# Question 1

we have all been exposed to manipulative and we understand they are important in the classroom. As a future teacher. . future teachers and students of mathematics education. it was important to understand these objects and their ability to bridge the gap between abstract concepts and concrete representations for students. Therefore.As former primary/elementary students.

can build models to understand three dimensional figures. etc. play with geometrical shapes to form other shapes. For example. spinners or even paper that is cut or folded. .    In math classrooms today. hands-on approach. Students can use objects as counters. Physical manipulative materials can be almost anything such as blocks. These physical manipulative materials are any concrete objects that allow students to explore an idea in an active. teachers are using physical manipulative to help students learn mathematics. shapes.

Geo Strips Base Ten Blocks Fraction Kit Geometric Blocks Manipulative Kit Counters .

thus the student be able to visualize abstract mathematical ideas to get better understanding. I. so that they can move and adapt the materials as they explore possible solutions to problems. II. Student might using physical models to represent their thinking. Manipulative materials can also be tools to help students to solve abstract mathematical problem.Physical manipulative materials help student connect mathematical idea and symbol to physical object. . III.

I. Some educators may use highly colorful and attractive manipulative in the hopes they will engage students and hold their focus. the opposite effect may occur. Children are likely to ´focus more on the manipulative as objects rather than on the relation of the objects to a concept or an alternate form of expressionµ . II. Students may learn to use manipulative in a rote manner. However. learning the steps to use them but making no connections between the manipulative themselves and mathematic concepts. the manipulative is almost useless. Thus.

373). This is also true regarding manipulative.   In the every present growth of technology in our world. though they are not ´physicalµ. Therefore students are not able to physically pick up virtual manipulative but student still can still move the objects on the computer screen and interact with them. 2002. p. web-based representations of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing mathematical knowledgeµ (Moyer. as virtual manipulative are now available. Virtual manipulative can be defined as ´interactive. nothing goes unaffected. . Virtual manipulative are still concrete. Bolyard & Spikell.

or true virtual manipulative. . allow the students to move. which no interaction is permitted for students. Dynamic.   Virtual manipulative can be both static and dynamic. or those which are simply ´virtualµ. change and work with objects on the screen to build an understanding of the concept presented. however. count. Static manipulative. other forms of representation.

Virtual manipulative allow for changing the arrangement or representation. II. Computer based manipulative record and replay students' actions. These manipulative allow students to see mean and relationships based on the results of their actions. Virtual manipulative / Computer based manipulative can store and later retrieve configurations. III. The biggest advantage of virtual manipulative is their interactive capabilities. . IV.Effectiveness of using virtual manipulative materials I.

experimentation. Learners can resize some or all manipulative for exploration. such as in Space Blocks. Students can even attach figures together. Computer based manipulative focus attention and increase motivation. . We can use computer graphics to demonstrate what we want students to internalize. or better understanding. Computer manipulative build scaffolding for problem solving or build scaffolding by assisting students in getting started on a solution. VI. Software has allowed us to do things that we can·t do with physical manipulative.Effectiveness of using virtual manipulative materials V. VII.

Another IX. helping both the struggling student and parents who would normally not have access to such tools. great value for virtual manipulative is their availability and free expense. Teachers will be able to send home homework with manipulative that may be of assistance for students if they know they will have access to the materials at home. Often physical manipulative can be expensive and many teachers may not be able to afford access to many varieties of manipulative. . These manipulative can be made available at home.Effectiveness of using virtual manipulative materials VIII. X.

They viewed them as separate activities.Effectiveness of using virtual manipulative materials  Students using physical manipulative didn·t always connect activities with what they wrote on paper. Computer groups linked the base 10 block activities to the symbols. .

placed where they can supervise and assist children. .Thus. more interested.As a conclusion . and less frustrated when an adult is present . ´«adults play a significant role in successful computer use. teachers may wish to make the computer one of many choices. Children are more attentive.

Used in groups. can foster Normally used individually. Time consuming Require computer or internet access. Don·t require computers or internet access. discourse. Virtual manipulative materials Pictorial Less ´naturalµ to manipulate. Less time consuming .Physical manipulative materials Concrete More ´naturalµ to manipulate.

1997. improve mathematical understanding and problem-solving skills .´Studies show that a combination of physical and virtual manipulative is more effective than either alone. Activities in which children first move their bodies.µ . 1998). and then use commands to direct an onscreen turtle to make the same motions. walking around a shape on the floor. for instance. (Clements & Samara.

Question 2 .

   Calculator and computer are tools which if used rightly can support and encourage children·s mathematical thinking. These do not replace the need to learn basic facts. computational procedures and algebraic manipulation skills. The use of calculator and also computer allow students to focus on the problem solving techniques and provides increased motivation towards the study . .

he/she will not be stimulated or challenged enough in their learning. They are used because students are too lazy to complete the answers on their own. .   Calculator and computer are a crutch. they do work for the students Calculator and computer do all the work for the students. The common use of calculators and computers in teaching computation prevents students from effectively learning the basic mathematics they will need when they enter the workforce.