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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Factors to seismic behavior of building


Simplicity
Symmetry of building
Ductility
Transfer of load to ground without successive
deformation
During earthquake, behavior of structure depends on
Form of super - structure
How the earthquake force are carried to the ground
FUNCTIONAL PLANNING FRAMING
SYSTEM
Bearing-wall system
Moment resisting frames
Dual systems
Tube systems
Bearing Wall system
Loads are load bearing/shear walls
System is designed for gravity as well as
lateral loads where walls act like cantilever
Shear distribution is proportional to MI of
cross-section of wall
Relative displacements of the floor results
from bending deformation of walls
Moment-Resisting Frames
Frames in which beams, columns, joint resist
earthquake by flexure
They exhibit zero moment at mid-span of column
Shear distribution is proportional to MI of
column
Relative displacement is proportional to shear
force
Continuity of frames also assist in resisting gravity
load
Offer least obstruction to access
Dual System
Coupling of the two systems in which
moment resisting frames either braced or
with shear walls.
In lower frames the walls retain the frame,
while in upper floors the frame inhibits large
displacement of walls.
It results in small variation in storey drift
between first and last floor.
Tube System
3- D structure that utilizes the entire building
perimeter to resist lateral load.
CONTINUOUS LOAD PATH
Buildings are composed of horizontal and vertical
structural elements.
Horizontal elements diaphragms such as floor slab,
horizontal bracing in floor.
Vertical elements shear walls, braced frame,
moment resisting frames.
Horizontal forces is proportional to masses of building
elements and considered to act at the centre fo mass
of elements.
General path for load transfer is opposite to the
direction in which the seismic loads are delivered to
structural elements.
Path of load transfer:
Inertia force generated
in elements such as
exterior curtain walls
are delivered through
structural connection
to a horizontal
diaphragm which
distributes the forces
to vertical components
and finally into the
foundation and
eventually to the
ground
Overall Form: The guiding principles
Simple and symmetrical
Not to be too elongated in plan or elevation i.e.
the size should be moderate
Have uniform and continuous distribution of
strength, mass and stiffness
Have horizontal members which form hinges
before the vertical members
Have sufficient ductility
Have stiffness related to the sub-soil properties
SIMPLICTY AND SYMMETRY

Fig 4.2 (a) Not Recommended (b) Recommended


Fig 4.3: BROKEN LAYOUT CONCEPT
Lack of symmetry in columns/walls or irregularity
in elevation produces torsional effects.
External lifts and stairwell behave on their own
during earthquake.
Torsion in unsymmetrical causes failure of corner
columns and walls at perimeter of building.
To avoid torsion the centre of stiffness of
building should coincide with centre of mass.
Fig 4.4 ELONGATED SHAPES
STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH
Stiffness is the property of an element to resist
force and displacement.
A brittle structure have greater stiffness proves
to be less durable than ductile which performs
well during an earthquake.
Sudden change in lateral stiffness is not advised:
(i) the earthquake stress cannot be determined
adequately
(ii) the structural detailing poses practical
problem.
Fig 4.5: Discontinuity in Vertical
Configuration
Fig 4.6: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
MEMBERS
WEAK BEAM AND STRONG COLUMN
DESIGN

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TWISTING OF BUILDINGS
Fig 4.11: Twisting due to walls on two/one sides (in plan) (Murthy 2005)
DUCTILITY
FLEXIBLE BUILDING
FRAMING SYSTEMS
EFFECT OF NON-STRUCTURES
CHOICE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
SITE SELECTION

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SITE SELECTION

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PLAN OF BUILDING

Asymmetry should be
avoided.
Asymmetric buildings
undergo torsion.
Extreme corners are
subjected to very large
earthquake forces

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GENERAL SHAPE OF BUILDINGS

Sudden change in lateral stiffness should be avoided

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GENERAL SHAPE OF BUILDINGS

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PROJECTIONS AND OVERHANGS

Large overhangs,
projections and
floating columns
attract large
earthquake forces
and therefore likely
to damage/
collapse

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SEPARATION OF DISSIMILAR BUILDINGS

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FOUNDATIONS IN LIQUEFIABLE SOILS

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Liquefaction Kanto 1923

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Building tilted by ground failure caused by liquefaction, Kobe earthquake

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Buildings tilted by ground failure caused by liquefaction, Nigata, Japan earthquake

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Bhuj 2001
FOUNDATIONS IN LIQUEFIABLE SOILS

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FOUNDATIONS IN LIQUEFIABLE SOILS

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SLOPING ROOFS

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Buj Earthquake 2001
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PITCHED ROOF TRUSS

Pitched roof should have tie members and bracings. It should also
be properly anchored to the walls

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BRACING ACTION OF STAIRCASE

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SEPARATED STAIRCASE

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SEPARATED STAIRCASE

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ENCLOSED STAIRCASE

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ENCLOSED STAIRCASE

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ATTACHMENTS AND OVERHANGS

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Parapet Collapse Loma Prieta earthquake

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Parapet Collapse, Klamath
Falls, Oregon Earthquake

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Parapet Collapse, Klamath
Falls, Oregon Earthquake

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HEAVY MASS AT THE TOP BUILDINGS
Large water tanks
should be avoided.
Small water tanks,
if provided, should
be properly
connected with the
framing system.

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Water Tanks at Roof
Buj Earthquake 2001
DESIRABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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DESIRABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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DESIRABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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DESIRABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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DESIRABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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BUILDINGS ON HILL SLOPES

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WEAK BEAM AND STRONG COLUMN
DESIGN

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Andaman 2004
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Andaman 2004
BUILDING WITH SOFT FIRST STOREY

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BUILDING WITH SOFT FIRST STOREY

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Buj Earthquake 2001
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BUILDING WITH SOFT FIRST STOREY

GROUND STOREY IS TO BE DESIGNED FOR 2.5 TIMES STOREY SHEARS

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SHORT COLUMN EFFECT IN FRAME
BUILDINGS

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Buj Earthquake 2001
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Buj Earthquake 2001
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DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLS

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CASE STUDIES

STUDY OF BUILDING
CONFIGURATION

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SOFT FIRST STOREY

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DAMAGE TO SOFT FIRST STOREY
BUILDING DURING EARTHQUAKE

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DISSIMILAR ADJACEN BUILDING

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HEAVY MASS AT TOP

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STIFFNESS AND PLAN IRREGULARITY

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BEAM COLUMN OFFSET

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NON-FUNCIONAL SEPARATION JOINT

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MONOLITHIC STAIRCASE

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SHORT COLUMN EFFECT

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STUDY OF DRAWINGS

1. Symmetry and grid pattern


2. Ductile detailing and confining reinforcement
3. Anchorage of beam reinforcement into column
4. Splicing of reinforcement
5. Anchorage of shear wall with beams, slabs and
columns
6. Confining reinforcement in shear walls

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ANCHORAGE OF STIRRUPS

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LACK OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

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LACK OF CONFINING

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LACK OF ANCHORAGE

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IMPROPER SPLICING

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