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# Lecture

Industrial Costing

SS 2016/2017

## Prof. Dr. Olga Popova, OVGU

Prof. Dr. Jrg Jablinski, OWL
Smtliche Folien sind urheberrechtlich geschtzt und drfen nur zum internen
Gebrauch an der Hochschule OWL verwendet werden. Eine Weitergabe an Dritte, egal
in welcher Form, oder eine Vervielfltigung wird untersagt.

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Chapter 5

## Cost center accounting (Part 2)

2
Structure of the cost allocation sheet
with the direct method

3
Example: Internal cost allocation with direct method

## Sum Service cost center Main cost center

R E M P1 P2 Admin. Distrib.
Reparation
1.600 h 50 h 200 h 850 h 450 h 30h 20 h
(hours)
Electricity 600.000 35.000 20.000 350.000 150.000 25.000 20.000

(kWh) kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh

## Primary overhead costs of the service cost center reparation: 64.680,-

Primary overhead costs of the service cost center electricity: 53.937,-

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Determination of the cost rates for internal cost allocation
The direct method doesnt take the provided services from the service cost center
reparation (50 hours) for the service cost center electricity and the provided services from
electricity (35.000 kWh) to reparation into account. Due to that fact the provided services
have to be subtracted from the primary overhead cost of each service cost center.

64.680,
Cost rate reparation : cR = = 41,73 h
1.600 h 50 h

53.937,
Cost rate electricity: cR = = 0,095 kWh
600.000 kWh 35.000 kWh

In the internal cost allocation the primary overhead cost of the two service cost center
reparation (R) and electricity (S), which are the part of the provided services for the main
cost center, can be shifted to the main cost center with the two cos rates. After the
internal cost allocation the service cost center can be described as empty and dont

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Distribution of the service cost center
with the direct method
Service cost center Main cost center

R E M P1 P2 Admin. Distrib.

Primary
overhead 2.182.000,- 64.680,- 53.937,- 101.372,- 827.998,- 426.310,- 455.460,- 252.243,-
costs
Assemble -64.680,- 8.346,- 35.470,- 18.778,- 1.252,- 834,-

## - (200 h x (850 h x (450 h x (30 h x (20 h x

Reparation
41,73 /h) 41,73 /h) 41,73 /h) 41,73 /h) 41,73 /h)
Assemble -53.937,- 1.909,- 33.412,- 14.320,- 2.387,- 1.909,-
(350.000 (150.000
(20.000 kWh (25.000 kWh (20.000 kWh
electricity - kWh kWh
X X X
X X
0,095
0,095 /kWh)0,095 /kWh)0,095 /kWh)0,095 /kWh)
/kWh)
2.182.000,- 0,- 0,- 111.627,- 896.880,- 459.408,- 459.099,- 254.986,-
costs

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Structure of cost allocation sheet

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Example: Internal cost allocation with the step-ladder method

Distribution of the service cost center costs with the step-ladder method

Service cost
Sum Main cost center
center
R E M P1 P2 Admin. Distrib.
Reparation
1.600 h 50 h 200 h 850 h 450 h 30h 20 h
(hours)

## Electricity 600.000 35.000 20.000 350.000 150.000 25.000 20.000

(kWh) kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh

## Primary overhead costs of the service cost center reparation: 64.680,-

Primary overhead costs of the service cost center electricity: 53.937,-
Premise: in the first instance the service cost center reparation is charged. No return debit
is charged.

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Determination of the cost rates for internal cost allocation

64.680,
Cost rate reparation : cR = = 40,43 h
1.600 h

The numerator of the service cost center electricity changes. The secondary costs of the
service cost center reparation with the amount of 2.021,- (50 h x 40, 43 /h) are charged in
the service cost center electricity. The 35.000 kWh which are provided by the service cost
center electricity for the service cost center reparation are not taken into account for the
denominator, due to the fact that upstream cost center are not considered. By allocating the
565.000 kWh with the main cost center the cost rate increases.

53.937, + 2.021,
Cost rate elecricity: cS = 600.000 kWh 35.000 kWh = 0,099 kWh

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Distribution of the service cost center costs
Service cost center Main cost center
R E M P1 P2 Admin. Distrib.
Primary
2.182. 000,- 64.680,- 53.937,- 101.372,- 827.998,- 426.310,- 455.460,- 252.243,-
Assemble - 64.680,- 2.021,- 8.085,- 34.361,- 18.191,- 1.21,-3 809,-
reparation
(50 h x (200 h x (850 h x (450 h x (30 h x (20 h x
40,43 /h) 40,43 /h) 40,43 /h) 40,43 /h) 40,43 /h) 40,43 /h)
Intermediate
53.937 ,- +
cut
2.021,- =
55.958,-
Assemble - 55.958,- 1.981,- 34.664,- 14.856,- 2.476,- 1.981,-

## electricty (20.000 (350.000 (150.000 (25.000 (20.000

kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh
x x x x x
0,099 0,099 0,099 0,099 0,099
/kWh) /kWh) /kWh) /kWh) /kWh)
2.182. 000,- 0,- 0,- 111.438,- 897.023,- 459.357,- 459.149,- 255.033,-
costs

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System of emitting and receiving cost center

C1 x 1.2 c1 C2
Cost center 1 Cost center 2
x 2.1 c2

x 3.1 c3 x 3.2 c3
x 1.3 c1 x 2.3 c2

Cost center 3

C3

## Cj: Primary cost of cost center j

cj: Cost per unit of the cost center j
xj: Quantity ouput of cost ceter j
xi,j: Quantity oupt of cost center i at the cost center j
i= 1n: Index of the emitting cost center
j= 1n: Index of the receiving cost center

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System of equations
Input in EUR = Output in EUR
Primary costs of the considered cost center+ = Total capacity of the
secondary cost of the other cost center considered cost center
C1 + x 1,1 c1 + x 2,1 c2 + ... + x n,1 cn = x1 c1
C2 + x 1,2 c1 + x 2,2 c2 + ... + x n,2 cn = x2 c2
C3 + x 1,3 c1 + x 2,3 c2 + ... + x n,3 cn = x3 c3
. . . . .
. . . . .
Cn + x 1,n c1 + x 2,n c2 + ... + x n,n cn = xn cn

## Example: Internal cost allocation with the equation method

Sum Service cost center Main cost center
R E M P1 P2 Admiin. Distrib.
Reparation
1.600 h 50 h 200 h 850 h 450 h 30 h 20 h
(hours)
Electricity 600.000 35.000 20.000 350.000 150.000 25.000 20.000

(kWh) kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh

## Primary overhead costs of the service cost center reparation: 64.680,-

Primary overhead costs of the service cost center electricity: 53.937,-

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System of the emitting and receiving service cost center

## 64.680,- Service cost center 50 h

Service cost center 53.937,-
for reparation 35.000 kWh for electricity

## to all main service cost centers

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1. Step: Setting up the equation
The service cost center reparation delivered and received something from the service cost
center electricity. Therefore it is necessary to set up an input- and an output- equation for
both. The input of the service cost center reparation is defined by the primary cost
(64.680,- ) and the secondary cost of the service cost center electricity. 35.000 KWh were
delivered to the reparation. The output of the reparation amounts 1.600 hours.

## Service cost center reparation: 64.680,- + 35.000 cE = 1.600 cR

The primary cost of the service cost center electricity amounts 53.937,- an in
addition plus 50 hours of reparation, which were not converted to Euro. The output
is evaluated with 600.000 KWh.

## Service cost center electricity : 53.937,- + 50 cR = 600.000 cE

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2. Step: Transforming the equation 1:
cR = 40,425 + 21,875 cE

## 3. Step: Inserting into equation 2:

53.937,- + [50 (40,425 + 21,875 cE)] = 600.000 cE
53.937,- + 2.021,25 + 1.093,75 cE = 600.000 kE
55.958,25 = 598.906,25 cE
cE = 0,093434 /kWh

## 4. Step: Inserting into equation 1:

64.680,- + 35.000 kWh 0,093434 /kWh = 1.600 cR
1.600 cR = 67.952,- cR = 42,469 /h

## Solving the system of equations leads to the following results:

Cost rate reparation: cR = 42,469 /h
Cost rate electricity: cE = 0,093434 /kWh

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Solution for the example:
Internal cost allocation with the equation method
Service cost center Main cost center
R E M P1 P2 Admin. Distrib.
Primary
overhead 2.182.000,- 64.680,- 53.937,- 101.372,- 827.998,- 426.310,- 455.460,- 252.243,-
costs
Intermediate
64.680,- +
cut
3.270,- =
67.950,-
Assemble -67.950 ,- 2.123,- 8.494,- 36.099,- 19.111,- 1.274,- 849,-
(50 h x (200 h x (850 h x (450 h x (30 h x (20 h x
Reparation
42,469 /h) 42,469 /h) 42,469 /h) 42,469 /h) 42,469 /h) 42,469 /h)
ntermediate
53.937,- +
cut
2.123,- =
56.060,-
Assemble 3.270,- -56.060,- 1.869,- 32.702,- 14.015,- 2.335,- 1.869 , -
(35.000 (20.000 (350.000 (20.000 (20.000 (20.000
electricity kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh
X X X X X X
0,0934 0,0934 0,0934 0,0934 0,0934 0,0934
/kWh) /kWh) /kWh) /kWh) /kWh) /kWh)
2.182.000,- 0,- 0,- 111.735,- 896.799,- 459.436,- 459.069,- 254.961,-
costs

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The production costs of the production and the production
costs of the sales can be determined by the following way: