EXTRACTION OF METAL FROM ITS ORE
Prepared by Nor Dahlia Zamani Nurul Nadiah Bt Kamal
sand and some iron oxide. Electricity is passed tgrough the alumina solution via electrodes. The pure aluminium oxide left is called alumina. The first stage is the removal of the impurities.
.Aluminium is extracted by electrolysis. The aluminium oxide is dissolve in molten cryolite and then reduced to the pure metal.
Both these electrodes are made of graphite. The negative electrode is called the cathode.
electrode that is connected to the positive terminal is called the anode.
The reaction at the cathode ³ the negative terminal is Al3+ + 3 eí Al At the positive electrode (anode).
. oxygen is formed: 2 O2í O 2 + 4 eí the whole process requires a great deal of electricity. which makes it very expensive.
Electrolysis of pure alumina (Hall-Heroult process)
fig 8.3 .Hall's cell
crude aluminium and silicon is used as the anode. The cell consists of an iron tank lined with carbon at the bottom.
Refining of aluminium (Hoopes process) The metal obtained in the above step is about 99% pure and for most purposes it is taken as pure metal. of sodium aluminium and barium (cryolite + BaF2). However. A molten alloy of copper. further purification of aluminium can be carried out by Hoopes process. The upper most layer consists of molten aluminium. It forms the lower most layer in the cell. A set if graphite rods dipping in molten aluminium serve as cathode. The middle layer consists of molten mixture of fluorides.
light High tensile strength Resistant to corrosion
. light Resistant to corrosion (protected by aluminium oxide) Good electrical conductivity Non-toxic Resistant to corrosion Good conductor of heat Low density.Uses Overhead electric cables
Properties Low density.
We mine iron ore from iron mines. The metal ore is mixed with coke and limestone.
. C is the main reducing agent in the metal extraction process. CO. Iron ore (haematite) is iron (iii) oxide. Hot water is pumped into the blast furnace to burn the carbon and produce carbon monoxide. CaCO3 . Carbon. Fe2O3. The extraction is carried out in a blast furnace.
CaCO3 + SiO2 CaSiO3 + CO2
2C + O2
2CO 2Fe + 3CO2 4Fe +3CO2
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe2O3 + 3C
Limestone or calcium carbonate. Slag is formed. CaCO3 reacts with impurities such as silica in the metal ores.
. The molten metal is collected at the bottom part of the blast furnace. Slag
floats on top of the molten metal and is removed.
Extracting iron in industry
and other forms of transportation such as trucks. Radioactive iron (iron 59): in medicine.Making useful steel for construction. magnets. catalyst. trains and train tracks. high-frequency cores. Powdered iron: used in metallurgy products.
. tracer element in biochemical and metallurgical research. auto parts. automobiles.