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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING DESIGN II

FME 461

PART 5

GO NYANGASI

November 2008

1

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS

THEORY

A THEORY OF FAILURE

APPLICABLE TO DUCTILE

MATERIALS

2

STATEMENT OF THE THEORY

When Yielding occurs in any material

The maximum shear stress at the point

of failure

Equals or exceeds

The maximum shear stress when

yielding occurs

In the tension test specimen.

3

STATEMENT OF THE THEORY

The theory applies to ductile materials only

Because it is based on yielding.

4

THREE-DIMENSIONAL

(TRIAXIAL) STRESS SITUATION.

In the three-dimensional stress situation,

State of stress at a particular location is

fully defined by three principal stresses

1, 2 , 3

5

THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

yx

yz xy

zy

x

zx xz

x

6

TRI-AXIAL STRESS SITUATION

7

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A

LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT

The extreme values of shear stresses , in

each of the three principal planes are then

given by the expressions:

1 2 1 3 2 3

12 , 13 , 23

2 2 2

8

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A

LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT

Expressing the principal stresses in the

order of magnitude and sign

1 2 3

9

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A

LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT

Then the maximum shear stress is given

by

1 3

13

2

10

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A

LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT

THE CASE OF SIMPLE TENSION TEST

WHEN YIELDING OCCURS

The principal stresses are

1 S y , 2 0, 3 0

11

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A

LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT

THE CASE OF SIMPLE TENSION TEST

WHEN YIELDING OCCURS

The maximum shear stress then becomes

1 3 Sy 0 Sy

13 max

2 2 2

12

THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

WHEN YIELDING OCCURS

The maximum shear stress theory of

failure states:

When Yielding occurs in any material

The maximum shear stress at the point

of failure

Equals or exceeds

The maximum shear stress when

yielding occurs

In the tension test specimen.

13

THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

WHEN YIELDING OCCURS

Maximum shear stress is then compared

with the case of simple tension to obtain

1 3 Sy

max

2 2

14

THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

WHEN YIELDING OCCURS

The equation in slide 11 implies that when

yielding occurs in simple tension

Maximum shear stress equals Shear

yield strength of the material

Maximum shear stress equals half the

tensile yield strength

Sy

S sy

2

15

DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM

SHEAR STRESS THEORY

This is derived by adjusting the shear yield

strength of the material with an

appropriate factor of safety

The design equation then becomes:

1 3 S sy Sy

max

2 f .s. 2 * f .s.

16

DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM

SHEAR STRESS THEORY

For plane stress situation, when principal

stresses are of OPPOSITE sign

The maximum shear stress can be

expressed in terms of the plane stress

elements, as shown below

2

x y S sy Sy

max xy

2

2 f .s. 2 * f .s.

17

DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM

SHEAR STRESS THEORY

Design equation in slide 13 employs principal

stresses to determine maximum shear stress at

the location

Design equation in slide 14 employs plane

stress elements to determine maximum shear

stress on the plane

When principal stresses in the plane are of

opposite sign, maximum shear stress at the

location is in the plane

When Principal stresses in the plane are of

same sign, maximum shear stress at the

location is not in the plane

18

APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN

EQUATION

The principal stresses are first determined

by stress analysis.

Such analysis describes the principal

stresses as a function of the load carried,

and the geometry and dimensions of the

machine or structural element.

1 2 3

19

APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN

EQUATION

The maximum shear stress in the design

equation is expressed in terms of the load and

dimensions of the machine or structural

element

Right hand side of design equation is the

design, or allowable shear stress, a function of

the tensile yield strength of the material.

The tensile yield strength of the material is

used because it is more easily determined from

laboratory experiments than shear strength.

20

APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN

EQUATION

The factor of safety is simply a number chosen by the

designer.

The factor of safety together with the tensile yield

strength of the material, gives the working[1] (design,

allowable) stress expected in the machine part.

The solution to the design equation then gives the

minimum dimensions required to avoid failure of the

element by yielding.

Engineering Design, American Society of Mechanical

Engineers (ASME)

21

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