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The science of matter and energy and of interactions between the two; the physical processes and phenomena of a particular system.
What is Sound? Properties of a Sound Wave Speed of Sound Constructive and Destructive Interference Diffraction The Doppler Effect Intensity
or solid medium. .Sound: y Vibratory disturbances in a gas. liquid. y sound is the vibration of any substance y our ears gather these vibrations and allow us to interpret them.
when they are called rarefactio ns. when they are called condensations. . each molecule hits another and returns to its original position result is that regions of the medium become alternately more dense.As sound waves travel through the material. less dense.
where the x-axis is time and the y-axis is pressure or the density of the medium through which the sound is travelling. .y Sound waves are often depicted in graphs like the one below.
amplitude. frequency .There are four main parts to a sound wave:. wavelength. 1. 3. 2. period. 4.
When the sound is twice as loud.Amplitude: A decibel is a scientific unit that measures the intensity of sounds. the decibel level goes up by six. The softest sound that a human can hear is the zero point. . Humans speak normally at 60 decibels.
. Pitch: How the brain interprets the frequency of an emitted sound is called the pitch. and one rarefaction. Hertz (Hz) indicate the number of cycles per second that pass a given location.Frequency: Every cycle of sound has one condensation. The frequency of a sound wave is measured in hertz.
Speed of sound y sound waves travel the slowest through gases. y faster through liquids. and y fastest through solids. . y Temperature also affects the speed of sound.
molecules collide more often. y This is because at lower temperatures. sound travels through air at 331 meters per second (about 740 mph). room temperature. giving the sound wave more chances to move around rapidly. at 20ºC. y At freezing (0º Celcius). it is particularly important to know the temperature. . sound travels at 343 meters per second (767 mph). But.Gases y In a gas.
sound waves travel at 1.482 meters per second (about 3. y That's well over 4 times faster than in air! .315 mph).Liquids y faster than gases because molecules are more tightly packed y fresh water.
The speed of sound in all solids are not faster than in all liquids.332 mph)! y But.Solids y Sound travels fastest through solids. y The exact speed of sound in steel is 5. .960 meters per second (13. this is only for the majority of solids. allowing sound waves to travel more quickly through it y sound waves travel over 17 times faster through steel than through air. y This is because molecules in a solid medium are much closer together.
Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves: .
there is a beat frequency of 2 Hz.Beats These periodic variations in loudness are called beats. . So. In this situation you will hear the loudness rise and fall 2 times per second because 440-438=2.
the wave simply bends around it This bending of a wave is called diffraction The sound outside of the room has varying intensity depending on where you stand .Diffraction: An obstacle is no match for a sound wave.
For a circular opening. the equation . and y D be the width of the doorway. y W be the wavelength. the equation is slightly different .y If we let angle x be the location of the first minimum intensity point on either side of the center.
.The Intensity of Three-Dimensional Waves: These circles are called wavefronts The space in between wavefronts is the wavelength threshold of hearing is 0 dB threshold of pain is 120 dB Rays indicate the motion of a set of wavefronts. The intensity level of sound is measured in decibels (dB).
Threshold of pain Auditory area Threshold of hearing for majority people Threshold of hearing .
Typical speech sounds Auditory area of the human ear Typical music sounds .
The Doppler Effect: y change in pitch .