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MEC 207

By Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala
McGraw Hill Education, Third Edition
Fluid Mechanics:

deals with the behavior of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in

motion (fluid dynamics), and the interaction of fluids with
solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Fluid mechanics is also referred to as fluid dynamics by

considering fluids at rest as a special case of motion with zero

Its application ranges from:

microscopic biological systems

automobiles, airplanes, and spacecraft propulsion.
Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics
On a broader scale:

Fluid mechanics plays a major part in the design and analysis of:
aircraft, boats, submarines, rockets, jet engines, wind turbines,
biomedical devices, the cooling of electronic components, and the
transportation of water, crude oil, and natural gas.
It is also considered in the design of buildings, bridges, and even
billboards to make sure that the structures can withstand wind
Numerous natural phenomena such as the rain cycle, weather
patterns, the rise of ground water to the top of trees, winds, ocean
waves, and currents in large water bodies are also governed by the
principles of fluid mechanics.
What is a Fluid?
A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred to as a fluid.

Distinction between a solid and a fluid is made on the basis of the substances ability to
resist an applied shear (or tangential) stress that tends to change its shape.

A solid can resist an applied shear stress by deforming,

a fluid deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress, no
matter how small.
Properties of Fluids
Any characteristic of a system is called property. Some
familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T,
volume V, and mass m.
Properties are considered to be either
intensive or extensive.

Intensive properties are those that are independent

of the mass of a system.
Examples: temperature, pressure, density etc.
Extensive properties are those whose values
depend on the sizeor extentof the system.

Total mass, total volume V, total momentum etc.
Criteria to differentiate intensive
and extensive properties
A fluid in a container is characterized by the fluid
properties a, b, c, d and e as shown in fig below.
Which of these properties are intensive
(A)a & e
(B) b, c & d
(C) a, b, c, d & e
(D) a & b
It means to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and
view it as a continuous, homogeneous matter with no

The continuum idealization allows us to treat properties

as point functions and to assume that the properties vary
continually in space with no jump discontinuities.
Properties of Fluids
Density- Density is defined as mass per unit volume.
That is,

Specific volume- The reciprocal of density is the

specific volume v, which is defined as volume per
unit mass.
That is,
Specific weight-The weight of a unit volume of a
substance is called specific weight and is expressed

Specific gravity- It is defined as the ratio of the

density of a substance to the density of some
standard substance at a specified temperature
(usually water at 4C, for which density = 1000
kg/m3). That is,
One litre of a certain fluid weighs 8N. What is
its specific volume?
(a) 2.03 x 10 3 m3/kg
(b) 20.3 x 10 3 m3/kg
(c) 12.3 x 10 3 m3/kg
(d) 1.23 x 10 3 m3/kg
Vapour Pressure

The vapour pressure(Pv) of a pure substance is

defined as the pressure exerted by its vapour in
phase equilibrium with its liquid at a given
How can this water as shown in fig below be boiled
without supplying heat from outside?
Note: Vapor pressure of
water at 30oC
= 0.0419 atm

Ans: By reducing the

pressure to
= 0.0419 atm
Sometimes in liquid-flow systems(such as
pumps, turbines etc)the liquid pressure drop
below the vapour pressure at some locations.
results in unplanned vaporization.
vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away
from the low pressure regions, generating
highly destructive, extremely high-pressure
Results in drop in performance and even the
erosion of impeller blades of a pump.
Cavitation damage
When is a liquid said to be not in a boiling or
vaporized state?
(a) If the pressure on liquid is equal to its vapour
(b) If the pressure on liquid is less than its vapour
(c) If the pressure on liquid is more than its vapour
(d) Unpredictable
In a water distribution system, the temperature of
water is observed to be as high as 30C. Determine
the minimum pressure allowed in the system to
avoid cavitation
Given: The vapor pressure of water at 30C is 4.25 kPa.

Ans: To avoid cavitation, the pressure anywhere in flow should not be

allowed to drop below the vapor (or saturation) pressure at the given
temperature. That is,

Pmin = Psat@30oC = 4.25 kPa

Coefficient Of Compressibility()
A fluid contracts when more pressure is applied on it and expands when the pressure acting
on it is reduced.
Coefficient of compressibility represents the change in pressure corresponding to a
fractional change in volume or density of the fluid while the temperature remains

The coefficient of compressibility of a truly incompressible substance

(v = constant) is infinity.

Coefficient of Volume Expansion()

represents the variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant
Surface tension

some insects can land on water or even walk on water and

that small steel needles can float on water
water beads up into small drops on flower petals

Some consequences of surface tension

The surface of the liquid acts like a stretched elastic
membrane under tension. The pulling force that causes
this tension acts parallel to the surface and is due to the
attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid.
The magnitude of this force per unit length is called
surface tension(s ) and is usually expressed in the unit
This effect is also called surface energy and is expressed
in the equivalent unit of N-m/m2or J/m2.
In this case, s represents the stretching work that
needs to be done to increase the surface area of the
liquid by a unit amount.
To determine excess pressure inside a
drop and bubble:
Capillary Effect

It is the rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter

tube inserted into the liquid. Such narrow tubes
or confined flow channels are called capillaries.

The capillary effect is also partially responsible

for the rise of water to the top of tall trees.
Capillary rise of water and the capillary fall of
mercury in a small-diameter glass tube :
Contact angle or wetting angle()
Contact(or wetting) angle , defined as the angle that the tangent to the liquid
surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact.

The curved free surface of a liquid in a capillary tube is called the meniscus.
Contact Angle

If, If,
<90o >90o
then fluid then fluid
wets the does not
surface. wet the

Contact angle() for wetting and non-wetting fluids

To Calculate The Magnitude of the Capillary Rise in a
Circular Tube

Equating the vertical component of the surface
tension force to the weight gives:
This relation is also valid for non-wetting
liquids (such as mercury in glass) and gives the
capillary drop. In this case cos>90 and thus
cos<0, which makes h negative.

Therefore, a negative value of capillary rise

corresponds to a capillary drop.
The fluid will rise in capillary when the capillary
is placed in fluid, if

(a) the adhesion force between molecules of fluid and

tube is less than the cohesion between liquid molecules
(b) the adhesion force between molecules of fluid and
tube is more than the cohesion between liquid
(c) the adhesion force between molecules of fluid and
tube is equal to the cohesion between liquid molecules
(d) cannot say
A 0.6-mm-diameter glass tube is inserted into
mercury at 20C in a cup. Determine the
capillary rise of mercury in the tube.
Note: The surface tension of mercury at 20C is 0.4865 N/m. The contact angle
of mercury with glass is 138.
A 0.6-mm-diameter glass tube is inserted into
water at 20C in a cup. Determine the capillary
rise of water in the tube.
Note: The surface tension of water at 20C is 0.073 N/m. The contact angle of
water with glass is 0.
There is a property that represents the internal resistance of a fluid to
motion or the fluidity, and that property is the viscosity.

The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction is called the
drag force.

Courtesy: Fluid Mechanics by Cengel and Cimbala

To obtain a relation for viscosity:
Consider a fluid layer between two very large parallel plates (or equivalently, two parallel
plates immersed in a large body of a fluid) separated by a distance.
Now a constant parallel force F is applied to
the upper plate while the lower plate is held

After the initial transients, it is observed that

the upper plate moves continuously under the
influence of this force at a constant velocity V.
In steady laminar flow, the fluid velocity
between the plates varies linearly between 0
and V, and thus the velocity profile and the
velocity gradient are:

where y is the vertical distance from the lower

During a differential time interval dt, the sides of
fluid particles along a vertical line MN rotate
through a differential angle d while the upper
plate moves a differential distance da=V dt. The
angular displacement or deformation (or shear
strain) can be expressed as:
Rearranging, the rate of deformation under
the influence of shear stress becomes

It can be verified experimentally that for most

fluids the rate of deformation (and thus the
velocity gradient) is directly proportional to the
shear stress ,
These fluids for which the rate of deformation is
proportional to the shear stress are called
Newtonian fluids after Sir Isaac Newton, who
expressed it first in 1687.

Most common fluids such as water, air, gasoline,

and oils are Newtonian fluids.

Blood and liquid plastics are examples of non-

Newtonian fluids.
In one-dimensional shear flow of Newtonian
fluids, shear stress can be expressed by the
linear relationship:

where the constant of proportionality is called

the coefficient of viscosity or the dynamic
(or absolute) viscosity of the fluid, whose unit is
kg/m s, or equivalently, Ns/m2 (or Pa-s where Pa
is the pressure unit pascal).
A common viscosity unit is poise, which is
equivalent to 0.1 Pa-s (or centipoise, which is
one-hundredth of a poise).

The viscosity of water at 20C is 1 centipoise,

and thus the unit centipoise serves as a useful
Non-Newtonian fluids:
For non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship
between shear stress and rate of deformation
is not linear, as shown in Fig.
The slope of the curve on the versus du/dy
chart is referred to as the apparent viscosity of
the fluid.

Fluids for which the apparent viscosity

increases with the rate of deformation (such
as solutions with suspended starch or sand)
are referred to as dilatant or shear thickening
The slope of the curve on the versus du/dy
chart is referred to as the apparent viscosity of
the fluid.

Fluids for which the apparent viscosity

increases with the rate of deformation (such
as solutions with suspended starch or sand)
are referred to as dilatant or shear thickening
Pseudoplastic or shear thinning fluids: The fluid
which becomes less viscous as it is sheared harder,
such as some paints, polymer solutions, and fluids
with suspended particles)
Eg: ketchup, whipped cream, blood, paint, and nail
Bingham plastics: Some materials can resist a finite
shear stress and thus behave as a solid, but deform
continuously when the shear stress exceeds the yield
stress and thus behave as a fluid.
Eg: toothpaste
Examples of Bingham Plastic


Drilling Mud

Tooth Paste
The below diagram is a graph of change in shear
stress with respect to velocity gradient in a fluid.
What is the type of the fluid?
(a) Newtonian fluid
(b) Non-Newtonian fluid
(c) Ideal fluid
(d) Dilatant fluid
Which of the graphs in below diagram represent
Newtonian fluids?
(a) Only C
(b) Only B and C
(c) Only A and D
(d) Only B, C and E
The viscosity of a fluid is to be measured by a viscometer
constructed of two 40-cm-long concentric cylinders. The outer
diameter of the inner cylinder is 12 cm, and the gap between
the two cylinders is 0.15 cm. The inner cylinder is rotated at
300 rpm, and the torque is measured to be 1.8 N-m.
Determine the viscosity of the fluid.

Pressure is the normal compressive force exerted by a fluid per

unit area.

Pressure comes into consideration only when we deal with a gas

or a liquid.

The counterpart of pressure in solids is normal stress.

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all directions.

It has magnitude but not a specific direction, and thus it is a scalar

Which of the arrows in below diagram represent
correct direction of pressure on the body?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 1 & 3
(d) 4
Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure:-

Pressure greater than

atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure
(barometric pressure)
Gauge pressure(negative)
also called vacuum
Pressure less than
atmospheric pressure

Perfect Vacuum
(absolute pressure =0)
Relation between Absolute Pressure
and Gauge Pressure:-

Pressure greater than

atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure
(barometric pressure) Hence,

Absolute pressure at a

= Atmospheric pressure
Perfect Vacuum + Gauge pressure
(absolute pressure =0)
A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 5.8
psi at a location where the atmospheric pressure
is 14.5 psi. Determine the absolute pressure in
the chamber.
What is the correct formula for absolute pressure?
(a) Pabs = Patm Pgauge
(b) Pabs = Pvacuum Patm
(c) Pabs = Pvacuum + Patm Pabs
(d) Pabs = Patm+ Pgauge

Perfect Vacuum
(absolute pressure =0)
Pressure at a point

Fig. Pressure at a point is same when measured

from different directions
(this confirms that pressure is a scalar quantity)
Pressure at a point

To show that the pressure at a point in a fluid has the same magnitude
in all directions:

To prove: P1 = P2 = P3

Hint: Apply equations of

equilibrium in x and z directions
Variation of pressure in
a fluid at rest

What does the diagram below represent?



Which of the points in below diagram represent
points of same pressure ?
Variation of pressure in a fluid at
Horizontal direction: Pressure in a fluid at rest does not
change in the horizontal direction. This can be shown
easily by considering a thin horizontal layer of fluid and
doing a force balance in any horizontal direction.

Vertical direction: However, this is not the case in the

vertical direction in a gravity field. Pressure in a fluid
increases with depth because more fluid rests on
deeper layers, and the effect of this extra weight on a
deeper layer is balanced by an increase in pressure.
Variation of pressure with depth in
a fluid at rest
Consider a rectangular fluid element of height z, length x, and
unit depth (into the page) in equilibrium,

Applying equations of
equilibrium in x and z directions,
we can write:
Find the difference in pressure of air(= 1.2754 kg/m3) in a
room(5m high)between the ceiling and floor?
Solution: Let, Pressure near ceiling =P1
Pressure near floor =P2
We know that
P2 P1 = gh = 1.2754 x 9.81 x 5 = 62.4897 Pa
Percentage difference = (P2 P1)/ P1
= 62.4897x100/105= 0.0625%
Thus we conclude that, for small to moderate distances, the
variation of pressure with height is negligible for gases because of
their low density.
Measurement of Pressure

Two basic pressure gages


It is a device commonly used to measure small and

moderate pressure differences.

It mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-tube containing

one or more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil.

To keep the size of the manometer to a manageable

level, heavy fluids such as mercury are used if large
pressure differences are anticipated.
A U-tube manometer
A mercury manometer(= 13,600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to
measure the pressure inside. The difference in the manometer levels
is 15 mm, and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.
(a)Judging from the fig determine if the pressure in the duct is above or
below the atmospheric pressure.
(b)Determine the absolute pressure in
the duct.
The fluid in the manometer (shown in figure) is
ethyl iodide with = 1.93. The manometric
fluid height difference is 50 in. What is the gauge
pressure in the tank? What is the absolute pressure
in the tank?
Pascals law

The pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the

pressure throughout by the same amount. This is called
Pascals law, after Blaise Pascal (16231662).

Pascal also knew that the force applied by a

fluid is proportional to the surface area.

Hydraulic brakes and lifts etc are based on Pascals law.

Hydraulic lifts:

The area ratio A2/A1 is called the ideal mechanical advantage of the
hydraulic lift.
Home Work:
Derive a relation for the capillary rise of a liquid
between two large parallel plates a distance t apart
inserted into the liquid vertically. Take the contact
angle to be .

It deals with problems associated with fluids at rest.

Forces present in a fluid at rest:

(i) Normal Force due to pressure
(ii) Weight

There are no shear forces as there is no relative motion between the layers
of the fluid.

Fluid statics is used to determine the forces acting on floating or submerged

bodies and the forces developed by devices like hydraulic presses and car jacks.

The design of many engineering systems such as water dams and liquid
storage tanks requires the determination of the forces acting on the surfaces
using fluid statics.
Hydrostatic force on an inclined
C.P. = Center of Pressure

C.A. = Center of Area

Force on the elemental area dA:
dFP = P dA = (gh )dA
Force on the entire surface area:

FP ( gh)dA

( gy sin )dA g sin ydA


Where, ydA First moment of area


yA Pressure Force on
an inclined plane
FP ( gy sin ) A ( gh ) A
Where, y Distance of Center of Area(C.A.) from X - axis
To locate the centre of pressure of
an inclined submerged surface:
Let, a surface be submerged in a
liquid inclined at an angle, with the
free surface of the liquid.

Pressure on the elemental area

= gh

Force on the elemental area,
dF = (gh)dA

Moment of this force about x-axis

dM = y dF = y (gh)dA

Hence, moment of all such forces

on the surface about x-axis,
y( gh)dA y( gy sin )dA
Hence, moment of all such forces on the surface about x-axis,

y ( gh)dA y ( gy sin )dA


g sin y 2 dA

( g sin ) I xx

where, I xx y 2 dA = second moment of area


Moment of hydrostatic force on the surface about x-axis

y p Fp y p ( gh ) A
y p ( gy sin ) A ---------(2)
From eq(1) and (2) we have
y p ( gy sin ) A ( g sin ) I xx
( g sin ) I xx I xx I G Ay 2
or , y p
( gy sin ) A yA yA
I G Ay 2 IG
yA yA
yp y
where, I G Second moment of area about centroid of the surface
Moment of Area about
Center of Area(IG) :

A fluid exerts an upward force on a body immersed in it. This force that tends
to lift the body is called the buoyant force and is denoted by FB.

Observations about Buoyant Force:-

An object feels lighter and weighs less in a liquid than it does in air.

Objects made of wood or other light materials float on water.

Calculation of Buoyant Force

Consider, a flat plate of thickness h submerged

in a liquid of density f parallel to the free
surface, as shown in Fig.
The area of the top (and also bottom) surface of the
plate is A, and its distance to the free surface is s.

Pressure at the top surface of the plate

P1= f gs, and

Pressure at the bottom surface of the plate

P2 = f g(s+h),
Hence, net upward force = P2A P1A
= f g(s+h)A- f gsA
= f g(hA)
= f g(Volume of the body)
= f g(Volume of the displaced fluid)
= weight of the displaced fluid,

which is the buoyant force.

Thus, buoyant force acting on the plate is equal
to the weight of the liquid displaced by the
plate. This is known as Archimedes Principle

Buoyant force = f gV = weight of the
liquid displaced
Which body experiences greater buoyant force? Both are
made up of same material.

(A) Blue
(B) Green
(C) Both experience equal buoyant force
(D) None of the bodies experience buoyant force
How much is the buoyant force acting on each body? Both
are made up of steel(=7600 kg/m3).

(A) Blue(74.556 KN) ; Green(745.56 KN)

(B) Blue(74.556 N) ; Green(74.556 N)
(C) Blue(9.81 KN) ; Green(98.1 KN)
(D) Blue(9.81 N) ; Green(98.1 N)
Which bodies experience respectively the least and the
greatest buoyant forces in the fig below?

(A) A,B
(B) A,C
(C) A,D
(D) B,D
Which body experiences greater buoyant force? All are
made up of same material but are at different depth.

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) all experience equal buoyant force
Which body experiences greater buoyant force? All are
having same diameter.

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) all experience equal buoyant force
Center of Buoyancy(C.B.) : It is the centroid of the
displaced volume of liquid. Center of

Bottom Weight Top

heavy uniformly heavy

Liquid Displaced has got same shape in all three cases. Hence
same center of buoyancy.
For which of the bodies shown in fig below, center of
gravity is below center of buoyancy?

(A) A and B
(B) B only
(C) B and C
(D) all
For which of the bodies shown in fig below, center of
gravity and center of buoyancy are same?

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) all
Which body has CB nearest to CG?


(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) all
Buoyant force is independent of:
(i) the distance of the body from the free
surface and
(ii)the density of the solid body.
Archimedes Principle: After the Greek mathematician
Archimedes (287212 BC).
It is expressed as:
The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in
a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by the body, and it acts upward
through the centroid of the displaced volume.
According to Archimede's principle, if a body is
immersed partially or fully in a fluid then the
buoyancy force is _______ the weight of fluid
displaced by the body.
(a) equal to
(b) less than
(C)more than
(d) unpredictable
Floating bodies

For floating bodies, the weight of the entire

body must be equal to the buoyant force,
which is the weight of the fluid whose volume
is equal to the volume of the submerged
portion of the floating body.
For a floating body:
FB = W
Or, f gVsub = bodygVtotal

Or, Vsub / Vtotal= body / f

A body immersed in a fluid :
(1)Remains at rest at any
point in the fluid when its
density is equal to the
density of the fluid,

(2) sinks to the bottom when

its density is greater than
the density of the fluid,

(3) rises to the surface of the fluid

and floats when the density of
the body is less than the density
of the fluid
A crane is used to lower weights
into the sea (density 1025 kg/m3)
for an underwater construction
project. Determine the tension in
the rope of the crane due to a
rectangular 0.4-m x 0.4-m x 3-m
concrete block (density 2300
kg/m3) when it is :
(a)suspended in the air and
(b) completely immersed in water.

Why do sports cars have low ground clearance?

Ans: To keep center of

gravity low so that car
Low Ground Clearance has better stability.
The fundamental concepts of stability and instability can be easily
understood by ball on the floor analogy.
Stability of Immersed and Floating

Submarine(submerged body)

Ship(Floating Body)
Stability of Immersed Bodies: Eg. Submarine
(i) Stability in the vertical direction: If an immersed neutrally
buoyant body is raised or lowered to a different depth, the body
will remain in equilibrium at that location. Therefore, an
immersed neutrally buoyant body is neutrally stable since it does
not return to its original position after a disturbance.
(ii) Rotational stability of an immersed body:
Depends on the relative locations of the C.G.
of the body and the C.B.
Thus, an
body is
stable like
Bottom that
Weight Top
heavy shown in
uniformly heavy
distributed Fig.(a)
if the
body is
heavy and
point C.G
is directly
point C.B.
Stability of Floating Bodies: Eg. Ship
(i) Stability in the vertical direction: If a floating body is raised or
lowered somewhat by a vertical force, the body will return to its
original position as soon as the external effect is removed.
Therefore, a floating body possesses vertical stability.
(ii) Rotational stability of a floating body:

(a) When G is directly below B Always stable

(just like immersed bodies)

(b) When G is directly above B: Metacenter

GM = Metacentric Height
M = Metacenter.
Metacenter(M)It is the intersection point of
the lines of action of the buoyant force through
the body before and after rotation.
The metacenter may be
considered to be a fixed point for most hull
shapes for small rolling angles up to about 20.
Metacentric Height(GM) - A measure of
stability for floating bodies is the metacentric
height(GM),which is the distance between the
center of gravity G and the metacenter M.
Thus, a floating body with G directly above B is:

stable if point M is above point G, and thus

GM is positive, and

unstable if point M is below point G, and thus

GM is negative.
To derive expression for
Volume emerged out of Volume submerged in water
water on left side(RPP) on right side(RQQ)

Volume submerged on right side(RQQ) = Volume emerged on left side(RPP)

To derive expression for

Elemental volume Elemental volume

immersed = zA immersed
= (z+ytan)A
Or, buoyant force
= gzA Or, buoyant force
= g(z+ytan) A
Buoyant force on
Buoyant force each volume element
= gV = gzdA

force = gV

Buoyant force on each

volume element
= g(z+ytan)A
We can write:
Moment of buoyant force
= sum of moment of buoyant force of each volume
Before displacement:

After displacement:
Subtracting eq(1) from eq(2) we have:
metacentric radius

metacentric height
A uniform, closed cylindrical buoy, 1.5 m high, 1.0 m diameter
and of mass 80 kg is to float with its axis vertical in seawater of
density 1026 kg m3. A body of mass 10 kg is attached to the
centre of the top surface of the buoy. Show that, if the buoy
floats freely, initial instability will occur.
Fluid Kinematics
Fluid kinematics
In fluid dynamics, fluid kinematics is the study of how fluids flow and
how to describe fluid motion.

deals with describing the motion of fluids without necessarily

considering the forces and moments that cause the motion.
Eulerian and Lagrangian
Eulerian vs. Lagrangian Description

Swiss mathematician Italian mathematician

Leonhard Euler (1707 Joseph Louis Lagrange
1783) (17361813)

Lagrangian: Point of reference moves with the

Eulerian: Point of reference is stationary.
e.g. Weather balloon (Lagrangian) vs. weather
station on the ground (Eulerian)
Lagrangian description:
learned in high school physics classto follow the path of individual

analogous to the system analysis that you learned in your

thermodynamics class; namely, we follow a mass of fixed identity
This method of describing motion is much more difficult for fluids. Reasons

(i) we cannot easily define and identify particles of fluid as they

move around.

(ii) a fluid is a continuum (from a macroscopic point of view), so

interactions between parcels of fluid are not as easy to describe
as are interactions between distinct objects like billiard balls.

(iii) the fluid parcels continually deform as they move in the flow.
Eulerian description:
In the Eulerian description of fluid flow, a finite
volume called a flow domain or control volume
is defined, through which fluid flows in and

We do not need to keep track of the position

and velocity of a mass of fluid particles of fixed
identity. Instead, we define field variables,
functions of space and time, within the control
Which approach is this, Lagrangian or Eulerian?
For example, the pressure field is a scalar field variable; for
general unsteady three dimensional fluid flow in Cartesian

We define the velocity field as a vector field variable in similar


Likewise, the acceleration field is also a vector field


Collectively, these (and other) field variables define the

flow field.
How to determine, the field variables(velocity,
pressure and acceleration) in the flow field?

Velocity and Pressure fields can be

computed by solving continuity equation
along with Navier Stokes equation(for
viscous flow) or Eulers equation(for inviscid
flow). These equations will be discussed in
Fluid Dynamics
A steady, incompressible, two-dimensional
velocity field is given by

where the x- and y-coordinates are in meters

and the magnitude of velocity is in m/s.
A stagnation point is defined as a point in the
flow field where the velocity is identically
zero. Determine if there are any stagnation
points in this flow field and, if so, where?
Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation
Pressures :
Flow visualization
Human mind is designed to rapidly process an
incredible amount of visual information; as
they say, a picture is worth a thousand words.

There are many types of flow patterns that can be

visualized, both physically (experimentally) and/or
Stream lines:
A streamline is a curve that is everywhere tangent
to the instantaneous local velocity vector.

Streamlines cannot be directly observed

experimentally except in steady flow fields, in
which they are coincident with pathlines and
Equation for a streamline:
Consider an infinitesimal arc length

along a streamline as shown in figure below:

must be parallel to the local velocity vector

Thus components of must be proportional
to those of .
Hence equation for a streamline
Which acceleration has a nonzero value in
unsteady flow?
(a) Local acceleration
(b) Convective acceleration
(c) Both local as well as convective acceleration
(d) unpredictable
Find the equation of streamline.


where C is a constant of integration that can be set to various values in order

to plot the streamlines.
A streamtube consists of a bundle of streamlines,
much like a communications cable consists of a
bundle of fiber-optic cables.
Since streamlines are everywhere parallel to the local
velocity, fluid cannot cross a streamline by definition.

By extension, fluid within a streamtube must remain there

and cannot cross the boundary of the stream tube.

Both streamlines and streamtubes are instantaneous

quantities, defined at a particular instant in time according
to the velocity field at that instant.

In an unsteady flow, the streamline pattern may

change significantly with time.
A pathline is the actual path travelled by an
individual fluid particle over some time period
as shown in fig. below:
Pathlines are the easiest of the flow patterns to

A pathline is a Lagrangian concept in that we simply

follow the path of an individual fluid particle as it
moves around in the flow field.
Pathlines can also be calculated numerically for a known
velocity field as shown in equation below:

NOTE: For steady flow, pathlines are identical to streamlines.

Streak lines
A streakline is the locus of fluid particles that have
passed sequentially through a prescribed point in
the flow as shown in fig. below:
Streaklines are the most common flow pattern
generated in a physical experiment.

It can be produced by inserting a small tube

into a flow and introduce a continuous stream
of tracer fluid (dye in a water flow or smoke in
an airflow), the observed pattern is a streakline.

if the flow is steady, streamlines, pathlines, and

streaklines are identical.
Differences between Streamlines,
Pathlines and Streaklines:
A streamline represents an instantaneous flow
pattern at a given instant in time, while a streakline
and a pathline are flow patterns that have some
age and thus a time history associated with them.

A streakline is an instantaneous snapshot of a time

integrated flow pattern. A pathline, on the other
hand, is the time-exposed flow path of an
individual particle over some time period.
Path lines and streak lines are shown in figure below:

Stream tube, Path lines and Streak lines

Particles P1, P2 , P3, P4, starting from point P at successive times pass along path
lines shown. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at
1, 2, 3 and 4. A line joining these points is the streak line.
A timeline is a set of adjacent fluid particles that
were marked at the same (earlier) instant in
time as shown in fig. below:

Timelines are particularly useful in situations

where the uniformity of a flow (or lack thereof)
is to be examined.
Types of Motion or Deformation
of Fluid Elements:
A fluid element may undergo four fundamental types of motion or

These are:



(c)linear strain (sometimes called extensional strain), and

(d)shear strain.
Fundamental types of fluid element
motion or deformation:



linear strain, and

shear strain.
Because fluid elements may be in constant motion,
it is preferable in fluid dynamics to describe the
motion and deformation of fluid elements in terms
of rates.
In particular, we discuss
velocity(rate of translation),
angular velocity(rate of rotation),
Linear strain rate(rate of linear strain), and
Shear strain rate(rate of shear strain).
Rate of translation:

Rate of translation vector in Cartesian coordinates:

Here, the fluid element has moved in the positive horizontal (x) direction; thus u
is positive, while v(and w) are zero.
Rate of rotation(angular velocity)

Rate of rotation(angular velocity)at a point is

defined as the average rotation rate of two
initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that
average rotation angle

=(a +b)/2,


the rate of rotation or angular

velocity in the xy-plane

=d(a +b)/(2dt)
Thus, rate of rotation of fluid element about
point P can be given by:

In 3-dimensions:
Linear strain rate
It is defined as the rate of increase in length
per unit length.
Volumetric strain rate or
bulk strain rate
The rate of increase of volume of a fluid element per unit volume is called
its volumetric strain rate or bulk strain rate.

The volumetric strain rate is zero in an incompressible flow.

Shear strain rate
Shear strain rate at a point is defined as half of the rate of decrease of the angle
between two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at the point.

In 3-dimensions:
We can mathematically combine linear strain
rate and shear strain rate into one symmetric
second-order tensor called the strain rate
tensor, as shown below:
For the given velocity field,


Rate of translation,

Rate of rotation,

Rate of linear strain, and

Rate of shear strain.

Vorticity and Rotationality

Vorticity : Vorticity is a measure of rotation of a fluid particle. Vorticity is

equal to twice the angular velocity of a fluid particle.

It is defined mathematically as the curl of the velocity vector .

Special cases:

(i) V 0, Flow is irrotational.

V 0, Flow is rotational.
Rotational and Irrotational Regions
of Flow
Rotation of fluid elements is associated with wakes, boundary layers, flow
through turbomachinery (fans, turbines, compressors, etc.), and flow with
heat transfer.

Courtsey: Image by Fluid

Mechanics, Younis A Cengel

Fluid elements in a rotational region of the flow rotate, but

those in an irrotational region of the flow do not.
Conservation of Mass Principle

The conservation of mass principle for a control volume

can be expressed as:

The net mass transfer to or from a control volume

during a time interval t is equal to the net change
(increase or decrease) in the total mass within
the control volume during t.

That is,
Conservation of Mass: Continuity
Equation(cartesian coordinates)
Consider an infinitesimal box-shaped control volume aligned with
the axes in Cartesian coordinates as shown in fig.

At the center of
the box we
define the
density as and
the velocity
components as
u, v, and w as
The center of the right-most face of the box is located a
distance dx/2 from the middle of the box in the x-direction;
the value of u at that point is given by Taylor series
expansion as below:
( u ) dx
u center of right face u (neglecting higher
x 2 order terms)
( u ) dx
u center of left face u
x 2

( v) dy
v center of top face v
y 2
( v) dy
v center of bottomface v
y 2

( w) dz
wcenter of front face w
z 2

( w) dz
wcenter of back face w
z 2
Net mass flow rate into CV:
( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz





in 2

Net mass flow rate out of CV:

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz





out 2

Rate of change of mass of CV:

(dx)( dy )( dz )
t t
According to Conservation of Mass Principle:
m m
in out t

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz
u dydz
dxdz w dxdy
x 2 y 2 z 2
( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz
u dydz v dxdz w dxdy
x 2 y 2 z 2

(dx)( dy )( dz )
( u ) ( v) ( w)
Or, dx dydz dy dxdz dz dxdy
x y z

(dx)( dy )( dz )
Known as
form of
( u ) ( v) ( w) continuity
Or, 0 equation in
t x y z cartesian
Special cases:
Case 1: Steady Compressible Flow

( u ) ( v) ( w)
t x y z

( u ) ( v) ( w)
x y z
Case 2: Incompressible Flow


u v w
t x y z
Known as incompressible form of
u v w continuity equation in cartesian
0 coordinates.
x y z
It is this equation which is used in
the entire course of Fluid
Which of the following fig. represent an impossible flow?



Steady and unsteady flow

Uniform and non-uniform flow

Laminar and turbulent flow

Internal and external flow

Stream function() , Velocity potential
function(), Circulation and Flow net

Incompressible, two-dimensional stream function() in Cartesian coordinates is

defined as:
( x, y ) ( x, y )
u ,v
y x
The continuity equation for simple case of incompressible, two-dimensional flow in the
xy plane in Cartesian coordinates is given by:

u v

or , 0
x y
u v
x y x y y x
Thus we conclude that velocity components generated by stream function() always
satisfy continuity equation.
The Stream Function in Cylindrical
We simplify the incompressible continuity equation, for two-dimensional planar flow
in the r plane:

Hence, we define stream function as follows:

The incompressible continuity equation, for two-dimensional axisymmetric flow in the

r z plane:
Significance of Stream Function () :

A single variable () replaces two variables (u and v)once

is known, we can generate both u and v and we are guaranteed
that the solution satisfies continuity equation.

Curves of constant are streamlines of the flow.

The difference in the value of from one streamline to

another is equal to the volume flow rate per unit width between
the two streamlines.
Prove that curves of constant are
streamlines of the flow.

( x, y ) cons tan t
or , d ( x, y ) 0

( x, y ) ( x, y )
or , dx dy 0
x y
or ,vdx udy 0
represents equation of
dx dy
or , streamline
u v

Hence proved.

It is defined as the line integral of velocity about a

closed path in a flow field as shown in fig below: The
symbol used is .

It is given by:

where dL is the length on the closed curve, u is the velocity at the

location and is the angle between the velocity vector
and the length dL.
Consider the element 1234 in Fig. above. Starting at 1
and proceeding counter clockwise,
Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area.


For irrotational flow, vorticity and circulation are both zero.

Velocity potential function()

In an irrotational region of flow, the velocity vector can be expressed as the

gradient of a scalar function called the velocity potential function.

Incompressible, two-dimensional velocity potential function() in Cartesian

coordinates is given by:

( x, y, z ) ( x, y, z ) ( x, y, z )
u ,v &w
x y z
Prove that streamlines and equipotential lines are
orthogonal to each other.

Proof: Streamlines are given by:

dx dy

u v

Hence slope of the streamline is given by:

dy v Slope of streamline

dx u
For a two dimensional flow field, equipotential lines are
given by:
( x, y ) cons tan t
or , d ( x, y ) 0
( x, y ) ( x, y )
or , dx dy 0
x y
or , udx vdy 0 Slope of equipotential
dy u
or , --------------(2)
dx v
Multiplying equations(1) and (2) we get

Slope of streamline x Slope of equipotential line = -1

Hence, we can say that streamlines and equipotential

lines are orthogonal to each other.
Fluid Dynamics

Inviscid Flow: Inviscid flow actually mean flow

of a viscous fluid in a region of the flow in
which net viscous forces are negligible
compared to pressure and/or inertial forces.

Viscous Flow: Viscous flow actually mean flow of

a viscous fluid in a region of the flow in which
net viscous forces are significant in addition to
pressure and/or inertial forces.
Euler's equation
Using the Newton's second law of motion the relationship between the velocity and
pressure field for a flow of an inviscid fluid(viscous forces neglected) can be derived. The
resulting equation, in its differential form, is known as Eulers Equation. The equation is
first derived by the scientist Euler.

u u u u p
u v w g x (1)
t x y z x

v v v v p
u v w g y (2)
t x y z y

w w w w p
u v w g z (3)
t x y z z
Forces considered in above equation are surface force(due to pressure ) and
body force(due to weight).
Bernoulli's equation
The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between
pressure, velocity, and elevation.

It is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where

net frictional forces are negligibly small compared to inertial,
gravitational, or pressure forces. Such regions occur outside
of boundary layers and wakes.
Consider the motion of a fluid particle in a flow
field in steady flow
In regions of flow where net frictional forces are
negligible, the significant forces acting in the s-direction
the pressure (acting on both sides) and
the component of the weight of the particle in the
Now, applying Newtons second law in the s-direction
on a particle moving along a streamline gives

Or, PdA- (PdA+(dP/ds)dsdA) Wsin = dsdA(Du/Dt)

Or, -dPdA-gdsdAsin = dsdA(udu/ds)
Or, -dP-gsinds = ds(udu/ds)

But, sin = dz/ds

Hence, -dP-gdz= udu This is the Euler equation
along the streamline.

Integrating both sides we have:

-P-gz = (1/2)u2 + Constant
This is the required
P + gz + (1/2)u2 = Constant Bernoullis equation.
Inverted Umbrella

Use Bernoullis principle to explain why your umbrella inverts on a

windy day?
Venturimeter, Orificemeter,
Pitot tube and Rotameter


measures discharge
through a pipe
very accurate Converging Diverging
part part

Connections to manometer

Applying Bernoullis equation between sections (1) and (2) we have

P1 V12 P2 V22
Z1 Z2
g 2 g g 2 g
Z1 Z 2
P1 V12 P2 V22
P1 P2
g 2 g g 2 g

P1 P2 V22 V12 x
- - - - - (1) PA PB
g g 2 g 2 g
According to Pascals Law

PA PB - - - - - - - (2)
But , PA P1 gx - - - - - - - (3)
and , PB P2 gy m gh - - - - - - - (4)
From eq(2), (3) and (4) we have:
P1 gx P2 gy m gh - - - - - - - (5)

But , x y h , putting this in eq(5) we have

P1 g ( y h) P2 gy m gh

or , P1 P2 m gh - gh

or , P1 P2 ( m - ) gh - - - - - - - (6)
From eq(1) and (6) we have:

( m ) gh V22 V12

g 2g 2g
( m ) gh Q 2 1 1
( 2 - 2) Theoretical
g 2 g A 2 A1 Discharge

1/ 2

1 2( m ) gh A1A 2
Q Q 2 m 1 gh
1 1
2 - 2

A 1
- A2

A 2 A1

Actual Discharge(Qactual):

Qactual Cd Q
Where, Cd = Coefficient of discharge. Its typical value for a Venturimeter is 0.98
Inclined Venturimeter

Discharge same as horizontal venturimeter

A1A 2 m
Q 2 1 gh
A 1
- A2

Orificemeter: Vena
Used for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid flowing
through a pipe.

Cheaper as compared to venturimeter.

Works on the same principle as that of venturimeter.

Consists of flat circular plate which has a circular hole,

in concentric with the pipe. This is called orifice.

Diameter of orifice is generally 0.5 times the diameter

of the pipe (D), although it may vary from 0.4 to 0.8
times the pipe diameter.
A0 = area of the orifice.
Coefficient of contraction, Cc = A2 / A0

Here, D = Diameter of the pipe

Applying Bernoullis equation between sections
(1) and (2) we have
P1 P2 V22 V12
Z1 Z 2 (1)
g g 2g 2g

As we did in venturimeter by using Pascals law

in the manometer, we have
P1 P2 m
Z1 Z 2 - 1h - - - - - -(2)
g g
From equations (1) and (2), we have
V2 V 2 g - 1h (3)

By continuity equation, we have
Q = A1 V1 = A2 V2 = (A0Cc)V2 -------(4)
From eq.(3) and (4), we have

2 g m - 1h

- - - - - -(5)
1 0 c

2 g m - 1h
Q A0Cc - - - - - - - (6)
1 0 c
If Cd is the co-efficient of discharge for orifice
meter, which is defined as:
C d Cc A1
- - - - - - - (7)
1 0 c

From eq(6) and (7) we have

2 g m - 1h
Q A0Cd
1 0


A0 A1
Q Cd 2 g m - 1h
A1 A0
2 2

The coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter is much smaller than

that of a venturimeter.

A discharge coefficient cd = 0.60 may be taken as standard, but

the value varies noticeably at low values of the Reynolds number.
Pitot tube:

Pitot Tubes

Aircraft have pitot tubes for measuring airspeed.

Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air.
Pitot tube:
Pitot tube:

Used for measuring the velocity of flow at any

point in a pipe or a channel.

Principle: If the velocity at any point decreases,

the pressure at that point increases due to the
conversion of the kinetic energy into pressure

In simplest form, the pitot tube consists of a

glass tube, bent at right angles.
Pitot tube :
Peizometer Pitot-tube
Let , h ,
P V2
g 2g
H h

or,V 2 g ( H h)
or , Vactual CV V

or,Vactual CV 2 g ( H h)
Where, Cv=Coefficient of Pitot-tube
A piezometer and a Pitot tube are tapped into a horizontal water
pipe, as shown in Fig., to measure static and stagnation (static+
dynamic) pressures. For the indicated water column heights,
determine the velocity at the center of the pipe.

Ans:1.53 m/s
Glass Tube Rotameter is basically a Variable
Area Flow Meter.

The differential pressure across the annulus

area is constant and the flow rate is measured
as a function of the annulus area. This area is
displayed as the position of a Float.
UNITS(I),(II) and (III)

For details refer your textbook.