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Series Capacitor, Shunt Capacitor and Shunt Reactor based Compensation

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SHUNT CAPACITOR

AND SHUNT REACTOR COMPENSATION IN AC

TRANSMISSION LINES

Of

Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

School of Engineering and Technology

Sharda University

Purshottam Singh.

Ram Uday Mandal B.Tech (EEE)

1

B.Tech(EEE) 130104032

130104034

Series Compensation

performance of EHV lines. It consists of capacitors connected in

series with the line at suitable locations.

Advantages of Series Compensation

The power transfer capacity of a line is given by

E.V

P sin

X

V is receiving end voltage

X is reactance of line

is phase angle between E and V

Power transfer without and with compensation:

E.V

P1 sin

XL

E.V

P2 sin

(X L XC )

P2 XL 1 1

P1 ( X L X C ) (1 X C / X L ) 1 K

The economic degree of compensation lies in the range of 40-70%

(K < 1, i.e. 0.4-0.7)

2. Improvement of System Stability

and V, the in the case of series compensated line is less

than that of uncompensated line.

E.V

P sin 1

XL

E.V

P sin 2

(X L XC )

sin 2 ( X L X C )

sin 1 XL

A lower means better system stability

Series compensation offers most economic solution for

system stability as compared to other methods (reducing

generator, x-mer reactance, bundled conductors, increase

no. of parallel circuits

3. Load Division between Parallel

Circuits

When a system is to be strengthen by the addition of a new line or

when one of the existing circuit is to be adjusted for parallel

operation in order to achieve maximum power transfer or

minimize losses, series compensation can be used.

It is observed in Sweden that the cost of the series compensation

in the 420 kV system was entirely recovered due to decrease in

losses in the 220 kV system operating in parallel with the 420 kV

system.

4. Less installation Time

approx.) as compared to installation time of the parallel circuit

line (5 years approx.)

This reduces the risk factor.

Hence used to hit the current thermal limit.

The life of x-mission line and capacitor is generally 20-25 years.

Disadvantages

2. Mal operation of distance relay- if the degree of compensation

and location is not proper.

3. High recovery voltage of lines- across the circuit breaker

contacts and is harmful.

Location of Series Capacitor

many technical and economical consideration.

In each case, a special system study concerning load flow,

stability, transient overvoltage, protection requirements, system

voltage profile etc. is necessary before the optimal location is

chosen.

1. Location along the line

line (if one bank) or at 1/3rd distance along the line (if two banks).

This has advantage of better voltage profile along the line, lesser

short circuit current through the capacitor in the event of fault and

simpler protection of capacitor.

The capacitor stations are generally unattended.

2. Location at one or both ends of line

section on the line side in the

switching station

The main advantage of this location is that the capacitor

installation is near the manned sub-stations.

However, requires more advanced line protection.

For the same degree of compensation, more MVAr capacity is

needed as compared to method 1.

Shunt Compensation

capacitance is high and plays a significant

role in voltage conditions of the receiving

end.

When the line is loaded then the reactive

power demand of the load is partially met by

the reactive power generated by the line

capacitance and the remaining reactive power

demand is met by the reactive power flow

through the line from sending end to the

receiving end.

Shunt Compensation (Capacitor)

When load is high then a large reactive power flows from sending

end to the receiving end resulting in large voltage drop in the line.

To improve the voltage at the receiving end shunt capacitors may

be connected at the receiving end to generate and feed the

reactive power to the load so that reactive power flow through the

line and consequently the voltage drop in the line is reduced.

Shunt Compensation (Capacitor)

number of capacitors connected in parallel) is installed at the

receiving end and suitable number of capacitors are switched in

during high load condition depending upon the load demand.

Thus the capacitors provide leading VAr to partially meet reactive

power demand of the load to control the voltage.

Shunt Compensation (Capacitor)

If XC = 1/C be the reactance of the shunt capacitor then the reactive power

generated of leading VAr supplied by the capacitor:

2

V2

QC V2 C

2

XC

voltage.

Shunt Compensation (Reactor)

power demand may even be lesser than the

reactive power generated by the line capacitor.

Under these conditions the reactive power flow

through the line becomes negative, i.e., the

reactive power flows from receiving end to

sending end, and the receiving end voltage is

higher than sending end voltage (Ferranti

effect).

To control the voltage at the receiving end it is

necessary to absorb or sink reactive power.

This is achieved by connecting shunt reactors

at the receiving end.

Shunt Compensation (Reactor)

If XL = L be the reactance of the shunt reactor (inductor) then the reactive VAr

absorbed by the shunt rector:

2

V2

QL V2 / L

2

XL

voltage.

Shunt Compensation (Reactor)

installed and switched in during the light load condition.

To meet the variable reactive power demands requisite number of

shunt capacitors are switched in, in addition to the shunt reactor,

which results in adjustable reactive power absorption by the

combination.

20

MATLAB/Simulink MODEL AND RESULT

Standard value on every networks:

a. Base Power= 100 MVA

b. Frequency= 50 Hz

c. Source Voltages= 765 KV

d. Power of Source 1. = 1500 MVA

e. Power of Source 2. = 3000 MVA

f. length of each line= 300 Km

g. Total no. of Bus= 3

21

network

22

23

compensated network

24

25

network

26

27

28

29

network

30

31

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