the three expressions by the corresponding

unit vector and add, we then get, after division by dS,

normal unit vector is n, we form the dot product

It is understood that this is the flux from the negative side of the

surface to the positive side.

17

WORK ASSOCIATED WITH MOLECULAR MOTIONS

dr, the work done is dW = (F . dr). Then the rate of doing work is

= . = .

that is, the dot product of the force times the velocity.

We now apply this formula to the three perpendicular planes at a point

P in space shown in Fig. 9.8-1.

First we consider the surface element perpendicular to the x-axis. The

fluid on the minus side of the surface exerts a force on the fluid

that is on the plus side (see Table 1.2-1).

18

Since the fluid is moving with a velocity v, the rate at which work is

done by the minus fluid on the plus fluid is . .

Similar expressions may be written for the work done across the other

two surface elements. When written out in component form, these rate

of work expressions, per unit area, become

When these scalar components are multiplied by the unit vectors and

added, we get the "rate of doing work vector per unit area/' and we can

call this, for short, the work flux:

19

Furthermore, the rate of doing work across a unit area of surface with

orientation given by the unit vector n is .

These equations are easily written for cylindrical coordinates by replacing

x, y, z by r, , z and, for spherical coordinates by replacing x, y, z by , , .

We now define, for later use, the combined energy flux vector e as

follows

The e vector is the sum of (a) the convective energy flux, (b) the rate of

doing work (per unit area) by molecular mechanisms, and (c) the rate

of transporting heat (per unit area) by molecular mechanisms.

All the terms in this equation have the same sign convention, so that

ex is the energy transport in the positive x direction per unit area per

unit time. 20

The total molecular stress tensor p can now be split into two parts:

= +

so that . = + . .

The term can then be combined with the internal energy term

to give an enthalpy term

so that

convective energy flux, the heat flux, and the work flux across the surface

element dS from the negative side to the positive side of dS. 21

22

To evaluate the enthalpy in the above equation, we make use of the

standard equilibrium thermodynamics formula

p, T, we then get

The integral over p is zero for an ideal gas and for fluids of constant

density.

The integral over T becomes (T T) if the heat capacity can be regarded as

constant over the relevant temperature range.

23

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

24

The Equation of Change for Non-Isothermal Systems

The equation of change for energy is obtained by applying the law of

conservation of energy to a small element of volume Dx Dy Dz (see Fig. 3.1-

1) and then allowing the dimensions of the volume element to become

vanishingly small.

The law of conservation of energy is an extension of the first law of

classical thermodynamics, which concerns the difference in internal

energies of two equilibrium states of a closed system because of the heat

added to the system and the work done on the system (that is, the familiar

DU= (Q + W).

25

Here we are interested in a stationary volume element, fixed in space,

through which a fluid is flowing.

Both kinetic energy and internal energy may be entering and leaving

the system by convective transport.

Heat may enter and leave the system by heat conduction as well. As

we saw in Chapter 9, heat conduction is fundamentally a molecular

process. Work may be done on the moving fluid by the stresses, and

this, too, is a molecular process. This term includes the work done by

pressure forces and by viscous forces. In addition, work may be done

on the system by virtue of the external forces, such as gravity.

26

We can summarize the preceding paragraph by writing the

conservation energy in words as follows:

27

28

29

30

When this result is inserted in equation 11.1-7 we get:

Equation of Change for temperature

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

Example 11.4-1 Steady-State Forced- Convection Heat

Transfer in Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube

In this section we consider forced convection in a circular tube, a

limiting case of which is simple enough to be solved analytically. A

viscous fluid with physical properties ( m , k , r , Cp ) assumed constant

is in laminar flow in a circular tube of radius R.

For z < 0 the fluid temperature is uniform at the inlet temperature 1.

For z > 0 there is a constant radial heat flux qr = -q0 at the wall. Such a

situation exists, for example, when a pipe is wrapped uniformly with an

electrical heating coil, in which case q0 is positive. If the pipe is being

chilled, then q0 has to be taken as negative.

39

40

Example 11.4-1 Steady-State Forced- Convection Heat

Transfer in Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube

Show how to set up the equations for the problem considered in 10.8

namely, that of finding the fluid temperature profiles for the fully

developed laminar flow in a tube.

41

The first step in solving a forced convection heat transfer problem is

the calculation of the velocity profiles in the system.

We know from the previous examples on momentum transport that

the velocity distribution so obtained is

the inlet that the entrance length has been exceeded.

In this problem, heat is being transported in both the r and the z

directions. Therefore, if a shell balance is performed to solve the

problem then for the energy balance we use a "washer-shaped"

system, which is formed by the intersection of an annular region of

thickness Dr with a slab of thickness Dz.

Here we will not use the shell balance method but the equations of

changed which were reduced to the equations shown earlier. 42

Next, we make two assumptions:

(i) in the z direction, heat conduction is much smaller than heat

convection, so that the term can be neglected, and

(ii) The flow is not sufficiently fast that viscous heating is significant, and

hence the term can be omitted. When these assumptions are

made, Eq. 11.4-3 becomes the same as Eq. 10.8-12.

From that point on, the asymptotic solution, valid for large z only,

proceeds.

43

44

The choice of dimentionless radius, (xi) = r/R is a natural one,

because of the appearance of r/R in the differential equation.

The choice for the dimensionless temperature, (theta), is suggested

by the second and third boundary conditions.

Having specified these two dimensionless variables, the choice of

dimensionless axial coordinate, (zeta) , follows naturally.

45

46

It is, however, instructive to obtain the asymptotic solution to Eq.

10.8-19 for large .

After the fluid is sufficiently far downstream from the beginning

of the heated section, one expects that the constant heat flux

through the wall will result in a rise of the fluid temperature that

is linear in .

One further expects that the shape of the temperature profiles

as a function of will ultimately not undergo further change

with increasing (see Fig. 10.8-3).

Hence a solution of the following form seems reasonable for

large :

The function in Eq. 10.8-23 is clearly not the complete solution to the

problem; it does allow the partial differential equation and boundary

conditions 1 and 2 to be satisfied, but clearly does not satisfy boundary

condition 3.

Hence we replace the latter by an integral condition (see Fig. 10.8-4),

10.8-25

10.8-26

48

49

This condition states that the energy entering through the walls

over a distance is the same as the difference between the

energy leaving through the cross section at and that entering at

= 0.

Substitution of the postulated function of Eq. 10.8-23 into Eq.

10.8-19 leads to the following ordinary differential equation for

(see Eq. C.1-11):

1

= 0 1 2 + 1 ln + 2

0 0

50

1

= 0 1 2 + 1 ln + 2

0 0

1

1

1 2 4

0 1 2 = 0

3 = 0

0 0 0 0

0 2 4

3 2 4

= 0 = 0

0 2 4 4 16

2 4

= 0 + 1 ln + 2

4 12

10.8-23

, = + + +

51

52

B.C. 4

, = + + +

= + + + so C1 must be 0 since ln 0= is finite

= + = = =

1 1

2 2

3 5 5 7

= + + 1 = 4 1 + + 2 3 =

0 0 1 4 1 4

3 4 6 6 8

2 4

4 4 + + + 2 2 = 4 + + + =

3 4 24 6 32 2 4

=

7 5 4 3

3 2

4 + 2 + 4 + 2 =

8 3 5 4 4 3 2

53

EXAMPLE 11.4-2 Tangential Flow in an Annulus with

Viscous Heat Generation

confined between two coaxial cylinders, the outer one of which is

rotating at a steady angular velocity 0 (see 10.4 and Example 3.6-3).

Use the nomenclature of Example 3.6-3, and consider the radius ratio

to be fairly small so that the curvature of the fluid streamlines must be

taken into account.

The temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces of the annular region

are maintained at TK and T1 respectively, with 1 .

Assume steady laminar flow, and neglect the temperature dependence

of the physical properties.

54

This is an example of a forced convection problem: The equations

of continuity and motion are solved to get the velocity

distribution, and then the energy equation is solved to get the

temperature distribution.

This problem is of interest in connection with heat effects in

coaxial cylinder viscometers and in lubrication systems.

The surfaces of the inner and outer cylinders are maintained at T

= Tk and T = T1 , respectively. We can expect that T will be a

function of r alone.

If the slit width b is small with respect to the radius R of the outer

cylinder, then the problem can be solved approximately by using

the somewhat simplified system depicted in Fig. 10.4-2.

That is, we ignore curvature effects and solve the problem in

Cartesian coordinates. The velocity distribution is then vz =

vb(x/b) , where vb = R. 55

56

As the outer cylinder rotates, each cylindrical shell of fluid "rubs"

against an adjacent shell of fluid.

This friction between adjacent layers of the fluid produces heat;

that is, the mechanical energy is degraded into thermal energy.

The volume heat source resulting from this "viscous dissipation,"

which can be designated by , appears automatically in the shell

balance when we use the combined energy flux vector e defined

at the end of Chapter 9, as we shall see presently.

57

58

Equation 11.4-5 now becomes:

59

When N = 0, we obtain the temperature distribution for a motionless

cylindrical shell of thickness R(l - ) with inner and outer temperatures TK

and 7V If N is large enough, there will be a maximum in the temperature

distribution, located at

60

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE EQUATIONS OF CHANGE FOR

NONISOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

dimensionless form. In this way we find some dimensionless

parameters that can be used to characterize nonisothermal flow

systems.

61

62

The dimensionless groups appearing in Eqs. 11.5-8 and 9, along with

some combinations of these groups, are summarized in Table 11.5-2.

Further dimensionless groups may arise in the boundary conditions or in

the equation of state. The Froude and Weber numbers have already been

introduced in 3.7, and the Mach number in Ex. 11.4-7. 63

64

65

66

Temperature Distributions with More Than One Independent

Variable

1. UNSTEADY HEAT CONDUCTION IN SOLIDS

67

EXAMPLE 12.1-1 Heating a Semi-Infinite Slab

temperature T0 . At time t = 0, the surface at = 0 is suddenly raised to

temperature T1 and maintained at that temperature for t > 0. Find the

time-dependent temperature profiles T(y, t).

68

69

70

EXAMPLE 12.1-2 Heating a finite slab

A solid slab occupying the space between = b and = +b is initially at

temperature T0 . At time t = 0 the surfaces at = are suddenly raised to

T1 and maintained there. Find T(y , t).

71

We can solve this problem by the method of separation of

variables. We start by postulating that a solution of the following

product form can be obtained:

72

73

74

75

76

EXAMPLE 12.2-1 Laminar Tube Flow with

Constant Heat Flux at the Wall

conditions given in Eqs. 10.8-20,21, and 22. Solution for asymptotic part

(large distance or ):

1

1 2 =

1 1 1

=

1 2

=-c2 77

78

(See example 4.1-2 for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions))

BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY FOR NONISOTHERMAL FLOW

79

Equation 12.4-1 is the same as Eq. 4.4-1. Equation 12.4-2 differs from Eq. 4.4-2

because of the inclusion of the buoyant force term (see 11.3), which can be

significant even when fractional changes in density are small. Equation 12.4-3 is

obtained from Eq. 11.2-9 by neglecting the heat conduction in the x direction. More

complete forms of the boundary layer equations may be found elsewhere.

The usual boundary conditions for Eqs. 12.4-1 and 2 are that vx = vy = 0 at the solid

surface, and that the velocity merges into the potential flow at the outer edge of the

velocity boundary layer, so that vx ve(x). For Eq. 12.4-3 the temperature T is

specified to be T0 at the solid surface and at the outer edge of the thermal

boundary layer. That is, the velocity and temperature are different from ve{x) and

only in thin layers near the solid surface.

However, the velocity and temperature boundary layers will be of different thicknesses

corresponding to the relative ease of the diffusion of momentum and heat.

Since Pr = v/a, for Pr > 1 the temperature boundary layer usually lies inside the

velocity boundary layer, whereas for Pr < 1 the relative thicknesses are just reversed

(keep in mind that for gases Pr is about f, whereas for ordinary liquids Pr > 1 and for

liquid metals Pr < < 1). 80

In 4.4 we showed that the boundary layer equation of motion could be integrated

formally from = 0 to = , if use is made of the equation of continuity. In a similar

fashion the integration of Eqs. 12.4-1 to 3 can be performed to give

Equations 12.4-4 and 5 are the von Karman momentum and energy balances, valid for

forced-convection and free-convection systems. The no-slip condition vy = 0 at = 0 has

been used here, as in Eq. 4.4-4; nonzero velocities at = 0 occur in mass transfer

systems and will be considered in Chapter 20.

81

As mentioned in 4.4, there are two approaches for solving boundary

layer problems: analytical or numerical solutions of Equations 12.4-1 to 3

are called "exact boundary layer solutions," whereas solutions obtained

from Eqs. 12.4-4 and 5, with reasonable guesses for the velocity and

temperature profiles, are called "approximate boundary layer solutions."

Often considerable physical insight can be obtained by the second

method, and with relatively little effort. Example 12.4-1 illustrates this

method.

Extensive use has been made of the boundary layer equations to establish

correlations of momentum- and heat-transfer rates, as we shall see in

Chapter 14. Although in this section we do not treat free convection, in

Chapter 14 many useful results are given along with the appropriate

literature citations.

82

EXAMPLE 12.4-1 Heat Transfer in Laminar Forced Convection along a Heated Flat Plate (von Karman Integral Method)

Obtain the temperature profiles near a flat plate, along which a Newtonian fluid is flowing, as shown in Fig. 12.4-1. The

wetted surface of the plate is maintained at temperature To and the temperature of the approaching fluid is T .

83

84

85

86

87

88

EMPIRICAL EXPRESSIONS FOR THE TURBULENT HEAT FLUX

Eddy Thermal Conductivity

89

Reynolds Analogy for turbulent flow (t)

()

() = 1 = ()

=

=

() = ()

The Mixing-Length Expression of Prandtl and Taylor

91

DEFINITIONS OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

in which Q is the heat flow into the fluid (J/hr or Btu/hr), is a characteristic area, and AT is a

characteristic temperature difference.

As an example of flow in conduits, we consider a fluid flowing through a circular tube of diameter D

(see Fig. 14.1-1), in which there is a heated wall section of length L and varying inside surface

temperature T0{z), going from T01 to T02. Suppose that the bulk temperature Tb of the fluid (for fluids

with constant r and Cp) increases from TM to Tb2 in the heated section. Then there are three

conventional definitions of heat transfer coefficients for the fluid in the heated section:

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

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