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# UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND

MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING DESIGN II
FME 461
PART 5
GO NYANGASI
November 2008

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS
THEORY

A THEORY OF FAILURE
APPLICABLE TO DUCTILE
MATERIALS

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STATEMENT OF THE THEORY
When Yielding occurs in any material
The maximum shear stress at the point
of failure
Equals or exceeds
The maximum shear stress when
yielding occurs
In the tension test specimen.

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STATEMENT OF THE THEORY
The theory applies to ductile materials only
Because it is based on yielding.

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THREE-DIMENSIONAL
(TRIAXIAL) STRESS SITUATION.
In the three-dimensional stress situation,
State of stress at a particular location is
fully defined by three principal stresses

1, 2 , 3

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THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

yx
yz xy
zy
x
zx xz
x

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TRI-AXIAL STRESS SITUATION

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A
LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT
The extreme values of shear stresses , in
each of the three principal planes are then
given by the expressions:

1 2 1 3 2 3
12 , 13 , 23
2 2 2

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A
LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT
Expressing the principal stresses in the
order of magnitude and sign

1 2 3

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A
LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT
Then the maximum shear stress is given
by

1 3
13
2

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A
LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT
THE CASE OF SIMPLE TENSION TEST
WHEN YIELDING OCCURS
The principal stresses are

1 S y , 2 0, 3 0

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MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS AT A
LOCATION OF THE ELEMENT
THE CASE OF SIMPLE TENSION TEST
WHEN YIELDING OCCURS
The maximum shear stress then becomes

1 3 Sy 0 Sy
13 max
2 2 2

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THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS
WHEN YIELDING OCCURS
The maximum shear stress theory of
failure states:
When Yielding occurs in any material
The maximum shear stress at the point
of failure
Equals or exceeds
The maximum shear stress when
yielding occurs
In the tension test specimen.
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THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS
WHEN YIELDING OCCURS
Maximum shear stress is then compared
with the case of simple tension to obtain

1 3 Sy
max
2 2

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THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS
WHEN YIELDING OCCURS
The equation in slide 11 implies that when
yielding occurs in simple tension
Maximum shear stress equals Shear
yield strength of the material
Maximum shear stress equals half the
tensile yield strength
Sy
S sy
2
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DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM
SHEAR STRESS THEORY
This is derived by adjusting the shear yield
strength of the material with an
appropriate factor of safety
The design equation then becomes:

1 3 S sy Sy
max
2 f .s. 2 * f .s.

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DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM
SHEAR STRESS THEORY
For plane stress situation, when principal
stresses are of OPPOSITE sign
The maximum shear stress can be
expressed in terms of the plane stress
elements, as shown below

2
x y S sy Sy
max xy

2

2 f .s. 2 * f .s.
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DESIGN EQUATION: MAXIMUM
SHEAR STRESS THEORY
Design equation in slide 13 employs principal
stresses to determine maximum shear stress at
the location
Design equation in slide 14 employs plane
stress elements to determine maximum shear
stress on the plane
When principal stresses in the plane are of
opposite sign, maximum shear stress at the
location is in the plane
When Principal stresses in the plane are of
same sign, maximum shear stress at the
location is not in the plane
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APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN
EQUATION
The principal stresses are first determined
by stress analysis.
Such analysis describes the principal
stresses as a function of the load carried,
and the geometry and dimensions of the
machine or structural element.

1 2 3
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APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN
EQUATION
The maximum shear stress in the design
equation is expressed in terms of the load and
dimensions of the machine or structural
element
Right hand side of design equation is the
design, or allowable shear stress, a function of
the tensile yield strength of the material.
The tensile yield strength of the material is
used because it is more easily determined from
laboratory experiments than shear strength.

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APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN
EQUATION
The factor of safety is simply a number chosen by the
designer.
The factor of safety together with the tensile yield
strength of the material, gives the working (design,
allowable) stress expected in the machine part.
The solution to the design equation then gives the
minimum dimensions required to avoid failure of the
element by yielding.

##  Working Stress, page 527,Handbook, Metals

Engineering Design, American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME)

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