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WHAT ARE ARGUMENTS?

STATEMENTS where a claims supports another claim.


PREMISES. Supporting claims.

CONCLUSION. Supported claim.

PREMISES supports the CONCLUSION.


EXAMPLE

Since I am 18 years old and legally eligible to drink in


Italy because the official website for Italian tourism
states that all persons 18 or older are legally allowed
to drink alcoholic beverages in Italy; therefore, I am
allowed to drink while in Italy for my college trip.
PREMISES?

CONCLUSION?
PREMISES MARKERS
SINCE THE REASON IS THAT
BECAUSE FOR THE REASON THAT
FOR MAY BE INFERRED FROM
AS MAY BE DERIVED FROM
FOLLOWS FROM MAY BE DEDUCED FROM
AS SHOWN BY IN VIEW OF THE FACT
INASMUCH AS THAT
AS INDICATED BY
CONCLUSION MARKERS
THEREFORE WE MAY INFER
HENCE I CONCLUDE THAT
THUS WHICH SHOWS THAT
SO WHICH MEANS THAT
ACCORDINGLY WHICH ENTAILS THAT
IN CONSEQUENCE WHICH IMPLIES THAT
CONSEQUENTLY WHICH ALLOWS US TO
PROVES THAT INFER
AS A RESULT POINT TO THE
IT FOLLOWS THAT CONCLUSION THAT
DEDUCTIVE REASONING

ASSUMES all other reasons and factors are equal.


ASSUMES other reasons and factors are not relevant

to the conclusion.
Premises are TRUE and NECESSARY for the truth of the

conclusion.
RULES OF DEDUCTIVE INFERENCE.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING (ex. 1.)
(premise)Sexist practices are wrong,
(premise)Sexist practices are those that treat

males and females differently in a way that has


nothing to do with reproductive potential,
(premise)Use of male-dominated language is sexist

(sub-premise) Why? It treats men and women

differently by linguistically referring to a woman as


man.
Conclusion. Therefore, the use of male-dominated
language is wrong.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING

Instruction. Rewrite the above-mentioned example


as a short paragraph.
Where did you write the conclusion? First sentence

or the last sentence?


Did you use the keywords for premises and

conclusion?
Discuss the flow of your reasoning.
LIMITATIONS OF DEDUCTIVE REASONING

Requires careful choice of words and phrases.


Requires more research.

Requires more than Common Sense.

Requires mastery of the rules of Valid Deductive

Inference.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING-
NORMATIVE ARGUMENT

PREMISES
FACTS

VALUE

CONCLUSION---VALUE JUDGMENT
TYPES OF NORMATIVE ARGUMENTS

MORAL
ETHICAL

LEGAL

AESTHETIC
MORAL vs ETHICAL
POINT OF MORALITY ETHICAL
COMPARISON
Definition Morals are the beliefs Ethics are the guiding
of the individual or principles which help
group as to what is the individual or group
right or wrong. to decide what is good
or bad

What is it? Response to a specific General Principles set


situation by a group

Deals with Principles of right and Right and wrong


wrong conduct
Choose one and rewrite into a
paragraph.
Example no. 2:
(Factual premise)Easy availability of handguns contributes to many
accidental or unnecessary deaths,
(Factual Premise)It is impossible for adults totally to prevent
unauthorized access to guns, especially from minors,
(Moral Premise)We should prevent accidental and unnecessary
deaths.
(Ethical Premise)Restricting the use of guns to those who have a
documented need to carry them would reduce the number of deaths.
(Conclusion)Therefore, we should restrict the use of guns to those
who have a documented need to carry them.
Choose one and rewrite into a
paragraph.

Example no. 3:
(Legal premise)The best interest of the child

determines child custody.


(Factual Premise)The proposed custody plan is in the

best interest of the client's child.


(Conclusion)Therefore, the court should adopt our

child custody plan.


Choose one and rewrite into a
paragraph.
Example no. 4:
(Aesthetic Criterion/premise) Primary determinant of good music is whether
it has continued to be positively appreciated over a long period by numerous
people.
(Aesthetic Criterion/premise) A commonly accepted determinant of the merit
of the music is whether the music has been consistently praised by experts in
the field.
(Factual premise) Music experts consistently praised the songs of Lennon
and McCartney.
(Factual premise) Numerous music fans have consistently found a positive
aesthetic experience in listening to their songs.
(Conclusion) Therefore, the music of John Lennon and McCartney is of
superior quality.
INDUCTIVE REASONING
If all premises are true, the conclusion may not necessarily
follow from these premises.
The truth and acceptability of the relevant premises does
not force the truth of the conclusion.
Deductive Rules of Inference does not apply.
While Deductive Reasoning extends Norms or Principles to
a particular example, Inductive Reasoning tries to discover
the rule from particular examples.
While Deductive Reasoning assumes that all other
premises(factors, causes, and reasons) are equal or
irrelevant, Inductive Reasoning recognizes other premises
that can point to a different conclusion.
INDUCTIVE REASONING

REWRITE FIGURE NO. 4 INTO A PARAGRAPH


REASONING BY ANALOGY

Arguments by analogy draw a conclusion about one


thing on the basis of a comparison of that thing and
another.
Rules of Deductive Inference does not apply.

The analogue is the factual premise which explains

or clarifies the primary subject.


The primary subject is premise which the argument

tries to explain or clarify.


Avoid False Analogy
Faulty or False Analogy which is the fallacy where
the argument assumes that two things are alike in
all respects despite important differences and/or
irrelevant similarities.
Do not compare apples and oranges.
REASONING BY ANALOGY

REWRITE FIGURE NO. 2 INTO A PARAGRAPH


PRACTICE! PRACTICE!

Rewrite your outline of supporting details into


paragraphs. For each Supporting Proposition, write a
paragraph with supporting details.
Evaluating Arguments

Read the assigned article and evaluate it with the


given criteria sheet.