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4 Contribution of Science and Technology to

Human Reproduction
Family Planning
Two main problems
1. Preventing pregnancy
2. Difficulty in having children

To plan families by preventing fertilisation or

development of a zygote when they occur at an
convenient time.

Enables married couples to choose when to / not to

have children.
4.4.1 Birth control techniques
5 ways to prevent pregnancy:
(a) Natural methods:

(i) Calendar technique / Rhythm method

- The couple should not have copulation on the days
when female is fertile.
- This method assumes that ovulation takes place 14 days
before menstruation, copulation should not take place 3
days before & 3 days
after ovulation.
(ii) Temperature technique
- Womans body OC drops a bit before ovulation &
becomes higher after ovulation.
- Body OC needs to be recorded everyday at the same
time with ovulation thermometer.
- It is safe to have sex after body OC has increased
continuously after 3 days.

(iii) Mucous technique

- Determine fertile period by observe & record the quantity &
thickness of mucus that is discharged from cervix during
menstrual cycle.
- After menstruation, mucus is dry & thick.
- Nearing ovulation, mucus becomes thinner, elastic & flow easily.
- A few days after ovulation, mucus becomes thick again.
- copulation should be avoided as soon as watery mucus
is seen until 4 days after the last day of watery mucus.
(iv) Withdrawal technique
- Male reproductive organ is removed from vagina during
copulation before the sperms are ejaculated.

(2) Physical methods

(i) Condom
- A rubber device that is used on
male reproductive organ to
prevent sperms from entering
uterus during ejaculation.

(ii) Diaphragm
- A rubber device worn by a
woman at cervix to prevent
sperms from entering fallopian
(iii) Intrauterine device (IUD)

- A device that is made from plastic / metal

- T, twisted or rolled shaped
- IUD is placed inside uterus of the woman by doctor.
- IUD prevent embryo from attaching to the wall of uterus.
(3) Chemical methods
(i) Contraceptive pile
- Contraceptive pills contain oestrogen
& progesterone to prevent formation
of follicle and ovulation.
- A contraceptive pill is taken every
day for 21 days.
- The intake is stopped for 7days.
- During this period, menstruation
- After menstruation, intake of pill is
resumed. (ii) Spermicide
- to kill sperms that are
ejaculated into the vagina.
- Spermicides are in jelly,
cream or spray form
- applied in vagina before
(4) Sterilisation methods

(i) Tubal Ligation

- Both fallopian tubes are blocked or cut
sperm no longer reach the ova.

(ii) Vasectomy
- Sperm ducts are cut and tied
- Sperms are stilled produced by testes but
are unable to reach the urethra.
They are disintegrate and eventually
- Seminal fluid is still produced but does not
contain sperms.
(5) Abortion
-The elimination of foetus before the 24th week.
- against religious belief & moral values
- Sometimes necessary for medical reason

Moral issues!!!!
Encourage premarital sex.
The use of IUD to prevent implantation of blastocyst,
which is considered a new life,
is also questionable.
Main methods of female contraception and their
sites of action
Methods of male contraception and their sites of action
Overcoming Infertility
Infertility = the failure of a couple to have babies.

1. Causes of sterility problem

(a) In Women:
(i) No ovulation due to hormone imbalances.
(ii) No implantation due to damages or
abnormality in the uterus.
(iii) Blocked fallopian tubes

(b) In men:
(i) Low sperm count
(ii) Blocked sperm duct
(iii) Impotence
(iv) Inactive or abnormal sperms
Sperm Bank
A special laboratory that is used to
store donor sperm in liquid nitrogen
at -196C.
These sperms is used for artificial
insemination for a woman whose
husband suffers from infertility, sterility or
suffers from a genetic disease.
Genetic biodata of the donor is recorded
so that a woman wishing to buy the sperm
can choose the quality of sperm she
The sperm is injected into Fallopian tube
during ovulation.
Artificial insemination
An instrument is used to inject semen into uterus
of a female during her ovulation.
No copulation is involved.
Enables a female who has no husband / whose
husband is sterile / low sperm count.
Sperms are taken from the husband/ sperms from
sperm bank
enables a female to have a child without
having sexual relations with a man.
Artificial Insemination
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
In vitro = outside the body.
The women is given daily injections of hormones
to stimulate the production of ova
using ultrasound to view the ovary, the egg in the
ovary is extracted by the needle
fertilisation in Petri dish & is incubated for a few
Embryo is implanted into uterus by using a
embryo develop
baby born.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
fertilisation that takes place outside of the body and in
laboratory glassware.

Babies born by IVF are

sometimes called test-tube
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
Multiple births are more likely with IVF because more
than 1 embryo is implanted into uterus to increase the
chance of a successful pregnancy.

~20% of IVF births are twins, and 0.5% are triplets.

Multiple births are the biggest risk of IVF for both mother and

They are more likely to result in premature births,

miscarriages, and long-term disability and ill health.
Surrogate Mother
A woman who gives birth to
a baby for another woman
who is unable to conceive.

Females ovum is fertilised

in vitro using her husbands

Embryo formed is then

implanted into uterus of
surrogate mother to
continue its development.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Known as venereal diseases.

Spread through sexual contact.

Syphilis, gonorrhoea & acquired immune

deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Caused by a type of bacterium (Treponema
palladum) which enters the body through
Also pass from an infected pregnant mother to the
foetus through the placenta, resulting in her baby
being born with the disease.
Symptoms : a hard ulcer at the site of infection,
fever, enlargement of lymph nodes & lesions
throughout the body.
SEVERE CASES = the heart, blood vessels & the
nervous system may be damaged.
Penicillin is effective in treating the disease in its
early stages.
Caused by a type of bacterium (Neisseria

Symptoms : pain during urination & discharge of

pus from the penis or vagina.

SEVERE CASES : sterility & heart problems.

Treatment : antibiotics (sulphonamides, penicillin

@ tetracycline) is effective in the early stages.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Caused by human immunodeficiency virus


Spread through sexual contact, blood

transfusion & the sharing of syringes among
drug addicts. Can also pass from an expectant
mother to her child through the placenta or
breast milk.