BTS Cell Planning

Section One Traffic and Coverage Planning

Presentation Outline
• Customer and Operator Requirements • Cell Planning Process
– Traffic and Coverage Analysis – Nominal Cell Planning (Macrocells)
• • • • • • • • Radio Link Budget Cell Plans, Splitting, Sectorisation Number of Cells Initial Cell Site Positioning Predictions Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Outputs of Frequency Planning Process

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 2

Objectives
• At the end of this course, attendees will:
– Have an appreciation of traffic forecasting, traffic dimensioning and cell planning principles

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Slide 3

Customer and Operator Requirements
Customer
Guaranteed Access

Network Operator
Coverage / Capacity

Choice of Services

BW and Demand

Affordability

Implementation and Maintenance at Low Cost Cell Optimisation
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Quality

Slide 4

Cell Planning Process
System Optimisation Traffic & Coverage Analysis

Nominal Cell Plan Implementation System Design Surveys

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Slide 5

Cell Planning Process
• Traffic and Coverage Analysis
– The purpose of this analysis is to prove there is a need for coverage in an area and to estimate the amount of resources required to meet the customers requirements

• Nominal Cell Plan (NCP)
– A nominal cell plan can be produced from the data compiled in the traffic and coverage analysis. This plan provides the theoretical basis for further planning. Normally the formulation of this plan involves using measurement techniques and radio planning tools.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 6

Cell Planning Process
• Surveys
– Site surveys are carried out for all proposed site locations and will include checks for space, facilities, etc.

• Systems Design
– Once the planning parameters have been adjusted to meet the results of the surveys, the system can be fully designed. This will involve the production of a final cell and equipment plan to meet the coverage and capacity requirements

• Implementation & Optimisation
– After the system has been installed, it is continuously monitored to ensure that it meets the demand

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 7

Traffic Coverage and Analysis
• Analysis produces information about geographical area and expected traffic demand • Information includes:
– – – – – – Capacity Coverage Grade-of-service Available frequencies Speech quality System growth capability

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 8

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
• Geographical distribution of traffic demand can be calculated from data such as:
– – – – – – Population distribution Transport infrastructure and usage Income level distribution Land usage data Telephone usage statistics Subscription and call charges and the price of MSs – Type of MSs subscribers use

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Slide 9

Intended Depth of Penetration
In-Car Portable In-Building

Areas and Mobile Types Coverage

Sea

Oil Refinery Train
Slide 10

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Traffic and Coverage Analysis
• Intended Depth of Penetration
– On-street at start-up – In-building coverage in subsequent roll-out years or from day 1 e.g. Orange, UK. The radio engineer must know when the operator intends to introduce in-building coverage.
• The provision of superior quality communications in-building requires a very dense network at start-up. In urban areas, sites can be as close as 1.5 - 2 km • Usually operators rely on into-building coverage with the BTS deployed outside and coverage being provided inside. This approach requires the availability of a good on-street propagation model for prediction outside and penetration loss figures for different buildings e.g. glass frontage buildings in business areas such as Sharq, buildings in residential areas such as Qurain, Yarmouk, Khaldiya and Faiha.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 11

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
• Intended Depth of Penetration
• Some buildings are considered to be very important and will require the deployment of within-building transmitters e.g. microcell or picocell. Usually this deployment requires a preliminary survey. For example, Holiday Inn in Farwaniya, MTC building in Shuwaikh. • The choice of in-building coverage will also determine which mobile classes are supported e.g. 0.8W handportable or 2W mobiles.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 12

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
– Train station platform, airports, sea ports and oil refineries coverage in subsequent roll-out years.
• For underground train station platforms, the deployment of a single base station is not enough. Usually special techniques such as leaky feeders are used. • Sea ports are usually covered with low base antenna sites to prevent interference across the sea e.g. a site in Doha which is mounted at a high elevation, can still provide coverage to the Arabian Gulf road in Sharq. Therefore it must be of a low height. • In oil refineries and petrochemical plants, there are considerable and sometimes severe restrictions on where base stations can be placed for very good reasons. Therefore site positioning in these areas must be done carefully.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 13

Traffic Coverage and Analysis

Coverage may be provided in Sharq, Dasman and all areas within the first ring road from year 1

Coverage may be provided in Farwaniya, Khaldiya, Cordoba in year 2
Slide 14

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Traffic and Coverage Analysis
• Intended Geographical Extent
– Phase 1 may be the provision of coverage:
• in the business areas e.g. Sharq, Dasman and other areas within the First Ring Road. Operators will usually begin with good coverage in business and urban districts e.g. Orange UK in the M25 orbital. • in some important residential areas based upon the income levels of the inhabitants e.g. Yarmouk, Khaldiya, Faiha, Mishrif

– Phase 2 may be the provision of coverage:
• along important highways and in other dense residential areas where a large proportion of subscribers will be expected to be e.g. Jabriya, and Salmiya, Salwa, on the outskirts of the main city e.g. Andalous, Firdous, Abu Halifa • in areas where there is an inadequacy of PSTN service and mobile traffic will be expected to be higher e.g. Qurain

– Phase 3 may be the provision of coverage:
• Along the desert roads, in the oil refineries, in sea ports

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 15

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
• Intended Market Penetration and Service Provision
– Based upon estimated population in different regions and through market surveys, the determination of the number of subscribers to make the operators business plans feasible. – Intended service at start-up and in subsequent roll-outs
• All operators start out providing speech services only. In subsequent years (year 2 onwards for example), operators introduce short message service and features of GSM phase 1 such as call barring, forwarding. • In subsequent years, operators will provide almost all GSM phase 1 and phase 2 service associated with speech e.g. calling line identification, call waiting, call hold. In subsequent years, support may be made available for bearer services contained in both GSM Phase 1 e.g. transmission of fax and computer data at between 2400 and 9600 bps

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 16

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
– Intended business and private traffic mix
• This helps the radio engineer to quantify the volume of traffic given the number of subscribers and estimated usage for business and consumer users.

– Intended Speech CODEC e.g. full-rate, enhanced full rate or half-rate
• the type of CODEC will also determine the number of RCUs deployed.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 17

Traffic Coverage and Analysis

Measurement of Traffic

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Slide 18

Traffic Units - Erlangs
Unit of Traffic Flow = Erlang
1Erlang = 1 traffic channel (timeslot) in constant use for 1 hour

n. of calls in a period × average duration Traffic flow = overall time e.g. 1× 90 Erlang/Subscriber = = 0.025 3600

Total Erlangs = no. of subs. × Erlangs per subs
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 19

Traffic and Coverage Analysis
– 1 subscriber subscriber does not use 1 Erlang. Instead users have a % of an Erlang allocated to them which depends upon the average call length. – The formula for calculating the number of Erlangs for a subscriber is given as:
C × td T

A=

– where A = traffic flow, C = number of calls in a period, td = average duration of one call and T = overall time. – In Kuwait, we usually set A = 0.060 Erlangs per subscriber. Assuming that we have C = 2 calls per hour, this means that the average call duration is 108 seconds.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 20

The Busy Hour
120 100
Traffic

80 60 40 20 0
1 3 5 7 9 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 5 7 9 1 3
Hours

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Slide 21

The Busy Hour
– The uninterrupted period of 60 minutes during which the traffic is maximum is known as the busy hour and is generally used as the basis for traffic calculations. – The busy hour may vary on different days with variations of three kinds:
• Long-term growth or decline of traffic • Cyclical variations, weekly or seasonal • Random variations due to unpredictable factors affecting general level of demand in a cell on a particular day

– Shorter peaks can occur in special circumstances e.g. natural disasters; system design however does not normally account for all such eventualities – In MTC Kuwait there are two significant busy hour periods - 12pm-1pm and 6pm-7pm

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 22

Grade of Service
• Equipment Provision
– If just sufficient equipment were provided to carry the average traffic flow, an unacceptably high proportion of calls would encounter blocking. – Increasing the equipment beyond a certain limit would not produce any significant improvement in service.

• The grade-of-service is the probability that when a call request is made, all channels are in use.
– Typically operators use 2% grade-of-service – The Erlang B model is used

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Slide 23

Erlang B Model
• Model Assumptions
– There are no reserved traffic channels – The number of users is greater than the number of channels – Call requests arrive randomly (Poisson distribution) – Blocked calls are lost (not held in a queue) – Blocked calls abandon the attempt immediately I.e. subscribers do not re-attempt the call when blocked.

• The Erlang B model has been converted into a lookup table for ease of use.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 24

Extract from Erlang B Table

Select the Grade-ofService Determine number of timeslots Determine Offered Traffic (2.8767 Erlangs)
Slide 25

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Offered and Carried Traffic
e.g. 7 Channels with a Grade of Service = 2% Erlang B Tables) A = 2.9354 Therefore Blocked Traffic Carried Traffic Erlangs = 2.9354 x 0.02 = 0.0587 Erlangs = 2.9354 x (1 – 0.02) = 2.8767 If Offered traffic = A Blocked traffic = A x Grade of Service Carried Traffic = A x (1 – Grade of Service) (from

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 26

Channel Utilisation
If Grade of service Carried Traffic Channel Utilisation 7 = 0.41 ≡ 41% If Grade of Service Carried Traffic = 5% = 3.5509 Erlangs = 2% = 2.8767 Erlangs = 2.8767

Channel Utilisation= 3.5509 7 = 0.51 ≡ 51%
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 27

Cell Resource Requirements
Cell 1: Area = 2km2 Subscribers = 1000 A = 0.025 Erlangs / subscriber Total Erlangs required = No subscribers x Erlangs per subscriber = 1000 x 0.025 = 25 Erlangs From Erlang B table @ 2% Blocking – 34 TFC + 2 Timeslots for Control (BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH) Therefore 36 timeslots total

= 5 Transceivers
Cell 2: Area = 2km2 Subscribers = 500 Total Erlangs required = 500 x 0.025 = 12.5 Erlangs From Erlang B table @ 2% Blocking – 20 TFC +2 Timeslots for Control (BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH) Therefore 22 timeslots total

= 3 Transceivers
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 28

Cell Resource Requirements
A = 0.025 Erlangs / Subscriber

2 x Cells: Area = 4km2

Subscribers = 1500

otal Erlangs required = No. of Subscribers x Erlangs per subscrib = 1500 x 0.025 = 37.5 Erlangs From Erlang B table @ 2% Blocking – 48 TFC ∴ EACH CELL SUPPORTS 24 Traffic Channels + 2 Timeslots for Control (BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH) 26 timeslot total = 4 Transceivers / Cell
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Slide 29

Cell Resource Requirements - Frequency Driven
Area = 4 km2 1500 No ARFCN’s per cell = 2 A = 0.025 Erlangs / subscriber

Subscribers =

Total Erlangs required = No subscribers x Erlangs per subscriber = 1500 x 0.025 = 37.5 Erlangs From Erlang B table @ 2% Blocking – 48 TFC Traffic Channels / cell = (16 – 2 Control Timeslots) = 14 TFC No of Cells = Total No TFC No of TFC/Cell = 48 14 = 3.43 Cells

Total = 4 Cells, 8 Transceivers
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 30

Traffic Forecasting
• The determination of traffic forecasts for a GSM/ETACS network is undertaken using two approaches:
– Market Research At Startup
• At network startup, traffic estimates in terms of number of subscribers is obtained by conducting a market survey. • Samples are taken of the number of people who would make use of mobile telephone services given pricing levels for the mobile phone, line rental and call charges. Initial penetration figures in most countries are usually between 5% and 10%. • Based upon penetration and total population figures, the total subscriber demand which must be supported by a network is determined. In Kuwait, with an estimated population of 2 million and 5% penetration, an initial startup demand will be 100,000 subscribers.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 31

Traffic Forecasting

Given the total subscriber figure, an Erlang density map can be created based upon clutter weighting

Business Area 30 % Industrial 5 % Tourist 20 % Residential 50 %

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Slide 32

Traffic Forecasting
• Traffic Measurements From the Mobile Switching Centre
– For advanced operators such as MTC, traffic measurements in terms of number of Erlangs per cell are available from the MSC on an hourly basis. – The number of milliErlangs per customer can be estimated by considering the percentage of successful calls as recorded by the MSC and the maximum number of Erlangs recorded during the busy hour. – Traffic estimates are therefore made by considering:
• Current average number of Erlangs per site • Measured annual growth rates • Projected number of milliErlangs per subscriber

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 33

Traffic Forecasting
• In MTC’s present position, traffic forecasting will be based upon traffic measurements. • Traffic forecasting is concluded by assigning proportions of the total number of subscribers to the major roads such as the First-Seventh Ring Roads and the different regions. • Given a traffic demand figure of 200K subscribers, district traffic demand may be estimated as shown in the table on the next page.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 34

Traffic Forecasting
Re g io n C u r re n t Av e ra g e E rla n g s
1500 100 100 1000 60 200 800 800 800 100 1500 1500

C u r re n t S h a r e Ne w E s tim a te s o f T o ta l T ra ffico f E rla n g s fo r 200 K subs.
19.58 % 1.31% 1.31% 13.05 % 0.78% 2.61% 10.44 % 10.44 % 10.44 % 1.31% 19.58 % 19.58 % 2 349.6 1 57. 1 57.2 1 566 9 3.6 3 13.2 1 252.8 1 252.8 1 252.8 1 57.2 2 349.6 2 349.6

C entral K uwait Yarm ouk Q ortoba Q urain A hm a di Jahra A z Zawr S alm iya Hawali Jabriya F ourth Ring Rd. F ifth Ring Rd.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 35

Traffic Forecasting
• The objective of traffic planning is to determine the number of DRCU’s required for each cell for a given spectrum allocation, grade-of-service and traffic demand. • From every BTS in the network, the maximum number of erlangs can be measured on a weekly basis. It should be noted that the maximum should be selected and not the average over the week since in resort area such as AlZawr, there is virtually no traffic throughout the week with traffic peaks over the weekend. • To establish traffic growth rates, regression line analysis should be done fitting the number of measured erlangs to the number of weeks. • Utilising the projected figures, realistic estimates can then be made of traffic demand for 3 months, 6 months and indeed 1 year in advance.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 36

Traffic Forecasting

Erlangs

Projected Erlangs for Future 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1

2

10

Weekly traffic estimates Weeks
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Slide 37

Control Channels
• Each cell must support BCCH, CCCH and SDCCH in order that signalling and synchronisation data can be transferred between the BTS and the MSs • One complete control message takes four consecutive bursts
– Combined into 1 multiframe – Non-combined in which case 2 separate multiframes exist on different timeslots

• BCCH in GSM is always on timeslot 0 of one transceiver • Configuration of other control channels (CCCH and SDCCH) is up to the system vendor

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Slide 38

Control Channel Configurations
COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAME
TIMESLOT 0 1 × BCCH message 3 × CCCH messages 4 × DCCH messages

NON-COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAMES
TIMESLOT 0 1 × BCCH message + 9 CCCH messages ANY REMAINING TIMESLOT (e.g. T/S 1) 8 × DCCH messages
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Slide 39

Calculating CCCH Requirements
Total Required CCCH = PCH + AGCH One CCCH block is transmitted every 51 frame multiframe, of duration 235.65 ms. The message capacity of each CCCH block is therefore 4.25 messages per second.

PAGING BLOCKS
Paging channel capability must be the same for all cells within a location area. TYPE 1 – Page 2 MS’s using either IMSI or TMSI TYPE 2 – Page 3 MS’s : 1 MS using either IMSI or TMSI 2 MS’s using TMSI TYPE 3 – Page a maximum of 4 MS’s using TMSI Paging Capability = (No. of MS paged per message × No. of Messages per second)

e.g. Using TYPE 3 paging request messages

Paging rate

= 4 × 4.25 = 17 MS pages/sec
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Slide 40

Mobile Paging Rate
Mobile Paging Rate = Location Call Rate × Number of Pages Per Call × % MS Terminated calls
e.g. Subscribers in a Loc. Area Traffic Flow Average Call Duration No. of pages per call % Calls MS Terminated Type of paging message Total Loc. Area Traffic

= 30,000 = 0.025 Erlangs / Subscriber = 90 seconds =2 = 25% = TMSI = 30,000 × 0.025 = 750 Erlangs = 750 / 90 = 8.333 calls per second = 8.33 × 2 × 0.25 = 4.2 MS pages / second = 4.2 / 17 = 0.25 Slide 41

Loc. Area Call Rate Mobile Paging Rate No. of CCCH blocks

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Access Granting
No. of CCCH Blocks = Total Access Grant Events One CCCH Block access granting capability
e.g. Cells Traffic capacity Traffic Flow Ratio Loc. Updates – Calls Ratio SMS – Calls Ratio Supp. Service – Calls Ratio IMSI detach – Calls Cell Call Rate Loc. Updates SMS messages Supp. Services IMSI Detaches TOTAL Total Access Grant Events in Busy Hour No. of CCCH blocks = 37.5 Erlangs = 0.025 Erlangs / Subscriber = 2.2 = 0.2 = 0.3 = 0.2 = 37.5 / 0.025 = 1,500 Calls / Busy Hour = 1,500 × = 1,500 × = 1,500 × = 1,500 × 2.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 = 3,300 = 300 = 450 = 300 = 4,350 ⇒ 1.63/sec ⇒ 0.19 Slide 42

= 1,500 + 4,350 = 5,850 / Hour = 1.63 / 8.5

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SDCCH
• Call set-up – probability of SDCCH blocking will be less than that for traffic channels • Location updating – automatic & periodically • IMSI attach/detach • SMS point to point messages • Supplementary Services COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAME
1 BCCH + 3 CCCH messages 4 SDCCH messages

NON-COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAMES
1 × BCCH message + 9 CCCH messages Any Timeslot(s): 8 × SDCCH messages

COMBINATIONS OF CONTROL MULTI-FRAMES
COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAME SDCCH NON-COMBINED CONTROL MULTI-FRAME CBCH replaces 1 × SDCCH message
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

(T/S 0) (T/S 1)

SMS CELL BROADCAST

Slide 43

Calculating SDCCH Traffic Flow
Traffic Flow = No. of Calls × Duration Time e.g. Cells Traffic capacity Traffic flow Ratio Loc. Updates –Calls Ratio SMS – Calls Duration of Call Set-up Duration of Loc. Set-up Duration of SMS Cell Call Rate Loc. Updates SMS messages Call Set-up Loc. Updates SMS messages TOTAL Erlangs SDCCH Traffic Flow = Σ (No. of SDCCH Calls × Duration) Time = 37.5 Erlangs = 0.025 Erlangs/Subscriber = 2.2 = 0.2 = 3 seconds = 4 seconds = 6 seconds = 37.5 / 0.25 = 1,500 × 2.2 = 1,500 × 0.2 = 1,500 × 3 = 3,300 × 4 = 300 × 6 = 19,500 / 3600 = 1,500 Calls/Busy Hour = 3,300 = 300 = 4,500 = 13,200 = 1,800 = 19,500 = 5.4167

No. of SDCCH Channels @ 1% = 12
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 44

Control Channels Dimensioning
• The control channel (BCCH, CCCH and SDCCH) dimensioning is usually done entirely by the systems vendor (Motorola or Nokia) • MTC however can dimension traffic
– For GSM systems, the channel to carrier mapping used by Motorola gives an indication of the number of carriers of available Traffic TCH Timeslotsin channels Number of Carriers Number to be deployed or the 1 6 (1 BCCH + 1 SDCCH) cell. 2 14 (1 BCCH + 1 SDCCH)
3 4 5 22 (1 BCCH + 1 SDCCH) 29 (1 BCCH + 2 SDCCH) 37 (1 BCCH + 2 SDCCH)

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Slide 45

Traffic And Coverage Analysis

Coverage Criteria

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Slide 46

Coverage Reliability
Coverage reliability must be specified for:
– on-street in urban, dense-urban, rural and business districts e.g. 95% – in-car in urban, dense-urban, rural and business districts e.g. 94% – in-building in urban, dense-urban, sub-urban and business e.g. 90%

• Link budget calculations for both uplink and downlink enable the determination of the required signal levels at the mobile to guarantee the selected coverage criteria
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Slide 47

Cell Planning Process

Nominal Cell Plan

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Slide 48

Nominal Cell Planning
• The nominal cell planning process involves the creation of a plan of base station structures/cells modelled on a cellular grid. • Key factors in designing an NCP are:
– – – – – – Location of cell sites Antenna parameters Base station output power Propagation models Cellular grids adopted Channel distribution and group allocation

Coverage Criteria
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Slide 49

NCP Inputs
• Input Information
– Defined service areas and roll-out plans
• e.g. intending to cover First Ring Road, Second Ring Road, Fahaheel Expressway • e.g. provision of in-building coverage

– Handportable and mobile role – Projection of number of customers and approximate geographical location – System usage per customer in the busy hour
• obtaining the number of milliErlangs per subscriber

– Acceptable grade of service (blocking)
• e.g. 2% excluding blocking on the PSTN

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 50

NCP Inputs
• Input Information
– Quality of service for each region
• e.g.. -70dBm for 95% on street locations in Sharq • e.g. -75 dBm for 90% in-building locations in Yarmouk

– Available Spectrum
• e.g. for MTC, 15 MHz from 900 MHz

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Slide 51

NCP - Network Planning Tools

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Slide 52

NCP Design Methodology
• Determine radio link budget
– Calculate the maximum pathloss for different mobile units – Calculate required level of service.

• Use radio propagation models to determine the maximum cell radius for different terrain environments within the service area from coverage point-of-view. • Evaluate traffic projections to determine the optimum number of cells to support the number of subscribers. • Based upon the figure obtained from coverage and traffic determine cell radius for both coverage and capacity.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 53

NCP Design Methodology
• Establish initial radio site locations and a cellular grid. • Perform network wide propagation predictions and statistical coverage analysis. • Re-evaluate traffic performance and consider the suitability of the initial cellular structure. • Evaluate growth plans and cell split requirements for each site • Define cell reuse strategy and undertake initial frequency planning • Optimise frequency plan

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 54

Radio Link Budget
Parameter
Standard deviation of received signal on-street Standard deviation of received signal in-building Standard deviation of received signal in-car Urban in-building penetration loss Sub-urban and rural in-building penetration loss In car penetration loss Tri-sector base station antenna Type Gain Beamwidth Mobile station antenna Type Gain Transmitter Feeder Loss Transmitter Combiner Loss Receiver Sensitivity Body Loss Diversity Gain Mobile Output Power Nominal Transmitter Power

Example Value
7 dB 7dB, overall std. 9.9 dB 3 dB, overall std 7.6 dB 15 dB 10 dB 5 dB 60 degree sector 18 dBi 65° H/ 6.5°V Omni -2dBi - 2dB 2.5 dB -102 dBm (mobile end) -107 dBm (base end) 3 dB 3 dB 0.8 W 44 dBm (25 W)

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Slide 55

Radio Link Budget
On-street Coverage @ 95 % Area probability Downlink Uplink Transmitter TX Peak Power (A) Combiner Loss (B) Feeder Loss (C) TX Antenna Gain (D) Body Loss (E) TX EIRP (F) Receiver Receiver Sensitivity (G) Diversity Gain (H) RX Antenna Gain (J) Body Loss (K) Feeder Loss (L) Penetration Loss Overall std Deviation Fading Margin, n=3.314 (M) Isotropic Required RX Signal Level (N) Maximum Pathloss (P) 43 dBm -4.5 dB -2.5 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 54 dBm -102 dBm 0 dB -2dBi 3 dB 0 dB 0 dB 7 dB 7.4 dB -89.6 dBm 143.6 dB 29 dBm 0 dB 0 dB -2 dBi 3 dB 24 dBm -107 dBm 4 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 2.5 dB 0 dB 7 dB 7.4 dB -119.1 dBm 143.1 dB In-car coverage @ 94 % Area probability Downlink Uplink 43dBm -4.5 dB -2.5 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 54 dBm -102 dBm 0 dB -2 dBi 3 dB 0 dB 5 dB 7.6 dB 7.5 dB -84.5 dBm 138.5 dB 29 dBm 0 dB 0 dB -2 dB 3 dB 24 dBm -107 dBm 4 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 2.5 dB 5 dB 7.6 dB 7.5 dB -114 dBm 138 dB Urban In-building Coverage @ 90% Area Probability Downlink Uplink 43 dBm -4.5 dB -2.5 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 54 dBm -102 dBm 0 dB -2dBi 3 dB 0 dB 15 dB 9.9 dB 7.8 dB -74.2 dBm 128.2 dB 29 dBm 0 0 -2dBi 3 dB 24 dBm -107 dBm 4 dB 18 dBi 0 dB 2.5 dB 15 dB 9.9 dB 7.8 dB -103.7 dBm 127.7 dB

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Slide 56

Radio Link Budget Calculations
• Procedure:
– Calculate the EiRP for the uplink
• F=A+B+C+D

– Calculate the expected isotropic received signal level for uplink:
• N=G-H-J+K+L+N+M

– Calculate the maximum pathloss as perceived in the uplink
• P=F-N

– Calculate the expected isotropic received signal level for the downlink
• N=G-H-J+K+L+N+M

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 57

Radio Link Budget Calculations
• Procedure:
– Calculate the required downlink EIRP
• F = P+N

– Calculate the required downlink transmitter power
• A=F-B-C-D

– Select the most appropriate transmitter level as supplied by the manufacturer – Reproduce link budget table using the readily available transmitter and BTS antenna.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 58

Radio Link Budget Calculations
• Note:
– Overall in-building and in-car standard deviation are calculated as:
• in-building

σ
• in-car

= σ2 +σ2 overall on − street in − building

σ

= σ2 +σ2 overall on − street in − building

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 59

Cell Link Balancing
– Both up- and downlinks must be balanced to exclude the possibility of having regions where the base is able to provide coverage, but the mobile cannot transmit sufficient power in the uplink or detect sufficient signal in the downlink. An example is when a subscriber connected to the PSTN cannot clearly hear what the mobile user is saying but the mobile user can hear what is being said on the PSTN. – Since the uplink is usually the limiting link, cell balancing usually requires the adjustment of BTS transmit power or the selection of different antenna type.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 60

Cell Link Balancing
– Signal enhancing techniques such as antenna diversity, increased receiver sensitivity and masthead amplifiers are also used at the base station to improve the uplink.

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Slide 61

Co- and Adjacent Channel Interference
– To achieve high network capacity and high quality interference free service, a relatively high carrier-to-interference ratio is required. – Theoretical predictions indicate that a C/I margin of 9 dB is suitable for acceptable speech quality. – In a practical network, operators should design systems for no less than 15 dB over 90% of locations !

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 62

Co- and Adjacent Channel Interference
– This will provide a margin of 6 dB, accommodating errors in prediction model, the non-regular reuse in a practical network and guaranteeing good speech quality. – Simulation results have shown that the combined use of frequency hopping, power control, DTX and diversity will produce 7-9 dB overall improvement in C/I mainly in the uplink. The improvement in the downlink is smaller at 3-5 dB (excluding diversity).

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 63

C/I Cumulative Distribution A C
1 0.9 0.8

A C

80% of calls must have a C/I better than C/I80 where C/I80 =9 dB

Probability

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
-10 0 10

C A

C/I (dB)
20 30 40 50
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 64

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
• Reuse Patterns
– In cellular, frequencies are reused to maximise traffic handling capability of a network with limited frequency allocation. – Cell plans can be based upon
• 7/7 i.e. seven cell repeat with omni-directional base stations • 7/21 i.e. seven cell repeat with each site divided into three sectors served by three directional antennas • 4/4 i.e. four site repeat with omni-directional base stations • 4/12 i.e. four site repeat with tri-sector cell base stations (also called 4/3) • 3/3 i.e. three site repeat with omni-directional base stations • 3/9 i.e. three site repeat with tri-sector cell base stations (also called 3/3)

– The appropriate cell reuse pattern must be selected to match the traffic and co-channel interference requirements.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 65

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
Omni cell site

Cell Site

Tri-sector cell site

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 66

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
7 Site Repeat, Omni-cells (Also called 7/7)
7 2 7 6 5 5 1 4 6 5 2 3 7 1 4
Slide 67

6 5

1 4 2 3

3

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

4/12 Cell Reuse
Group Channels
A1 1 13 B1 2 14 C1 3 15 D1 4 16 A2 5 17 B2 6 18 C2 7 19 D2 8 20 A3 9 21 B3 10 22 C3 11 23 D3 12 24

A 2

3A A1 D 2

A C 2 2 3C 3A 3C C1 A1 C1 B D B 2 B 2 3D 2 1B 3D 1 D1 B3 D1 B3 A C A C 2 2 2 2 A 3A 3C 3 3C A1 C1 A1 C1 D D B B 2 2 2 2 3D 1B 3D 1B D1 D1 B3 B3 A C 2 2 A 3 3C A1 C1 D B 2 2 3D 1B D1 B3
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

C 2

Slide 68

12 Cell Reuse Pattern
Group Channels
A 1 13 B 2 14 C 3 15 D 4 16 E 5 17 F 6 18 G 7 19 H 8 20 I 9 21 J 10 22 K 11 23 L 12 24

K A J
5

E I B L C G D

Channels Available 1 -24

F H

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 69

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
• Traditional analog systems such as ETACS and TACS employ the 7/21 reuse pattern for control channels and the 4/12 reuse pattern for voice channels. • GSM systems employ 3/9 and 4/12 depending upon the spectrum allocation.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 70

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
– With a 7/21 reuse pattern, the total spectrum allocation must be divided into 21 groups – With a 4/12 reuse pattern, the total spectrum allocation must be divided into 12 groups – With a 3/9 reuse pattern, the total spectrum allocation must be divided into 9 groups

• The smaller the reuse pattern the higher the capacity the system can support e.g. 3/9 can support a higher capacity than the 7/21. However, the lower the available co-channel interference margin e.g. 7/21 provides a C/I in excess of 20 dB for 90% of locations compared to 10-11 dB for 90% of locations for 3/9.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 71

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
• Cell are split i.e. reduced in coverage area, to increase the traffic handling capability of the system • Usually smaller cells of radius between 1.5 km and 2km are deployed in urban areas where traffic demand is higher • In sub-urban areas, cell sizes typically range between 3km and 7km. • In rural and desert areas, cell sizes range between 7km and 10-12 km. • GSM has a maximum limit of 35 km radius on cell size.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 72

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation
• Cell splitting can be carried out using any one of two methods:
– Face splitting: In face splitting, the original cell area is divided into four equal parts, and the new cell radius after splitting is half the original size. – Corner splitting: In corner splitting, the original cell area is divided into three equal parts and the new cell radius after splitting is sqrt(3) x original cell radius.

• The corner splitting method is most commonly used since it results in fewer cells overall.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 73

Cell Plans, Splitting and Sectorisation

corner

Corner Splitting The new hexagon has an area 1/3rd of the original hexagon size

Face Splitting The new hexagon has an area 1/4th of the original hexagon size

face

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 74

Concentric Cells / IUO
Over-Laid Macro Cell BCCH Carrier Under-Laid Mini Cell

2 Traffic

1 Call Set-Up

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 75

Tighter Frequency Reuse
Macro Layer – 4 Site 3 Cell Re-Use
Group Channels
A1 1 B1 2 C1 3 D1 4 A2 5 B2 6 C2 7 D2 8 A3 9 B3 10 C3 11 D3 12

A 2

3A A1 D 2

3C C1 B D 2 1B 3 D1 B3

C 2

Underlay Layer – 2 Site 3 Sector Re-Use
Group Channels
A1 1 B1 2 A2 5 B2 6 A3 9 B3 10

A 2

3A A1

C 2 D 2

3C C1

3D D1

B 2

1B B3

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 76

Number of Cells
• The number of cells to deploy to cover the service area is governed by two factors:
– Size of the coverage area – Traffic Demand

• The number of cells required to support the expected traffic demand may exceed the number of cells required for coverage and vice versa. • The systems designer must therefore calculate the expected number utilising both approaches and then select the higher value.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 77

Number of Cells (Example)
• Given the following input parameters:
– Frequency spectrum of 15 MHz i.e. 75 GSM carriers – 4/12 frequency reuse pattern and therefore 12 carrier groups – A system loading of 66-75% at roll-out – A grade-of-service of 2% blocking – Erlang B traffic model – An Erlang per subscriber figure of 0.06 – A uniformly distributed subscriber base of 100,000 – and the GSM carriers to traffic channel mapping shown in the table

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 78

Number of Cells (Example)
N u m b e r o f C a r r ie Nsu m b e r o f G S M F uO ffe r e d E r la n g O ffe r e d fu ll-r a te r lls o r D R C U ’s R a te T r a ffic C h a n na tls % b lo c k in gs u b s c r ib e r s e 2 1 6 2 .2 8 38 2 14 8 .2 0 37 3 21 1 4 .0 4 234 4 29 2 1 .0 4 351 5 36 2 7 .3 4 456 6 43 3 3 .7 6 563 7 51 4 1 .1 9 686 8 58 4 7 .7 6 796

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 79

Number of Cells
• then the required number of cells to satisfy traffic can be calculated as follows:
– With 75 carriers available, between 6 and 7 carriers can be used in each cell in a 4/12 reuse pattern. – Assuming a maximum of 6 with 66% loading, a total of 4 carriers (or DRCUs) can be used. – From the carrier to channel mapping table, 4 carriers will give 29 traffic channels. – 29 traffic channels will support a total of 21.04 Erlangs at a blocking probability of 2%.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 80

Number of Cells
– Therefore, assuming an Erlang per subscriber figure of 0.06, the number of subscribers which can be supported in each cell on average is 351. – With a uniformly distributed traffic load of 100,000 subscribers, the network will require 100,000/351 = 285 cells or 95 sites.

• Thus the total number of sites required for traffic purposes is 95.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 81

Number of Cells
• The number of cells required from a coverage area point of view can be determined as follows:
– Having calculated the minimum acceptable signal level (e.g. -88 dBm) and the required BTS transmit power to provide communications from the link budget, the expected cell area can be determined in different environments. – For example, Sharq which is a business district area will require a cell size smaller than Ahmadi or Manqaf which are low residential areas.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 82

Number of Cells
– The cell area is determined using a planning tool such as ARTEMIS or PlaNET by arbitrarily positioning up to five sites in the intended service area, calculating the average coverage area from a site at the threshold of -88 dBm. The traditional method of calculating cell sizes for individual clutter types using the propagation model is not valid since clutter is not necessarily homogeneous throughout cell area and because mapping data used today may consist of up to 25 categories some of which will have very small coverage.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 83

Number of Cells
– Assuming tri-sectors, the theoretical area from a site is given as:
3 3 2 R 8

– thus the number of sites required = total area for service / site area. – The figure obtained from this analysis should be compared with the result obtained for traffic demand. The higher of the two values should be selected. – The expected cell radius can be determined from the site area which is determined as:
• site area = total service area / number of sites
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 84

Initial Cell Site Positioning
Cellular radio networks are often shown as a regular pattern of hexagons with sites nicely ordered along hexagonal clutter patterns. This is very seldom the case in reality where reluctant landlords or indeed the terrain limit the choice of site positions. Also sites will usually be placed in important areas for coverage reasons and where a lot of traffic is expected such as main road junctions, shopping centres and industrial areas.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 85

Initial Cell Site Positioning
Some of the guidelines for cell placement include:
– A regular grid structure should be maintained as far as possible in order to control interference. – Site roll out should commence from the urban areas where the smaller sizes will be deployed and gradually move towards the sub-urban and residential areas where larger sizes will be deployed. – At the transition between cells in urban areas and cells in suburban areas, a cell size mid-way between the both sizes should be used to further improve interference. For example, in making the transition from Sharq to Mansouriya, cell size change should be gradual to keep interference low.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 86

Initial Cell Site Positioning
• For coverage around highways or linear towns where continuous area coverage is not required, then cells with two sectors can be used as illustrated.

Two sector sites along a major road
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 87

Initial Cell Site Positioning
• Coverage in some isolated population centres or in mountainous regions may be easily covered by an omni site instead of a sectored site since the increase in range offered by sectored sites with directional antennas will only result in additional unpopulated areas being covered. An example is the Ab-daly area. Using sectored sites will cost more per site but will not result in fewer sites being used.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 88

Initial Cell Site Positioning
• Antenna heights above sea level should be kept constant as far as possible i.e. Antennas on relatively high terrain locations such as Ahmadi should be lower compared to antenna heights used in South Sabahiya or Al Zawr. • Stretched out cells should be avoided e.g. MTC Site 103 which has considerable coverage across the sea to the Arabian Gulf causes considerable interference in Sharq.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 89

Predictions and Statistical Analysis
– After the deployment of cells, it is necessary to predict signal level from each of the sites. – Most radio planning tools enable the prediction of signal strength (or pathloss) over a circular area surrounding the site.

– To examine the effects of coverage and interference, each site should be predicted over at least a 40 km radius within cities e.g. Sharq, Yarmouk and over at least 50 km area in rural and open areas such as Ahmadi

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 90

Traffic Planning
• Traffic Planning is the next stage after sites have been positioned • The objective of traffic planning is to determine the number of DRCU’s required for each cell for a given spectrum allocation, grade-of-service and traffic demand. • An Erlang density map will have been created either from marketing survey data for new networks or from live data imported from the OMC
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 91

Traffic Planning
– The traffic spreading process also requires the use of clutter ratios. Clutter ratios enable the systems engineer to weight traffic demand assignment in urban areas differently from that assigned to open areas or desert areas. It therefore introduces a nonuniform distribution of traffic which is more realistic than uniform spreading. – The clutter ratio for Urban and Business District areas will be expected to be at least 8 times as high as the factor for Mixed Barren Land areas. Similarly, to prevent spreading of traffic to sea regions, the clutter weighting for sea, ocean, streams and canals should be set to 0.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 92

Traffic Planning
– Traffic planning also involves moving traffic from one cell to another through cell antenna re-orientation in order to reduce the loading on a cell. – In order to allow for anticipated expansion of the network, it is customary not to permit any one of the cells to have the maximum configuration of DRCUs allowed. For example, in the present MTC GSM system, each cell can accommodate a maximum of between 6 and 7 DRCUs. If system plans permit the deployment of this maximum figure at any of the sites, then any growth in traffic may result in congestion from day 1 and an immediate need to introduce another un-planned site ! – Traffic loading during planning should not exceed 90% of the maximum load carrying capability.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 93

Frequency Assignment and Planning
– The objective of frequency planning is to assign carrier to cells in such a way as to ensure that the co-channel and adjacent interference levels are kept below an acceptable threshold for good communications. – The traditional way to allocate frequencies is to divide the available spectrum into frequency groups. For example, MTC has access to 15 MHz of spectrum for its GSM system yielding a total of 75 channels. These have been divided into 12 groups (because of the use of a 4/12 pattern) thus giving approximately 6-7 carriers per group.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 94

Frequency Assignment and Planning
– Groups are usually designated A1, A2, A3 ..... D1, D2 and D3. The carriers in group A1 are at least 12 channels apart from each other e.g. channels 51 and 63; similarly the channels in group A2 are also spaced apart by 12 channels e.g. 55 and 67. Groups with the same alphabetic code such as A1, A2 and A3 have a channel separation of 4. Since these are always co-sited, this guarantees that little adjacent channel interference will occur.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 95

Frequency Assignment and Planning
Groups A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 D1 D2 D3
C3

Frequency Carriers 51 63 55 67 59 71 52 64 56 68 60 72 53 65 57 69 61 73 54 66 58 70 62 74

75 79 83 76 80 84 77 81 85 78 82 86

87 91 95 88 92 96 89 93 97 90 94 98

99 103 107 100 104 108 101 105 109 102 106 110

111 115 119 112 116 120 113 117 121 114 118 122

123 124

50

q

q

The channel numbering scheme is the same as that used for GSM. Note that grouping is carried out by assigning channels in numerical order to groups in the sequence A1, B1, C1, D1, A2, B2, C2, D2, A3, B3, C3, D3. The choice of A, B, C and D arises because the pattern is a 4 site repeat pattern. The choice of 1, 2 and 3 arises because there are three cells per site.
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 96

Frequency Assignment and Planning
• The 4 site / 3 cell repeat pattern guarantees just over 12 dB C/I (cochannel) in 90% of locations. • Two methods can be employed in the assignment of groups or carriers to the cells:
– Manual or traditional frequency planning – Automatic frequency planning

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 97

Frequency Assignment and Planning
– With manual frequency planning, the assignment of carriers is done through a row and column approach whilst maintain a regular reuse. The systems engineer will be aided by the radio planning tool which will produce co-channel and adjacent channel interference maps. Advantage can be taken of the interference blocking of hills and mountains as well as the antenna front-to-back ratio. – The frequency plan would also be expected to take into account all carrier exceptions such as may occur at the border of the country e.g. at the Kuwait-Saudi border, or such as may occur due to other types of equipment in the area e.g. data link transmissions in Sharq area.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 98

Frequency Assignment and Planning
– Automatic frequency planning carries out assignment automatically without user intervention, provided a complete set of inputs are supplied:
• • • • • • • • • Anticipated neighbours list Allocated frequency spectrum Minimum channel spacing between cells at a site Minimum channel spacing within a cell Minimum channel spacing between a cell and its neighbour Carrier exceptions at each cell Number of required carriers for a cell (from traffic analysis) Available frequency spectrum Acceptable co-channel and adjacent channel interference thresholds

– Automatic frequency planning does not make use of frequency groups. Instead carriers are assigned on an individual basis.

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 99

Outputs of the Planning Process
• The outputs of the radio planning process, which form part of management reports, include the following information:
– Summary roll-out coverage and subscriber distribution for each year
• This will include:
– – – – – – – Areas covered in each phase e.g. Sharq, Yarmouk Percentage of total covered area in each phase Percentage population in each phase Overall number of sites in each phase Overall number of cells for each phase Overall number of transceivers required for each phase Overall number of subscribers supported from each phase
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 100

Outputs of the Planning Process
• An example from a GSM network planned for the Northern region of Taiwan R o ll-O u t C o v e re d P e rc e n ta g eP o p u la tio n N u m b e r o f N u m b e r o f N u m b e r o f
Phase A re a Year 1 o f to ta l c o v e re d a re a T a ip e i c ity , 3 2 % C h ilu n g c ity , T a ip e i c o u n ty , T a o Y u a n c o u n ty W h o le o f 1 0 0 % N o rth e rn R e g io n W h o le o f 1 0 0 % N o rth e rn R e g io n p e rc e n ta g es ite s tra n s c e iv e rss u b s c rib e rs 83% 198 1388 2 2 5 ,0 0 0

Year 3

100%

254

1761

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

Year 5

100%

321

2290

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 101

Outputs of the Planning Process
• The outputs of the planning process which also form part of management reports include:
– Detailed statistics on a city-by-city basis showing
• • • • • • • • Number of subscribers Number of sites Number of cells Number of transceivers On-street coverage area probability In-building area probability On-street C/I performance In-building C/I performance
© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 102

Outputs of the Planning Process
• An example from a GSM network planned for the Northern region of Taiwan
County/City Taipei City Taipei County Chilung City Tao-Yuan County Number of Subscribers 105,750 88,650 10,125 20,475 Number of Sites 88 80 10 20 Number of cells 264 230 27 57 Number of transceivers 663 532 62 131 On-street coverage 100% 97% 97% 97% C/I 15 dB 91% 87% 98% 94%

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 103

Outputs of the Planning Process
• Information which will be passed to the installation team on a site-by-site basis for system roll-out includes the following:
• • • • • • • • • • Site Identification Code and name, if applicable Number of sectors Coordinates - easting and northing or latitude and longitude City or county area Antenna height Antenna tilt Antenna orientation Allocated frequency groups Allocated frequency carriers BCCH carrier

© 2001 Freshfield Communications Limited. Company Confidential

Slide 104

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