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FLUID MECHANCS

Textbook: FLUID MECHANICS

By Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala

McGraw Hill Education, Third Edition

Fluid Mechanics:

motion (fluid dynamics), and the interaction of fluids with

solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

considering fluids at rest as a special case of motion with zero

velocity.

to

automobiles, airplanes, and spacecraft propulsion.

Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics

On a broader scale:

Fluid mechanics plays a major part in the design and analysis of:

aircraft, boats, submarines, rockets, jet engines, wind turbines,

biomedical devices, the cooling of electronic components, and the

transportation of water, crude oil, and natural gas.

It is also considered in the design of buildings, bridges, and even

billboards to make sure that the structures can withstand wind

loading.

Numerous natural phenomena such as the rain cycle, weather

patterns, the rise of ground water to the top of trees, winds, ocean

waves, and currents in large water bodies are also governed by the

principles of fluid mechanics.

What is a Fluid?

A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred to as a fluid.

Distinction between a solid and a fluid is made on the basis of the substances ability to

resist an applied shear (or tangential) stress that tends to change its shape.

whereas

a fluid deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress, no

matter how small.

Properties of Fluids

Any characteristic of a system is called property. Some

familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T,

volume V, and mass m.

Properties are considered to be either

intensive or extensive.

of the mass of a system.

Examples: temperature, pressure, density etc.

Extensive properties are those whose values

depend on the sizeor extentof the system.

Examples:

Total mass, total volume V, total momentum etc.

Criteria to differentiate intensive

and extensive properties

A fluid in a container is characterized by the fluid

properties a, b, c, d and e as shown in fig below.

Which of these properties are intensive

properties?

(A)a & e

(B) b, c & d

(C) a, b, c, d & e

(D) a & b

Continuum

It means to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and

view it as a continuous, homogeneous matter with no

holes.

as point functions and to assume that the properties vary

continually in space with no jump discontinuities.

Properties of Fluids

Density- Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

That is,

Density:

specific volume v, which is defined as volume per

unit mass.

That is,

Specific weight-The weight of a unit volume of a

substance is called specific weight and is expressed

as

density of a substance to the density of some

standard substance at a specified temperature

(usually water at 4C, for which density = 1000

kg/m3). That is,

One litre of a certain fluid weighs 8N. What is

its specific volume?

(a) 2.03 x 10 3 m3/kg

(b) 20.3 x 10 3 m3/kg

(c) 12.3 x 10 3 m3/kg

(d) 1.23 x 10 3 m3/kg

Vapour Pressure

defined as the pressure exerted by its vapour in

phase equilibrium with its liquid at a given

temperature.

How can this water as shown in fig below be boiled

without supplying heat from outside?

Note: Vapor pressure of

water at 30oC

= 0.0419 atm

atmospheric

pressure to

= 0.0419 atm

Cavitation:

Sometimes in liquid-flow systems(such as

pumps, turbines etc)the liquid pressure drop

below the vapour pressure at some locations.

results in unplanned vaporization.

vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away

from the low pressure regions, generating

highly destructive, extremely high-pressure

waves.

Results in drop in performance and even the

erosion of impeller blades of a pump.

Cavitation damage

When is a liquid said to be not in a boiling or

vaporized state?

(a) If the pressure on liquid is equal to its vapour

pressure

(b) If the pressure on liquid is less than its vapour

pressure

(c) If the pressure on liquid is more than its vapour

pressure

(d) Unpredictable

In a water distribution system, the temperature of

water is observed to be as high as 30C. Determine

the minimum pressure allowed in the system to

avoid cavitation

Given: The vapor pressure of water at 30C is 4.25 kPa.

allowed to drop below the vapor (or saturation) pressure at the given

temperature. That is,

Coefficient Of Compressibility()

A fluid contracts when more pressure is applied on it and expands when the pressure acting

on it is reduced.

Coefficient of compressibility represents the change in pressure corresponding to a

fractional change in volume or density of the fluid while the temperature remains

constant.

(v = constant) is infinity.

represents the variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant

pressure.

Surface tension

that small steel needles can float on water

water beads up into small drops on flower petals

The surface of the liquid acts like a stretched elastic

membrane under tension. The pulling force that causes

this tension acts parallel to the surface and is due to the

attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid.

The magnitude of this force per unit length is called

surface tension(s ) and is usually expressed in the unit

N/m.

This effect is also called surface energy and is expressed

in the equivalent unit of N-m/m2or J/m2.

In this case, s represents the stretching work that

needs to be done to increase the surface area of the

liquid by a unit amount.

To determine excess pressure inside a

drop and bubble:

Capillary Effect

tube inserted into the liquid. Such narrow tubes

or confined flow channels are called capillaries.

for the rise of water to the top of tall trees.

Capillary rise of water and the capillary fall of

mercury in a small-diameter glass tube :

Contact angle or wetting angle()

Contact(or wetting) angle , defined as the angle that the tangent to the liquid

surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact.

The curved free surface of a liquid in a capillary tube is called the meniscus.

Contact Angle

If, If,

<90o >90o

then fluid then fluid

wets the does not

surface. wet the

surface.

To Calculate The Magnitude of the Capillary Rise in a

Circular Tube

Proof:

Equating the vertical component of the surface

tension force to the weight gives:

This relation is also valid for non-wetting

liquids (such as mercury in glass) and gives the

capillary drop. In this case cos>90 and thus

cos<0, which makes h negative.

corresponds to a capillary drop.

The fluid will rise in capillary when the capillary

is placed in fluid, if

tube is less than the cohesion between liquid molecules

(b) the adhesion force between molecules of fluid and

tube is more than the cohesion between liquid

molecules

(c) the adhesion force between molecules of fluid and

tube is equal to the cohesion between liquid molecules

(d) cannot say

A 0.6-mm-diameter glass tube is inserted into

mercury at 20C in a cup. Determine the

capillary rise of mercury in the tube.

Note: The surface tension of mercury at 20C is 0.4865 N/m. The contact angle

of mercury with glass is 138.

A 0.6-mm-diameter glass tube is inserted into

water at 20C in a cup. Determine the capillary

rise of water in the tube.

Note: The surface tension of water at 20C is 0.073 N/m. The contact angle of

water with glass is 0.

Viscosity

There is a property that represents the internal resistance of a fluid to

motion or the fluidity, and that property is the viscosity.

The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction is called the

drag force.

To obtain a relation for viscosity:

Consider a fluid layer between two very large parallel plates (or equivalently, two parallel

plates immersed in a large body of a fluid) separated by a distance.

Now a constant parallel force F is applied to

the upper plate while the lower plate is held

fixed.

the upper plate moves continuously under the

influence of this force at a constant velocity V.

In steady laminar flow, the fluid velocity

between the plates varies linearly between 0

and V, and thus the velocity profile and the

velocity gradient are:

plate.

During a differential time interval dt, the sides of

fluid particles along a vertical line MN rotate

through a differential angle d while the upper

plate moves a differential distance da=V dt. The

angular displacement or deformation (or shear

strain) can be expressed as:

Rearranging, the rate of deformation under

the influence of shear stress becomes

fluids the rate of deformation (and thus the

velocity gradient) is directly proportional to the

shear stress ,

These fluids for which the rate of deformation is

proportional to the shear stress are called

Newtonian fluids after Sir Isaac Newton, who

expressed it first in 1687.

and oils are Newtonian fluids.

Newtonian fluids.

In one-dimensional shear flow of Newtonian

fluids, shear stress can be expressed by the

linear relationship:

the coefficient of viscosity or the dynamic

(or absolute) viscosity of the fluid, whose unit is

kg/m s, or equivalently, Ns/m2 (or Pa-s where Pa

is the pressure unit pascal).

A common viscosity unit is poise, which is

equivalent to 0.1 Pa-s (or centipoise, which is

one-hundredth of a poise).

and thus the unit centipoise serves as a useful

reference.

Non-Newtonian fluids:

For non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship

between shear stress and rate of deformation

is not linear, as shown in Fig.

The slope of the curve on the versus du/dy

chart is referred to as the apparent viscosity of

the fluid.

increases with the rate of deformation (such

as solutions with suspended starch or sand)

are referred to as dilatant or shear thickening

fluids,

The slope of the curve on the versus du/dy

chart is referred to as the apparent viscosity of

the fluid.

increases with the rate of deformation (such

as solutions with suspended starch or sand)

are referred to as dilatant or shear thickening

fluids,

Pseudoplastic or shear thinning fluids: The fluid

which becomes less viscous as it is sheared harder,

such as some paints, polymer solutions, and fluids

with suspended particles)

Eg: ketchup, whipped cream, blood, paint, and nail

polish.

Bingham plastics: Some materials can resist a finite

shear stress and thus behave as a solid, but deform

continuously when the shear stress exceeds the yield

stress and thus behave as a fluid.

Eg: toothpaste

Examples of Bingham Plastic

Mayonnaise

Drilling Mud

Tooth Paste

The below diagram is a graph of change in shear

stress with respect to velocity gradient in a fluid.

What is the type of the fluid?

(a) Newtonian fluid

(b) Non-Newtonian fluid

(c) Ideal fluid

(d) Dilatant fluid

Which of the graphs in below diagram represent

Newtonian fluids?

(a) Only C

(b) Only B and C

(c) Only A and D

(d) Only B, C and E

The viscosity of a fluid is to be measured by a viscometer

constructed of two 40-cm-long concentric cylinders. The outer

diameter of the inner cylinder is 12 cm, and the gap between

the two cylinders is 0.15 cm. The inner cylinder is rotated at

300 rpm, and the torque is measured to be 1.8 N-m.

Determine the viscosity of the fluid.

Pressure

unit area.

or a liquid.

quantity.

Which of the arrows in below diagram represent

correct direction of pressure on the body?

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 1 & 3

(d) 4

Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure:-

atmospheric pressure

Gauge

pressure(positive)

Atmospheric pressure

(barometric pressure)

Gauge pressure(negative)

also called vacuum

Pressure less than

atmospheric pressure

Perfect Vacuum

(absolute pressure =0)

Relation between Absolute Pressure

and Gauge Pressure:-

atmospheric pressure

Gauge

pressure(positive)

Atmospheric pressure

(barometric pressure) Hence,

Absolute pressure at a

point

= Atmospheric pressure

Perfect Vacuum + Gauge pressure

(absolute pressure =0)

A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 5.8

psi at a location where the atmospheric pressure

is 14.5 psi. Determine the absolute pressure in

the chamber.

What is the correct formula for absolute pressure?

(a) Pabs = Patm Pgauge

Pgauge

(b) Pabs = Pvacuum Patm

(c) Pabs = Pvacuum + Patm Pabs

Patm

(d) Pabs = Patm+ Pgauge

Perfect Vacuum

(absolute pressure =0)

Pressure at a point

from different directions

(this confirms that pressure is a scalar quantity)

Pressure at a point

To show that the pressure at a point in a fluid has the same magnitude

in all directions:

To prove: P1 = P2 = P3

equilibrium in x and z directions

Variation of pressure in

a fluid at rest

A A

B B

C C

Which of the points in below diagram represent

points of same pressure ?

Variation of pressure in a fluid at

rest

Horizontal direction: Pressure in a fluid at rest does not

change in the horizontal direction. This can be shown

easily by considering a thin horizontal layer of fluid and

doing a force balance in any horizontal direction.

vertical direction in a gravity field. Pressure in a fluid

increases with depth because more fluid rests on

deeper layers, and the effect of this extra weight on a

deeper layer is balanced by an increase in pressure.

Variation of pressure with depth in

a fluid at rest

Consider a rectangular fluid element of height z, length x, and

unit depth (into the page) in equilibrium,

Applying equations of

equilibrium in x and z directions,

we can write:

Find the difference in pressure of air(= 1.2754 kg/m3) in a

room(5m high)between the ceiling and floor?

Solution: Let, Pressure near ceiling =P1

Pressure near floor =P2

We know that

P2 P1 = gh = 1.2754 x 9.81 x 5 = 62.4897 Pa

Percentage difference = (P2 P1)/ P1

= 62.4897x100/105= 0.0625%

Thus we conclude that, for small to moderate distances, the

variation of pressure with height is negligible for gases because of

their low density.

Measurement of Pressure

THE MANOMETER

moderate pressure differences.

one or more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil.

level, heavy fluids such as mercury are used if large

pressure differences are anticipated.

A U-tube manometer

A mercury manometer(= 13,600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to

measure the pressure inside. The difference in the manometer levels

is 15 mm, and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.

(a)Judging from the fig determine if the pressure in the duct is above or

below the atmospheric pressure.

(b)Determine the absolute pressure in

the duct.

The fluid in the manometer (shown in figure) is

ethyl iodide with sp.gr = 1.93. The manometric

fluid height difference is 50 in. What is the gauge

pressure in the tank? What is the absolute pressure

in the tank?

Pascals law

pressure throughout by the same amount. This is called

Pascals law, after Blaise Pascal (16231662).

fluid is proportional to the surface area.

Hydraulic lifts:

The area ratio A2/A1 is called the ideal mechanical advantage of the

hydraulic lift.

Home Work:

Derive a relation for the capillary rise of a liquid

between two large parallel plates a distance t apart

inserted into the liquid vertically. Take the contact

angle to be .

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID STATICS

(i) Normal Force due to pressure

(ii) Weight

There are no shear forces as there is no relative motion between the layers

of the fluid.

bodies and the forces developed by devices like hydraulic presses and car jacks.

The design of many engineering systems such as water dams and liquid

storage tanks requires the determination of the forces acting on the surfaces

using fluid statics.

Hydrostatic force on an inclined

plane:

Here,

C.P. = Center of Pressure

Force on the elemental area dA:

dFP = P dA = (gh )dA

Force on the entire surface area:

FP ( gh)dA

A

A A

A

yA Pressure Force on

an inclined plane

FP ( gy sin ) A ( gh ) A

Where, y Distance of Center of Area(C.A.) from X - axis

To locate the centre of pressure of

an inclined submerged surface:

Let, a surface be submerged in a

liquid inclined at an angle, with the

free surface of the liquid.

= gh

Hence,

Force on the elemental area,

dF = (gh)dA

dM = y dF = y (gh)dA

on the surface about x-axis,

y( gh)dA y( gy sin )dA

A A

Hence, moment of all such forces on the surface about x-axis,

A A

g sin y 2 dA

A

( g sin ) I xx

---------(1)

A

y p Fp y p ( gh ) A

y p ( gy sin ) A ---------(2)

From eq(1) and (2) we have

y p ( gy sin ) A ( g sin ) I xx

( g sin ) I xx I xx I G Ay 2

or , y p

( gy sin ) A yA yA

I G Ay 2 IG

y

yA yA

IG

yp y

yA

where, I G Second moment of area about centroid of the surface

Moment of Area about

Center of Area(IG) :

BUOYANCY AND STABILITY

Buoyancy:-

A fluid exerts an upward force on a body immersed in it. This force that tends

to lift the body is called the buoyant force and is denoted by FB.

An object feels lighter and weighs less in a liquid than it does in air.

Calculation of Buoyant Force

in a liquid of density f parallel to the free

surface, as shown in Fig.

The area of the top (and also bottom) surface of the

plate is A, and its distance to the free surface is s.

P1= f gs, and

P2 = f g(s+h),

Hence, net upward force = P2A P1A

= f g(s+h)A- f gsA

= f g(hA)

= f g(Volume of the body)

= f g(Volume of the displaced fluid)

= weight of the displaced fluid,

Thus, buoyant force acting on the plate is equal

to the weight of the liquid displaced by the

plate. This is known as Archimedes Principle

Hence,

Buoyant force = f gV = weight of the

liquid displaced

Which body experiences greater buoyant force? Both are

made up of same material.

(A) Blue

(B) Green

(C) Both experience equal buoyant force

(D) None of the bodies experience buoyant force

How much is the buoyant force acting on each body? Both

are made up of steel(=7600 kg/m3).

(B) Blue(74.556 N) ; Green(74.556 N)

(C) Blue(9.81 KN) ; Green(98.1 KN)

(D) Blue(9.81 N) ; Green(98.1 N)

Which bodies experience respectively the least and the

greatest buoyant forces in the fig below?

(A) A,B

(B) A,C

(C) A,D

(D) B,D

Which body experiences greater buoyant force? All are

made up of same material but are at different depth.

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) all experience equal buoyant force

Which body experiences greater buoyant force? All are

having same diameter.

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) all experience equal buoyant force

Center of Buoyancy(C.B.) : It is the centroid of the

displaced volume of liquid. Center of

Buoyancy

heavy uniformly heavy

distributed

Liquid Displaced has got same shape in all three cases. Hence

same center of buoyancy.

For which of the bodies shown in fig below, center of

gravity is below center of buoyancy?

(A) A and B

(B) B only

(C) B and C

(D) all

For which of the bodies shown in fig below, center of

gravity and center of buoyancy are same?

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) all

Which body has CB nearest to CG?

A

B

C

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) all

Buoyant force is independent of:

(i) the distance of the body from the free

surface and

(ii)the density of the solid body.

Archimedes Principle: After the Greek mathematician

Archimedes (287212 BC).

It is expressed as:

The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in

a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid

displaced by the body, and it acts upward

through the centroid of the displaced volume.

According to Archimede's principle, if a body is

immersed partially or fully in a fluid then the

buoyancy force is _______ the weight of fluid

displaced by the body.

(a) equal to

(b) less than

(C)more than

(d) unpredictable

Floating bodies

body must be equal to the buoyant force,

which is the weight of the fluid whose volume

is equal to the volume of the submerged

portion of the floating body.

For a floating body:

FB = W

Or, f gVsub = bodygVtotal

A body immersed in a fluid :

(1)Remains at rest at any

point in the fluid when its

density is equal to the

density of the fluid,

its density is greater than

the density of the fluid,

and

and floats when the density of

the body is less than the density

of the fluid

A crane is used to lower weights

into the sea (density 1025 kg/m3)

for an underwater construction

project. Determine the tension in

the rope of the crane due to a

rectangular 0.4-m x 0.4-m x 3-m

concrete block (density 2300

kg/m3) when it is :

(a)suspended in the air and

(b) completely immersed in water.

Stability

gravity low so that car

Low Ground Clearance has better stability.

The fundamental concepts of stability and instability can be easily

understood by ball on the floor analogy.

Stability of Immersed and Floating

Bodies:

Submarine(submerged body)

Ship(Floating Body)

Stability of Immersed Bodies: Eg. Submarine

(i) Stability in the vertical direction: If an immersed neutrally

buoyant body is raised or lowered to a different depth, the body

will remain in equilibrium at that location. Therefore, an

immersed neutrally buoyant body is neutrally stable since it does

not return to its original position after a disturbance.

(ii) Rotational stability of an immersed body:

Depends on the relative locations of the C.G.

of the body and the C.B.

Thus, an

immersed

body is

stable like

Bottom that

Weight Top

heavy shown in

uniformly heavy

distributed Fig.(a)

if the

body is

bottom-

heavy and

hence

point C.G

is directly

below

point C.B.

Stability of Floating Bodies: Eg. Ship

(i) Stability in the vertical direction: If a floating body is raised or

lowered somewhat by a vertical force, the body will return to its

original position as soon as the external effect is removed.

Therefore, a floating body possesses vertical stability.

(ii) Rotational stability of a floating body:

(just like immersed bodies)

GM = Metacentric Height

M = Metacenter.

Metacenter(M)It is the intersection point of

the lines of action of the buoyant force through

the body before and after rotation.

The metacenter may be

considered to be a fixed point for most hull

shapes for small rolling angles up to about 20.

Metacentric Height(GM) - A measure of

stability for floating bodies is the metacentric

height(GM),which is the distance between the

center of gravity G and the metacenter M.

Thus, a floating body with G directly above B is:

GM is positive, and

GM is negative.

To derive expression for

METACENTRIC HEIGHT(GM):

Volume emerged out of Volume submerged in water

water on left side(RPP) on right side(RQQ)

To derive expression for

METACENTRIC HEIGHT(GM):

immersed = zA immersed

= (z+ytan)A

Or, buoyant force

= gzA Or, buoyant force

= g(z+ytan) A

Buoyant force on

Buoyant force each volume element

= gV = gzdA

Buoyant

force = gV

volume element

= g(z+ytan)A

We can write:

Moment of buoyant force

= sum of moment of buoyant force of each volume

element

Before displacement:

(1)

After displacement:

(2)

Subtracting eq(1) from eq(2) we have:

Called

metacentric radius

Called

metacentric height

A uniform, closed cylindrical buoy, 1.5 m high, 1.0 m diameter

and of mass 80 kg is to float with its axis vertical in seawater of

density 1026 kg m3. A body of mass 10 kg is attached to the

centre of the top surface of the buoy. Show that, if the buoy

floats freely, initial instability will occur.

Fluid Kinematics

Fluid kinematics

In fluid dynamics, fluid kinematics is the study of how fluids flow and

how to describe fluid motion.

considering the forces and moments that cause the motion.

Eulerian and Lagrangian

description

Eulerian vs. Lagrangian Description

Leonhard Euler (1707 Joseph Louis Lagrange

1783) (17361813)

material.

Eulerian: Point of reference is stationary.

e.g. Weather balloon (Lagrangian) vs. weather

station on the ground (Eulerian)

Lagrangian description:

learned in high school physics classto follow the path of individual

objects.

thermodynamics class; namely, we follow a mass of fixed identity

This method of describing motion is much more difficult for fluids. Reasons

are:

move around.

interactions between parcels of fluid are not as easy to describe

as are interactions between distinct objects like billiard balls.

(iii) the fluid parcels continually deform as they move in the flow.

Eulerian description:

In the Eulerian description of fluid flow, a finite

volume called a flow domain or control volume

is defined, through which fluid flows in and

out.

and velocity of a mass of fluid particles of fixed

identity. Instead, we define field variables,

functions of space and time, within the control

volume.

Which approach is this, Lagrangian or Eulerian?

For example, the pressure field is a scalar field variable; for

general unsteady three dimensional fluid flow in Cartesian

coordinates,

fashion,

variable,

flow field.

How to determine, the field variables(velocity,

pressure and acceleration) in the flow field?

computed by solving continuity equation

along with Navier Stokes equation(for

viscous flow) or Eulers equation(for inviscid

flow). These equations will be discussed in

Fluid Dynamics

A steady, incompressible, two-dimensional

velocity field is given by

and the magnitude of velocity is in m/s.

A stagnation point is defined as a point in the

flow field where the velocity is identically

zero. Determine if there are any stagnation

points in this flow field and, if so, where?

Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation

Pressures :

Flow visualization

Human mind is designed to rapidly process an

incredible amount of visual information; as

they say, a picture is worth a thousand words.

visualized, both physically (experimentally) and/or

computationally.

Stream lines:

A streamline is a curve that is everywhere tangent

to the instantaneous local velocity vector.

experimentally except in steady flow fields, in

which they are coincident with pathlines and

streaklines.

Equation for a streamline:

Consider an infinitesimal arc length

Thus components of must be proportional

to those of .

Hence equation for a streamline

Which acceleration has a nonzero value in

unsteady flow?

(a) Local acceleration

(b) Convective acceleration

(c) Both local as well as convective acceleration

(d) unpredictable

Find the equation of streamline.

Sol.:

to plot the streamlines.

Streamtube

A streamtube consists of a bundle of streamlines,

much like a communications cable consists of a

bundle of fiber-optic cables.

Since streamlines are everywhere parallel to the local

velocity, fluid cannot cross a streamline by definition.

and cannot cross the boundary of the stream tube.

quantities, defined at a particular instant in time according

to the velocity field at that instant.

change significantly with time.

Pathlines

A pathline is the actual path travelled by an

individual fluid particle over some time period

as shown in fig. below:

Pathlines are the easiest of the flow patterns to

understand.

follow the path of an individual fluid particle as it

moves around in the flow field.

Pathlines can also be calculated numerically for a known

velocity field as shown in equation below:

Streak lines

A streakline is the locus of fluid particles that have

passed sequentially through a prescribed point in

the flow as shown in fig. below:

Streaklines are the most common flow pattern

generated in a physical experiment.

into a flow and introduce a continuous stream

of tracer fluid (dye in a water flow or smoke in

an airflow), the observed pattern is a streakline.

streaklines are identical.

Differences between Streamlines,

Pathlines and Streaklines:

A streamline represents an instantaneous flow

pattern at a given instant in time, while a streakline

and a pathline are flow patterns that have some

age and thus a time history associated with them.

integrated flow pattern. A pathline, on the other

hand, is the time-exposed flow path of an

individual particle over some time period.

Path lines and streak lines are shown in figure below:

Particles P1, P2 , P3, P4, starting from point P at successive times pass along path

lines shown. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at

1, 2, 3 and 4. A line joining these points is the streak line.

Timelines

A timeline is a set of adjacent fluid particles that

were marked at the same (earlier) instant in

time as shown in fig. below:

where the uniformity of a flow (or lack thereof)

is to be examined.

Types of Motion or Deformation

of Fluid Elements:

A fluid element may undergo four fundamental types of motion or

deformation.

These are:

(a)translation,

(b)rotation,

(d)shear strain.

Fundamental types of fluid element

motion or deformation:

translation,

rotation,

shear strain.

Because fluid elements may be in constant motion,

it is preferable in fluid dynamics to describe the

motion and deformation of fluid elements in terms

of rates.

In particular, we discuss

velocity(rate of translation),

angular velocity(rate of rotation),

Linear strain rate(rate of linear strain), and

Shear strain rate(rate of shear strain).

Rate of translation:

Here, the fluid element has moved in the positive horizontal (x) direction; thus u

is positive, while v(and w) are zero.

Rate of rotation(angular velocity)

defined as the average rotation rate of two

initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that

point.

Here,

average rotation angle

=(a +b)/2,

and

velocity in the xy-plane

=d(a +b)/(2dt)

Thus, rate of rotation of fluid element about

point P can be given by:

In 3-dimensions:

Linear strain rate

It is defined as the rate of increase in length

per unit length.

Volumetric strain rate or

bulk strain rate

The rate of increase of volume of a fluid element per unit volume is called

its volumetric strain rate or bulk strain rate.

Shear strain rate

Shear strain rate at a point is defined as half of the rate of decrease of the angle

between two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at the point.

In 3-dimensions:

We can mathematically combine linear strain

rate and shear strain rate into one symmetric

second-order tensor called the strain rate

tensor, as shown below:

For the given velocity field,

find:

Rate of translation,

Rate of rotation,

Vorticity and Rotationality

equal to twice the angular velocity of a fluid particle.

Special cases:

(i) V 0, Flow is irrotational.

(ii)

V 0, Flow is rotational.

Rotational and Irrotational Regions

of Flow

Rotation of fluid elements is associated with wakes, boundary layers, flow

through turbomachinery (fans, turbines, compressors, etc.), and flow with

heat transfer.

Mechanics, Younis A Cengel

those in an irrotational region of the flow do not.

Conservation of Mass Principle

can be expressed as:

during a time interval t is equal to the net change

(increase or decrease) in the total mass within

the control volume during t.

That is,

Conservation of Mass: Continuity

Equation(cartesian coordinates)

Consider an infinitesimal box-shaped control volume aligned with

the axes in Cartesian coordinates as shown in fig.

At the center of

the box we

define the

density as and

the velocity

components as

u, v, and w as

shown.

The center of the right-most face of the box is located a

distance dx/2 from the middle of the box in the x-direction;

the value of u at that point is given by Taylor series

expansion as below:

( u ) dx

u center of right face u (neglecting higher

x 2 order terms)

Similarly,

( u ) dx

u center of left face u

x 2

( v) dy

v center of top face v

y 2

( v) dy

v center of bottomface v

y 2

( w) dz

wcenter of front face w

z 2

( w) dz

wcenter of back face w

z 2

Net mass flow rate into CV:

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz

m

u

x

2

dydz

v

y

dxdz

w

z

dxdy

2

in 2

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz

m

u

x

2

dydz

v

y

dxdz

w

z

dydx

2

out 2

m

(dx)( dy )( dz )

t t

According to Conservation of Mass Principle:

m

m m

in out t

Or,

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz

u dydz

v

dxdz w dxdy

x 2 y 2 z 2

( u ) dx ( v) dy ( w) dz

u dydz v dxdz w dxdy

x 2 y 2 z 2

(dx)( dy )( dz )

t

( u ) ( v) ( w)

Or, dx dydz dy dxdz dz dxdy

x y z

(dx)( dy )( dz )

t

Known as

compressible

form of

( u ) ( v) ( w) continuity

Or, 0 equation in

t x y z cartesian

coordinates

Special cases:

Case 1: Steady Compressible Flow

( u ) ( v) ( w)

0

t x y z

( u ) ( v) ( w)

0

x y z

Case 2: Incompressible Flow

CONSTANT

u v w

0

t x y z

Known as incompressible form of

u v w continuity equation in cartesian

0 coordinates.

x y z

It is this equation which is used in

the entire course of Fluid

Mechanics.

Which of the following fig. represent an impossible flow?

(B)

(A)

(C)

CLASSIFICATION OF FLUID FLOWS

Stream function() , Velocity potential

function(), Circulation and Flow net

defined as:

( x, y ) ( x, y )

u ,v

y x

The continuity equation for simple case of incompressible, two-dimensional flow in the

xy plane in Cartesian coordinates is given by:

u v

or , 0

x y

u v

LHS 0

x y x y y x

RHS

Thus we conclude that velocity components generated by stream function() always

satisfy continuity equation.

The Stream Function in Cylindrical

Coordinates

We simplify the incompressible continuity equation, for two-dimensional planar flow

in the r plane:

r z plane:

Significance of Stream Function () :

is known, we can generate both u and v and we are guaranteed

that the solution satisfies continuity equation.

another is equal to the volume flow rate per unit width between

the two streamlines.

Prove that curves of constant are

streamlines of the flow.

Proof:

( x, y ) cons tan t

or , d ( x, y ) 0

( x, y ) ( x, y )

or , dx dy 0

x y

or ,vdx udy 0

represents equation of

dx dy

or , streamline

u v

Hence proved.

Circulation

closed path in a flow field as shown in fig below: The

symbol used is .

It is given by:

location and is the angle between the velocity vector

and the length dL.

Consider the element 1234 in Fig. above. Starting at 1

and proceeding counter clockwise,

Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area.

i.e.,

Velocity potential function()

gradient of a scalar function called the velocity potential function.

coordinates is given by:

( x, y, z ) ( x, y, z ) ( x, y, z )

u ,v &w

x y z

Prove that streamlines and equipotential lines are

orthogonal to each other.

dx dy

u v

dy v Slope of streamline

dx u

-------------(1)

For a two dimensional flow field, equipotential lines are

given by:

( x, y ) cons tan t

or , d ( x, y ) 0

( x, y ) ( x, y )

or , dx dy 0

x y

or , udx vdy 0 Slope of equipotential

line

dy u

or , --------------(2)

dx v

Multiplying equations(1) and (2) we get

lines are orthogonal to each other.

Fluid Dynamics

of a viscous fluid in a region of the flow in

which net viscous forces are negligible

compared to pressure and/or inertial forces.

a viscous fluid in a region of the flow in which

net viscous forces are significant in addition to

pressure and/or inertial forces.

Euler's equation

Using the Newton's second law of motion the relationship between the velocity and

pressure field for a flow of an inviscid fluid(viscous forces neglected) can be derived. The

resulting equation, in its differential form, is known as Eulers Equation. The equation is

first derived by the scientist Euler.

u u u u p

u v w g x (1)

t x y z x

v v v v p

u v w g y (2)

t x y z y

w w w w p

u v w g z (3)

t x y z z

Forces considered in above equation are surface force(due to pressure ) and

body force(due to weight).

Bernoulli's equation

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between

pressure, velocity, and elevation.

net frictional forces are negligibly small compared to inertial,

gravitational, or pressure forces. Such regions occur outside

of boundary layers and wakes.

Consider the motion of a fluid particle in a flow

field in steady flow

In regions of flow where net frictional forces are

negligible, the significant forces acting in the s-direction

are:

the pressure (acting on both sides) and

the component of the weight of the particle in the

s-direction.

Now, applying Newtons second law in the s-direction

on a particle moving along a streamline gives

Or, -dPdA-gdsdAsin = dsdA(udu/ds)

Or, -dP-gsinds = ds(udu/ds)

Hence, -dP-gdz= udu This is the Euler equation

along the streamline.

-P-gz = (1/2)u2 + Constant

This is the required

P + gz + (1/2)u2 = Constant Bernoullis equation.

Inverted Umbrella

windy day?

Venturimeter, Orificemeter,

Pitot tube and Rotameter

Venturimeter:

measures discharge

through a pipe

Throat

very accurate Converging Diverging

part part

expensive

Connections to manometer

Venturimeter

Applying Bernoullis equation between sections (1) and (2) we have

P1 V12 P2 V22

Z1 Z2

g 2 g g 2 g

Z1 Z 2

P1 V12 P2 V22

P1 P2

g 2 g g 2 g

y

P1 P2 V22 V12 x

- - - - - (1) PA PB

g g 2 g 2 g

A B

According to Pascals Law

PA PB - - - - - - - (2)

But , PA P1 gx - - - - - - - (3)

and , PB P2 gy m gh - - - - - - - (4)

From eq(2), (3) and (4) we have:

P1 gx P2 gy m gh - - - - - - - (5)

P1 g ( y h) P2 gy m gh

or , P1 P2 m gh - gh

or , P1 P2 ( m - ) gh - - - - - - - (6)

From eq(1) and (6) we have:

( m ) gh V22 V12

g 2g 2g

( m ) gh Q 2 1 1

( 2 - 2) Theoretical

g 2 g A 2 A1 Discharge

1/ 2

1 2( m ) gh A1A 2

Q Q 2 m 1 gh

1 1

2 - 2

A 1

2

- A2

2

A 2 A1

Actual Discharge(Qactual):

Qactual Cd Q

Where, Cd = Coefficient of discharge. Its typical value for a Venturimeter is 0.98

Inclined Venturimeter

A1A 2 m

Q 2 1 gh

A 1

2

- A2

2

Orificemeter: Vena

contracta

Orificemeter:

Used for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid flowing

through a pipe.

in concentric with the pipe. This is called orifice.

of the pipe (D), although it may vary from 0.4 to 0.8

times the pipe diameter.

Let

A0 = area of the orifice.

Coefficient of contraction, Cc = A2 / A0

Applying Bernoullis equation between sections

(1) and (2) we have

P1 P2 V22 V12

Z1 Z 2 (1)

g g 2g 2g

in the manometer, we have

P1 P2 m

Z1 Z 2 - 1h - - - - - -(2)

g g

From equations (1) and (2), we have

m

V2 V 2 g - 1h (3)

2

1

By continuity equation, we have

Q = A1 V1 = A2 V2 = (A0Cc)V2 -------(4)

From eq.(3) and (4), we have

2 g m - 1h

V2

2

2

- - - - - -(5)

AC

1 0 c

A1

2 g m - 1h

Q A0Cc - - - - - - - (6)

2

AC

1 0 c

A1

If Cd is the co-efficient of discharge for orifice

meter, which is defined as:

2

A0

1

C d Cc A1

- - - - - - - (7)

2

AC

1 0 c

A1

2 g m - 1h

Q A0Cd

2

A

1 0

A1

Orificemeter:

Actual

Discharge

A0 A1

Q Cd 2 g m - 1h

A1 A0

2 2

that of a venturimeter.

the value varies noticeably at low values of the Reynolds number.

Pitot tube:

Pitot Tubes

Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air.

Pitot tube:

Pitot tube:

point in a pipe or a channel.

the pressure at that point increases due to the

conversion of the kinetic energy into pressure

energy.

glass tube, bent at right angles.

Pitot tube :

Peizometer Pitot-tube

P

Let , h ,

g

P V2

H

g 2g

V2

H h

2g

or,V 2 g ( H h)

or , Vactual CV V

or,Vactual CV 2 g ( H h)

Where, Cv=Coefficient of Pitot-tube

A piezometer and a Pitot tube are tapped into a horizontal water

pipe, as shown in Fig., to measure static and stagnation (static+

dynamic) pressures. For the indicated water column heights,

determine the velocity at the center of the pipe.

Ans:1.53 m/s

Rotameter:

Glass Tube Rotameter is basically a Variable

Area Flow Meter.

area is constant and the flow rate is measured

as a function of the annulus area. This area is

displayed as the position of a Float.

UNITS(I),(II) and (III)

(summarized)

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