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Social System and

Social System
is a complex set of human relationships
interacting in many ways
Understanding a Social System

A social system is a complex set of

human relationships interacting in many
Within a single organization, the social
system includes all the people in it and
their relationships to one another and to
the outside world.
Why Complex?
1. Behaviour of one affects the behaviour of

2. It is an open system
Social Equilibrium
A system is said to be in social
equilibrium when its interdependent
parts are in dynamic working balance.
Equilibrium is a dynamic concept, not a
static one. Despite constant change and
movement in every organization, the
systems working balance can still be
Social Equilibrium/Disequilibrium
when there is a
dynamic working When the
balance among its interdependent parts
interdependent parts system are working
against each other
Psychological and Economic
ECONOMIC CONTRACT- where time, talent, energy
are exchanged for wages, hours and reasonable
working conditions.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT the conditions of each
employees psychological involvement-both
contributions and expectations- with the social
The Result of the Psychological Contract &
The Economic Contract Employee:
If expectations are met:
Employee: Job satisfaction
Expected Gains High performance
Intended Psychological Loyalty
Contributions Contract If not:
The opposite

Employer: If expectations are met:
Expected Gains Employee retention
Rewards offered Economic Possible promotion
Contract If not:
Possible separation
Psychological contract builds upon the
concept of exchange theory
Whenever a continuing relationship exists between two
parties, each person regularly examines the rewards
and costs of that interaction. In order to remain
positively attracted to the relationship, both parties
must believe that a net positive ratio (rewards to costs)
exists from their perspective.
Social Culture
Social Culture
An environment of human-created
beliefs, customs, knowledge and
SOCIAL- is the behaviour of people when they
act in accordance with the expectations of
CULTURE-is the conventional behaviour of her
society and it influences all her actions even
though it seldom enters her conscious thoughts
Culture differences
Some of the ways in which culture differ
Patterns of decision making
Respect for authority
Treatment for females
Accepted leadership styles
**Managers must know
Cultural Diversity
Cultural Diversity
Non job related-
Job related- (arise primarily from individuals
(organizationally created) personal background)

Types of work Ethnicity

Rank Culture
Physical proximity to Socioeconomic
one another Sex
Culture Diversity
Differences need to be recognized, acknowledged,
appreciated, and used to collective advantage.

Culture adaptable
Culture dependent
This cultural diversity or rich variety of
differences among people at work, raises the
issue of fair treatment for workers who are
not in positions of authority.
Problems may persist because of a key
difference in this context between
Discrimination And prejudice.
Discrimination is generally exhibited as an
action, whereas prejudice is an attitude.
Either may exist without the other. The law
focuses on an employers actions, not feelings.
If actions lead to what is legally determined
to be results, such actions are unlawful
regardless of the employers alleged good
Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice is a system of negative

beliefs, feelings, and action-
orientations regarding a certain
group or groups of people.

Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice- means prejudgment, and
unjustifiable and usually negative attitude
toward a group--often a different cultural,
ethnic or gender group. It is a mixture of
beliefs (overgeneralized - stereotypes),
emotions (hostility, envy, or fear), and
predispositions to action (to discriminate).

Prejudice and Discrimination
Psychology of Prejudice

The psychology of prejudice examines the

subjective state of individuals, noting three
levels of prejudice:
Some possible causes are self-justification,
personality, and frustration aggression

Prejudice and Discrimination
Psychology of Prejudice
Cognitive- persons beliefs and perceptions of
group as threatening/non-threatening, inferior/
equal, seclusive/intrusive, impulse gratifying,
acquisitive, or possessing positive or negative
Emotional - feelings that a minority group arouses
in an individual
Action-orientation - positive or negative
predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior.

Prejudice and Discrimination
Psychology of Prejudice
Self-Justification- denigrating a person or group to justify
maltreatment of them, leading to prejudice and
discrimination against members of another group
Authoritarian personality - harsh parental discipline,
child tends to be insecure and nurture much latent hostility
against the parent. As an adult, may demonstrate displaced
aggression against a powerless group to compensate for their
feelings of insecurity and fear.
Frustration - result of relative deprivation in which
expectations remain unsatisfied

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Prejudice and Discrimination
Sociology of Prejudice
The sociology of prejudice examines the
objective conditions of society as social forces
behind prejudiced attitudes.
Some possible causes are--
Conformity to social norms

Prejudice and Discrimination

A stereotype is an overcomplicated
generalization by which we attribute certain
traits or characteristics to any person in a
group without regard to individuals
Once established, stereotypes are difficult to
eradicate, as several studies have shown.

Prejudice and Discrimination

Ethnophaulisms are derogatory words or

expressions used to describe racial or ethnic
Ethnic humor is often at the expense of a
particular group, but may also serve to strengthen
group cohesiveness, dissociate oneself from
stereotypes of ones group, or affirm oneself by
pointing out the absurdity of ones predicaments..

Prejudice and Discrimination
Social Prejudice

Greater interaction and education do not

necessarily reduce the level of prejudice in a
Use of cooperative learning technique in a
classroom setting has demonstrated an
effective means of promoting better
intergroup understanding and self-esteem

Prejudice and Discrimination

Discrimination is an action or practice of

differential and unequal treatment of other
groups of people, usually along racial,
religious, or ethnic levels.

Prejudice and Discrimination

Like prejudice, Verbal expression

discrimination also Avoidance
exists at different Exclusion
levels of intensity: Physical abuse

Social Culture Values
Social Culture Values
Work ethics Social Responsibility

Views work as very

important thing in life Is the recognition that
Views work as a desirable organizations have significant
goal influence on the social system
and that influence must be
Likes work and is satisfied
properly considered and
with it
balanced in all organizational
Work Ethics Declination
1. The proportion of 2. The general level of the
employees having work ethic has declined
strong work ethic gradually over many
varies sharply among decades.
sample groups
Work Ethic
The importance of developing
a strong work ethic and how
the work ethic you develop will
impact your future as an
What is Work Ethic?
The Definition:
a standard of conduct
and values for job
for Teachers
What does a
school head
What are the traits of a
winning teacher?
Top 10 Work Ethics
Attendance Productivity

Character Organizational Skills

Team Work Communication

Appearance Cooperation

Attitude Respect
What is a role?
is a pattern of expected actions
It reflects a persons position with its
Rights and obligations
Power and responsibility

Function of Role in Social System:

To anticipate others behaviour

Roles perform by an employee
A leader An adviser A staff person

A Committee A specialist A golfer


A follower A worker A club president

A stockholder A consumer An accountant

A spouse A subordinate A student

A parent A musician And more!!

Things to know
Role Perception
Role Flexibility
Role conflict
Role ambiguity
Importance of mentorship program
Status is social rank!!!
The amount of the recognition, honor, esteem, and
acceptance given to a person

Terms to remember
Status System/hierarchy
Status anxiety
Status deprivation
Status Relationship
(Effect of Status)
High status people
More influential
Received more privileges
More participative in group activities
Interact more
Opportunities for a better role in an organization
Status Symbols
are the visible, external things that attach to a
person or workplace and serve as evidence of
social rank
are most in evidence among different levels of
Typical Symbols of Status
Interior decorations
Location of workplace
Facilities at workplace
Quality and newness of equipment used
Typical Symbols of Status

Type of clothes normally worn

Privileges given
Job title or organizational level
Degree of financial discretion
Organizational membership
Sources of Status
Persons abilities
Job skills
Type of work also
Amount of pay
stock options
What is it?
Organizational Culture
set of shared values and norms that
characterise a particular organization
organizational culture is a set of shared mental
assumptions that guide interpretation and
action in organizations by defining appropriate
behavior for various situations. (Ravasi and
Schultz (2006) )
Importance of OC
Gives an organizational identity to employee
Provides a sense of security to its members
Helps newer employees interpret what goes
on inside the organization
Helps stimulate employees enthusiasm for
their tasks
Characteristics of Cultures
Distinctive Integrated
Stable Accepted
Implicit A reflection of top
Symbolic management
No one type is best Subcultures
Of varying strength
Communicating and Changing Culture
People are generally more willing to adapt and learn
when they want to please others, gain approval and
learn about their new work environment.
Socialization affects employees
Individualization affects the organization
Four Combinations of Socialization and

Conformity Individualism
(Impact of organizational
culture on employee
acceptance of norms)

Isolation Rebellion

Low Individualization High
(Impact of employee on organizational
culture deviation from norms)
Life is a series of natural and spontaneous
changes. Don't resist them; that only creates
sorrow. Let reality be reality. Let things flow
naturally forward in whatever way they like.

Lao Tzu