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Ch5_AngleModulation

Ch5_AngleModulation

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Ch 5

Angle Modulations and Demodulations

University of Central Oklahoma

Dr. Mohamed Bingabr

Chapter Outline

Nonlinear Modulation

Bandwidth of Angle Modulation

Generating of FM Waves

Demodulation of FM Signals

Effects of Nonlinear Distortion and Interference

Superheterodyne Analog AM/FM Receivers

FM Broadcasting System

2

Baseband Vs. Carrier Communications

Angle Modulation: The generalized angle (t) of a sinusoidal

signal is varied in proportion the message signal m(t).

= ()

= cos + 0 1 < < 2

Instantaneous Frequency

() =

Frequency Modulation: The frequency of the carrier signal

is varied in proportion to the message signal.

Phase Modulation: The phase of the carrier signal is varied

in proportion to the message signal. 3

Frequency and Phase Modulation

= ()

Phase Modulation:

= + ()

= cos + ()

Frequency Modulation:

= + ()

= = +

= cos +

Power of an Angle-Modulated wave is constant and equal A2/2. 4

Example of FM and PM Modulation

Sketch FM and PM waves for the modulating signal m(t). The

constants kf and kp are 2 x105 and 10, respectively, and the

carrier frequency fc is 100 MHz.

5

Example of FM and PM Modulation

Sketch FM and PM waves for the digital modulating signal

m(t). The constants kf and kp are 2 x105 and /2, respectively,

and the carrier frequency fc is 100 MHz.

6

phase change kpm(t) to the range (-,).

PSK

7

Bandwidth of Angle Modulated Waves

= cos + () where () =

= Re [ + ()] = Re ()

Expand () using power series expansion

2 2

= Re 1 + + + +

2! !

2 2 3 3

= + +

2! 3!

The bandwidth of a(t), a2(t), an(t) are B, 2B, and nB Hz,

respectively. From the above equation it seems the

bandwidth of angle modulation is infinite but for practical

reason most of the power reside at B Hz since higher terms 8

have small power because of n!.

Narrowband PM and FM

2 2 3 3

= + +

2! 3!

but the waveform are different. 9

m(t)

= cos + = cos + ()

m(t)

=

ts=1.e-4; kf = 10*pi; kp = 0.1*pi;

fc = 300; t=-0.05:ts:0.05; Ta = 0.02;

triangle = @(z)(1-abs(z)).*(z>=-1).*(z<1);

m_sig = 1*(triangle((t+0.01)/Ta) - triangle((t-0.01)/Ta));

m_intg = ts*cumsum(m_sig);

s_fm = cos(2*pi*fc*t + kf*m_intg);

s_pm = cos(2*pi*fc*t + kp*m_sig);

Code to demonstrate

subplot(311); the effect of the

plot(t, m_sig) condition for

subplot(312);

plot(t, s_fm)

NBFM (kf a(t)max <<1)

subplot(313); and

plot(t, s_pm) NBPM (kpm(t)max << 1)

s_nbfm = cos(2*pi*fc*t) - kf*m_intg.*sin(2*pi*fc*t);

s_nbpm = cos(2*pi*fc*t) - kp*m_sig.*sin(2*pi*fc*t);

figure;

subplot(311);

plot(t, m_sig)

subplot(312);

plot(t,s_nbfm)

subplot(313);

plot(t, s_nbpm) 12

figure; plot(t, m_intg)

Wideband FM (WBFM)

In many application FM signal is meaningful only if its frequency

deviation is large enough, so kf a(t) << 1 is not satisfied, and

narrowband analysis is not valid.

2 { + }

Fourier Transform

1 + + ( ) 1 ( )

+

2 4 2 4

1

= 2 + 8 Hz

2

=2 + 2 Hz

13

2

Wideband FM (WBFM)

Peak frequency

=2 + 2 =

2 2 deviation in hertz

= 2 + 2 Hz

= 2 + Hz

= 2 + 1 Where = is the deviation ratio

When f >> B the modulation is WBFM and the bandwidth is

BFM = 2 f

BFM = 2B 14

Wideband PM (WBPM)

The instantaneous frequency

= + ()

=

2

= 2 + Hz

15

Example

a) Estimate BFM and BPM for the modulating signal m(t) for kf =2

x105 and kp = 5. Assume the essential bandwidth of the

periodic m(t) as the frequency of its third harmonic.

b) Repeat the problem if the amplitude of m(t) is doubled.

that is, if the period of m(t) is 0.4 msec.

16

Example

An angle-modulated signal with carrier frequency c = 2 105 is

described by the equation

= 10 + 5 3000 + 10 2000

b) Find the frequency deviation f.

c) Find the deviation ration .

d) Find the phase deviation .

e) Estimate the bandwidth of .

17

Generating FM Waves

Two Methods:

1) Indirect method using NBFM Generation

2) Direct method

NBFM Generation

will have some amplitude variation due to approximation.

Distortion with NBFM Generation

Example 5.6: Discuss the nature of distortion inherent in the

Armstrong indirect FM generator.

=

= + ()

= 1 + 2 2 () = 1 ()

()

()

= + = + 2 = +

2

1 + () 1 + 2 2 ()

= + 1 2 2 + 4 4 19

NBFM Generation

Bandpass Limiter

= ()

= +

+1 > 0

() =

1 < 0

4 1 1

= cos cos 3 + cos 5 +

3 5

20

Generating FM Waves

4 1 1

= cos cos 3 + cos 5 +

3 5

= +

4 1

= cos + cos 3 +

3

1

+ cos 5 + +

5

The output of the bandpass filter

4

= +

21

Indirect Method of Armstrong

NBFM is generated first and then converted to WBFM by using

additional frequency multipliers.

= 2 2 ()

= 2 cos 2 +

= 0 + 1 + 2 2 + + 22

Indirect Method of Armstrong

For NBFM << 1. For speech fmin = 50Hz, so if f = 25 then

25/50 = 0.5,

= + ()

23

Example

Design an Armstrong indirect FM modulator to generate an FM

signal with carrier frequency 97.3 MHz and f = 10.24 kHz. A

NBFM generator of fc1 = 20 kHz and f = 5 Hz is available. Only

frequency doublers can be used as multipliers. Additionally, a

local oscillator (LO) with adjustable frequency between 400 and

500 kHz is readily available for frequency mixing.

24

Direct Generation

1. The frequency of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is

controlled by the voltage m(t).

() = + ()

2. Use an operational amplifier to build an oscillator with

variable resonance frequency o. The resonance frequency

can be varied by variable capacitor or inductor. The

variable capacitor is controlled by m(t).

1 1 1

= = =

0 ()

0 1

0

1 1

= 1/2

1+ 1

0 20 0

0 1

0

25

Direct Generation

1

= 1 + =

20 0

= + () =

20

= 0 ()

2 0

= =

2 2

= =

0

In practice f << fc 26

Demodulation of FM Signals

A frequency-selective network with a transfer function of the

form |H(f)|=2af + b over the FM band would yield an output

proportional to the instantaneous frequency.

= cos +

= cos +

= + () sin +

27

Demodulation of FM Signals

= + () sin +

Differentiator

28

Practical Frequency Demodulators

2

= 2 if 2 1

1 + 2

1

< =

signal band is larger than the linear band.

Zero-crossing detectors: First step is to use amplitude limiter

and then the zero-crossing detector.

29

Instantaneous frequency = the rate of zero crossing

Effect of Nonlinear Distortion and

Interference

Immunity of Angle Modulation to Nonlinearities

= 0 + 1 + 2 2 + + ()

= cos + ()

+ + cos + ()

Vulnerability of Amplitude Modulation to Nonlinearities

= cos( ) + 3 () 3 ( )

3 3 3

= + () cos + (3 )

4 4

30

Interference Effect

Angle Modulation is less vulnerable than AM to small-signal

interference from adjacent channels.

= cos + ( + )

= ( + ) cos sin

= ( + ) cos sin

= () cos [ + ()]

= 1 for I << A

+

The output of ideal phase and frequency demodulators are

For PM =

Interference is inversely

proportional to the carrier

For FM =

amplitude (capture effect). 31

Preemphasis and Deemphasis in FM

With white noise, the

amplitude interference is

constant for PM but

increase with for FM.

below 2.1 kHz, so interference at high frequency will greatly

deteriorate the quality of audio signal.

Preemphasis Deemphasis

Filter Noise Filter

Preemphasis and Deemphasis (PDE) in FM

30 kHz

2.1 kHz

Preemphasis Filter

Deemphasis Filter

Preemphasis and Deemphasis (PDE) in FM

2 + 1

= Where K is the gain and = 2 / 1

2 + 2

For 2f << 1 1

2

For 1 << 2f << 2

1

1

=

2 + 1

and photograph recording, where PDE depends on the band.

FM Broadcasting Standard

FM communication

- Frequency range = 88 to 108 MHz

- Channel separations = 200 kHz,

- Peak frequency deviation = 75 kHz

- Transmitted signal should be received by monophonic and

stereophonic receivers.

Filter

200 KHz

Superheterodyne Analog AM/FM Receivers

90 desired signal

90.2

111.4

fc = 10.7 10.7

90 10.7 , 190.7

90.2 10.5 , 190.9

10.7, 212.1

90+10.7=100.7 fIF = 455KHz (AM radio);

10.7 MHz (FM);

38 MHz (TV)

AM stations that are 2 fIF apart are called image stations and

both would appear simultaneously at the IF output.

RF filter eliminates undesired image station, while IF filter

eliminates undesired neighboring stations.

FM Broadcasting System

cos

= + + +

2

FM Broadcasting System

= + + cos +

2

Homework Problem 5.4-2

39

Homework Problem 5.6-2

40

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