You are on page 1of 50

Who is a Psychologist

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. Describe who a psychologist is
2. Describe the Law the Governs the profession and practice
of psychologists and other providers of psychological
services
3. Describe the functions of the Ghana Psychological Council
4. Know the Ghana Psychological Council members
5. Types of Registers
6. Offence for not registering with the Council
7. Identify the role of Health Psychology in medicine

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


2 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Introduction
Psychologists see the mind as consisting of three elements:
cognition, emotion and motivation.
During the past three decades, the field of health psychology
has considered the role that these three elements play in
health and illness.
Our course will provide a survey of the research issues that
are emerging in this relatively new and rapidly-growing
psychological sub-discipline.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


3 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Introduction & Background
In 1965 the practice of Applied Psychology started in Ghana with
Psychometric testing for job placement

In 1972 Clinical Psychology practice started

Currently there are 19 different fields of Applied Psychology


practice in Ghana

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


4 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Fields of Psychology
1. Clinical 10.Industrial & Organizational
2. Cognitive 11.Measurement & Evaluation
3. Community 12.Neuropsychology
4. Counselling 13.Psychometrics
5. Consumer 14.School
6. Developmental 15.Social
7. Educational 16.Special Education
8. Environmental 17.Sports
9. Experimental 18.Psychotherapies
10.Health 19.Others e.g. CBT etc
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
5 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Practitioners in Ghana
1. Clinical Psychologists 13. Environmental
2. Health Psychologists 14. Psychometricians / Measurement &
Evaluation
3. Neuropsychologists
15. School Psychologists
4. Community Psychologists 16. Social Psychologists
5. Counselling Psychologists 17. Special Educationists (Special Needs)
1. (Pastoral, Marriage, Family, 18. Sports Psychologists
G&C and General etc)
19. Psychotherapies (Freudians, Carl
6. Developmental Psychologists Jungs etc)
7. Educational Psychologists 20. Cognitive Behaviour Therapists
10.Industrial & Organizational
Psychologists

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


6 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Other Practitioners
Lay Practitioners (Counsellors)
Paraprofessionals

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


7 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Qualification for registration
120. (1) A person does not qualify to be registered as a
psychologist unless that person holds a primary
qualification of PhD or Psych. D. or an M. Phil; MA
or MSc in psychology from an accredited psychology
programme or from an institution recognised by the
Board; passes or is exempted from the prescribed
examination conducted by the Council.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


8 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Psychologist Assistant
(2) A person shall not be registered as a psychologist assistant
unless that person holds a first degree in psychology, social
work or sociology from a recognised institution.
(3) A person shall not be registered as a lay practitioner unless
that person fulfils the requirements determined by the Board.
(4) A person registered by the Board shall pay the prescribed fee.
(5) The registration is valid for the period determined by the
Board.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


9 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Professional Training Institutions
1. University of Ghana
1. Clinical Psychologists
2. Industrial /Organizational Psychologists
3. Social Psychologist

2. University of Cape Coast


1. Educational Psychologists
2. Special Educators
3. Clinical and Health Psychologists
4. Guidance and Counselling Psychologists
5. Psychometrician/Measurement & Evaluation

3. University of Education, Winneba


1. Guidance and Counselling Psychologists

4. Methodist University
1. Clinical and Health Psychologists

5. Trinity Theological Seminary


1. Counselling (Pastoral & General Counselling)
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
10 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Paraprofessionals & Lay Practitioners
Training Institutions
1. Central University
1. Family Counselling and Therapy

2. Christian Council of Ghana


1. Marriage Counselling (Lay Counselling)

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


11 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
History of Regulation
1998 - Efforts to regulate the professionals and their practices
with the formation of Ghana Psychological Association (GPA)

2001 - initiated the process of acquiring legal backing


(both Ministry of Education and Health)

Dec 2012 - Health Professionals Regulatory Bodies Act (857) of


Parliament was passed
Part 5 of the Act for Psychological Council

Early 2013 - Received Presidential Assent

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


12 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Act 857

The Part 5 of the Health Professionals Regulatory Bodies Act


(857) of 2013 established the Ghana Psychological Council (aka
GPC)
Fields of Psychology - 18+
Why is it under MoH
All the fields are about mental, emotional well being and
behavioural aspects of health

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


13 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Why MoH???
No health without Mental Health

All the fields of practice are about mental, emotional


well being and behavioural aspects of health

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


14 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Governing Body of the Council
(1) (a) a chairperson who is a registered psychologist of not
less than fifteen years standing as a psychologist;
(b) two registered psychologists representing health facilities
and industry elected by the practitioners;
(c) one representative of an accredited training institution that
provides tertiary training for psychologists and therapists,
who is a practitioner and who shall be nominated by the
Minister;
(d) one registered lay practitioner who has worked for not less
than ten years as a lay practitioner;

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


15 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
(e) one representative of the Attorney-General not below the
level of Principal State Attorney;
(f) one representative of the Ministry of Health not below the
rank of director;
(g) one person who is not a psychologist or psychotherapists
nominated by the Minister; and
(h) the Registrar of the Council

(2) The Chairperson and members of the Council shall be


appointed by the President in accordance with article 70 of
the Constitution.
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
16 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Ghana Psychological Council
Members
Chairperson: Prof. S A Danquah UG/ PLC
Health Facilities Rep : Dr. Araba Sefa-Dedeh - UGMS
Industry Rep: Prof. Bill Puplampu - UGBS/ Central Uni.
Training Inst Rep: Dr. Kofi Krafona UCC
Member: Prof. Charity Akotia UG
Lay Practrs Rep: Rev. Tetteh Djangmah Central Uni.
MOH Rep: Dr. Akwasi Osei MoH/APH
None Psych Member: Mrs. Martha Gyansah Lutterodt- GPS
Attorney Gen Rep: Mrs. Dorothy Afriyie-Ansah
Ag. Registrar: Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


17 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Mandate
To secure in the public interest the highest standards in the
training and practice of Applied Psychology.

Mission
GPC is dedicated to regulating the training and practice of
psychologists, therapists and lay practitioners in Ghana.

Approval for a Interim Council to operate was given on 30th


September, 2013 and Council inaugurated on 29th May 2015

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


18 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Functions of the Council
A) (a)Assess facilities and content of training
programmes of psychologists, therapists and lay
practitioners
(b) Ensure that the pre-registration training of newly qualified
psychologists, therapists and lay practitioners in
accredited training institutions meets the required
standards
(c) Conduct examinations for the registration of locally
and foreign trained psychologists, therapists and lay
practitioners
(d) Conduct examinations for the registration of locally
trained psychologists, therapists and lay practitioners who
do not meet the prescribed conditions for registration;
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
19 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
(e) Compile and keep registers of registered practitioners;
(f) Prescribe and enforce professional standards and conduct
for practitioners
(g) Exercise disciplinary power over professionals and lay
practitioners (lay counsellors);
(h) Perform any other functions that are ancillary to the objects of
the Council.
B) Licensing of Premises
C) Licensing of Corporate Bodies

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


20 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Licensing of Premises

135. (1) A person, a body corporate or a government institution shall


not provide psychological services unless the premises are licensed
in accordance with this Part.
(2) An applicant who seeks to license premises for psychological
services shall apply to the Registrar in the manner determined by
the Board.
(3) The license for premises maybe general or limited and is valid for
the period determined by the Board.
(4) The Board may revoke a license if satisfied that the physical
conditions of the premises have ceased to be suitable for the
provision of psychological services.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


21 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Lay Private Practice

(5) lay Practitioners shall not be registered to practice as


independent practitioners unless that person works under the
supervision of a registered psychologist.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


22 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Licensing of Corporate Bodies
136. (1) The Board may grant a licence to a person, a body
corporate
or a government institution to provide psychological services if
satisfied
that the
(a) applicants are registered psychologists and fit to provide
psychological services, and
(b) business of the applicant is carried on under the supervision of a
psychologist who has practiced for five years.
(2) The Board may revoke the license granted under subsection
(1) where a condition specified in the license has not been
complied with.
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
23 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Types of Register
122. (1) The Council shall have three categories of registers for the
registration of practitioners namely,
(a) a permanent register for practitioners, who intend to practice
permanently in the country;
(b) a temporary register for practitioners who intend to practice
for a period of not more than three months; and
(c) a provisional register for newly qualified and foreign trained
practitioners who have passed the prescribed examination.
(2) The Registrar shall keep the registers.
(3) The form and nature of the register shall be determined by
the Board.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


24 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Temporary registration
123. (1) A temporary registration is valid for a period of not more
than three months in a year and is renewable yearly upon request for not
more than three years.
(2) A practitioner on a temporary register shall not provide
psychological services except in an approved hospital, premises or
institution.
(3) A practitioner who contravenes subsection (2) commits an
offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not less than two
hundred and fifty penalty units and not more than two thousand five
hundred penalty units or to a term of imprisonment of not more than
four years or to both.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


25 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Provisional registration
124. (l) A provisional registration is valid for the period determined
by the Board.
(2) A person seeking to be on a provisional register shall, except
as otherwise provided under this Part, pass the prescribed examination
and satisfy other conditions determined by the Board.
(3) A person on provisional register shall practice only in a hospital or an
institution approved by the Board.
(4) A person on a provisional register who contravenes sub-
section (3) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of not less than five hundred penalty units and not more than five
thousand penalty units or to a term of imprisonment of not more than
ten years or to both.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


26 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Permanent registration
125. (l) A person may apply to the Registrar for permanent
registration after practicing with a provisional registration for
a period determined by the Board and after successfully
completing internship.
(2) A permanent registration is valid for the calendar year in
which it was made.
(3) The registration shall be renewed by the practitioner on or
before the 31st December for the following calendar year.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


27 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Suspension of registration

126. The Board may suspend the registration of a practitioner


where:
(a) an offence or allegation of misconduct in relation to the
practitioner is being investigated;
(b) a false declaration has been made in an application for
registration under this Part; or
(c) the practitioner has contravened a provision of this Part

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


28 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Cancellation of registration
127. The Board shall cancel the registration of a practitioner on
the recommendation of a Disciplinary Committee of the
Board where
(a) an offence or allegation of misconduct in relation to the
practitioner is being investigated;
(b) the practitioner has lost the qualification on the basis of
which the registration was made;
(c) the practitioner is sentenced to a term of imprisonment for
a criminal offence; or
(d) the practitioner fails to comply with the penalty imposed by
the Board after due process.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


29 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Representation to the Board and
appeal
128. (1) A person on a provisional register whose application for
registration is refused by the Registrar may appeal against the refusal to
the Board
(2) Registration shall not be suspended unless the Board has given
the practitioner at least thirty days notice of its intention to suspend the
registration and has provided the practitioner with an opportunity to
make a representation to the Board.
(3) Registration shall not be cancelled unless the Board has given
the practitioner at least thirty days notice of its intention to cancel the
registration.
(4) A person dissatisfied with a decision of the Board may
appeal to the High Court.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


30 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Annual list of registered practitioners
129. The Registrar shall publish the list of persons on the register
yearly in the Gazette by the 31st of January.

Removal and restoration of names from register


130. (1) The Registrar shall on the recommendations of the Board
remove from the register the name of a person or practitioner
(a)who is dead,
(b)who has been found guilty of professional misconduct by the
Disciplinary Committee or
(c) who has not paid the prescribed fee.
(2) The name of a person or practitioner may be restored to the
register by the Registrar as directed by the Board.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


31 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Notification of change of name or address
131. A registered practitioner shall notify the Registrar in writing of
a change in name or address within thirty days of the change.

Insertion in register of additional qualifications


132. A practitioner who has obtained a higher degree or additional
qualification recognised by the Board, is entitled to have the higher
degree or additional qualification inserted in the register in
addition to the qualification previously registered, upon payment
of a fee determined by the Board.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


32 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Rights conferred by registration

133. A psychologist or therapist, except an intern, registered


under this Part may
(a) provide psychological services;
(b) provide psychometric assessment; and
(c) sign a certificate or document required by law.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any enactment a psychologist or
therapist shall not prescribe and store psychotropic
medicines unless the psychologist or therapist has the
requisite qualification and license to do so.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


33 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Unregistered practitioner
134. (1) A person who is otherwise qualified but is not
registered as a psychologist, therapist or lay practitioner shall
not provide any form of psychological services.
(2) A person who acts contrary to subsection (1) commits an
offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not
less than five hundred penalty units and not more than five
thousand penalty units or to a term of imprisonment of not
more than ten years or to both.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


34 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Offences
140. (1) A person who
(a) makes a false declaration in an application for registration as a
psychologist; or lay practitioner
(b) does not have the requisite qualification to practice as a psychologist
or therapist and knowingly represents as such;
(c) wilfully and falsely uses any name, title such as "Dr." or
addition implying a qualification to practice as a psychologist or
therapist;
(d) employs a non-registered practitioner;
(e) without being registered under this Part;
(a) practices or professes to practice applied psychology; or
(b) receives payment to provide psychological services; or
(f) wilfully destroys or damages a register kept under this Part; or
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
35 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
(g) or contravenes any of the provisions of this Part,
commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of not less than two hundred and fifty penalty units and
not more than five thousand penalty units or to a term of
imprisonment of not more than ten years or to both; and in
the case of a continuing offence to a further fine of ten
penalty units for each day during which the offence continues
after written notice has been served on the offender by the
Board.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


36 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Regulations
141. The Minister may, on the advice of the Board, by Legislative
Instrument, make Regulations to
(a) prescribe the form of notices and any other documents required
to be issued under this Part;
(b) prescribe the conditions for registration of practitioners;
(c) prescribe practice standards for practitioners;
(d) provide for the discipline of practitioners;
(e) prescribe the fees to be paid under this Part;
(j) provide for the education and examination of practitioners; and
(g) provide for any other matters necessary for the effective
implementation of the provisions of this Part.
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
37 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
The Role of Health Psychologist in
Medicine and Health Care?
The majority of persons with diagnosed communicable/non-
communicable and chronic disorders do not receive
treatment.
The challenges for health psychologist are to:
Identify risk factors affecting health and illness
Increase awareness about mental disorders in physical illness
Contribute to the effectiveness of treatment of illness
Remove the stigma associated with receiving treatment
Eliminate health disparities
improve access to mental health services for all persons,
particularly among populations that are disproportionately
affected .
GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology
38 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Enhance clients confidence
Improve the relationship between client and health workers
Improve the image of the service
Encourage clients to assume responsibility for their health
Decrease Work Load.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


39 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Health Psychology
Definition:
the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and professional
contribution of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and
maintenance of health, the promotion and treatment of illness and
related functions (Matarazzo, 1989, p815)

Evolved in the 1980s with the growing recognition that psychological


factors influence physical health

Health Psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to


the promotion and maintenance of health, causation, prevention and
treatment of illness

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


40 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Foundations of Health Psychology
How does health relate to ones state of mind?
Does the mind influence your state of health?
Does physical state influence your mental health?
Do physical and mental states influence each other?

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


41 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Aims of Health Psychology
To understand, explain, develop and test theory by:
1. Evaluating the role of behaviour in the cause of illness
2. Predict unhealthy behaviours
3. Understand the role of psychology in the experience of
illness
4. Evaluate the role of psychological treatment of illness

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


42 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Position of Health Psychology
All stages of health and illness are affected by biological,
psychological and social factors
Biopsychosocial model
Looks at particular health problems and range of psychology
that can be applied
Provides models that aids development of interventions to
improve health behaviour or adjustment to illness.
Emphasizes the role that belief and behaviour plays in health
and illness
To aid health promotion and prevent illness
Provides models for behaviour change and decision making

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


43 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Health Psychology
Can provide health practitioners with understanding of:
Impact of stress patient/client & health professionals
How we respond to stress
How we make sense of it
How we cope with stress
Uses of health services
Compliance and non-compliance with health requests
Hospitals and how they are experienced by the consumer.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


44 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Health psychologists focus on
Health promotion and maintenance e.g. how to get people to
develop good health habits

Prevention of illness stress management or adjust to illness or


learn to follow treatment regimen

Aetiology and correlates of health, illness dysfunctions

Attempts to improve the health care system and the


formulation of health policy

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


45 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Health psychologist
Devoted to understanding psychological influence on
How people stay healthy
Why they become ill
How they respond when they do get ill

Study issues related to poor health


habits and their effects on health e.g. smoking
and to design interventions to induces people to stay healthy or stop
unhealthy habits.
Help people stay well
Get over illness

Thus are concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the lifespan.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


46 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Summary
Health psychology is relatively new discipline
It emphasises the role that belief and behaviours play in illness
It contributes to all aspects of health care but most valuable in
preventive medicine, and adjustment to illnesses
Biopsychosocial model provides ways of combining theory and
practice

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


47 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Some Contemporary Interventions
Used by Psychologists
Drug treatments
Insight therapies
Psychoanalytic therapies
Humanistic and Existential therapies
Behaviour therapies
Counter conditioning
Systematic Desensitization
Aversion therapy
Operant Conditioning
The Token economy
Operant work with children
Modelling
Problems treated by modelling assertion training
The role of cognition

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


48 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Cognitive Behaviour therapies:
Elliss Rational Emotive Behaviour therapy
Becks Cognitive therapy
Social problem solving
Multi-modal therapy - stress management
Behavioural Medicine
The management of plan
Chronic disease and lifestyle
Biofeedback
Eclectism
Group, Couples, Family Therapies and Community Psychology
Legal and ethical Issues

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


49 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15
Reference
1. Health Professionals Regulatory Bodies Act, 2013 ()Act
857
2. Shelley, E. Taylor (1995) Health Psychology (3rd ed)
McGraw Hill, Inc. USA.

GCNM Lecture 3: SCR 503: Health Psychology


50 Dr. Dinah Baah-Odoom 2-Nov-15