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To fabricate any solid device component, one must first select materials
and adequate fabrication method.

For MEMS and microsystems components, the sizes are so small that
no machine tools, e.g. lathe, milling machine, drilling press, etc. can do
the job. There is simply no way one can even grip the work piece.

Consequently, radically different techniques, non-machine-tool techniques
need to be used for such purpose.

Most physical-chemical processes developed for “shaping” and fabricating
ICs are adopted for microsystems fabrications. This is the principal
reason for using silicon and silicon compounds for most MEMS and
microsystems - because these are the materials used to produce ICs.

Microfabrication Traditional Manufacturing
by physical-chemical processes by machine tools

Microfabrication Processes

Ɣ Photolithography

Ɣ Ion implantation

Ɣ Diffusion

Ɣ Oxidation

Ɣ Chemical vapor deposition

Ɣ Physical vapor deposition (Sputtering)

Ɣ Deposition by expitaxy

Ɣ Etching

Photolithography process involves the use of an optical image and a
photosensitive film to produce desired patterns on a substrate.

The “optical image” is originally in macro scale, but is photographically
reduced to the micro-scale to be printed on the silicon substrates.

The desired patterns are first printed on light-transparent mask, usually
made of quartz.

The mask is then placed above the top-face of a silicon substrate coated
with thin film of photoresistive materials.

The mask can be in contact with the photoresistave material, or placed
with a gap, or inclined to the substrate surface:
Light Light Light

Si substrate
Si substrate
Si substrate
Photoresistive coating

Photolithography-Cont’d Positive resist: Substrate (a) Photoresist (b) Substrate UV light or (c) other sources Mask Negative resist: Substrate (a) Processes: (b) (a) Development (b) Etching (c) Photoresist removal (c) .

the first component takes about 20-50% by weight in the compound. Photolithography. Most positive resists can be developed in alkaline solvents such as KOH (potassium peroxide). TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide). ion beam and x-ray. ketones or acetates. (2) the two-component DQN resist involving diazoquinone ester (DQ) and phenolic novolak resin (N). In the latter kind. The PMMA resists are also used in photolithography involving electron beam.Cont’d The two kinds of photoresists: ● Positive resists: There are two kinds of positive resists: (1) the PMMA (polymethymethacrylate) resists. Positive resists are sensitive to UV lights with the maximum sensitivity at a wavelength of 220 nm. .

Negative resists are less sensitive to optical and x-ray exposures but more sensitive to electron beams. (a) by negative resists (b) by positive resists .Cont’d Ɣ Negative resists: (1) Two-component bis (aryl) azide rubber resists. So. it is a better option for high resolution patterns for micro devices. and (2) Kodak KTFR (azide-sensitized polyisotroprene rubber). positive resists provide more clear edge definitions than the negative resists. Photolithography. Line definitions of photoresists: In general. Xylene is the most commonly used solvent for developing negative resists.

Dispenser Reduce size by controlled spinning speed Resist Edge Photoresist Resist spray bead puddle Wafer Catch cup Wafer Vacuum Vacuum chuck chuck Spinner motor To drain & To vacuum exhaust pump . the desired thickness and uniformity of the resist coating. For some microsystems applications. ● Typically the thickness is between 0. ● A resist puddle is first applied to the center portion of the wafer from a dispenser.2 µm with ±5 nm variation.5 . Photolithography.Cont’d Application of photoresists ● The process begins with securing the substrate wafer onto the top of a vacuum chuck. the thickness had been increased to 1 cm. ● The centrifugal forces applied to the resist puddle cause a uniform spread of the fluid over the entire surface of the wafer. ● The wafer is then subjected to high speed spinning at a rotational speed from 1500 to 8000 rpm for 10 to 60 seconds. The speed is set depending on the type of the resist.

(an Angstrom. = 0.1 nm or 10-4 µm). The wavelength of x-ray is in the range from 4 to 50 Angstrom. Most popular light source for photolithography is the mercury vapor lamps. This light source provides a wavelength spectrum from 310 to 440 nm. In special applications for extremely high resolutions. x-ray is used. Deep UV (ultra violet) light has a wavelength of 150-300 nm and the UV light source has wavelengths between 350-500 nm. Photolithography. .Cont’d Light sources Photoresist materials used in micro fabrication are sensitive to light with wavelength ranging from 300 to 500 nm.

a descumming process takes place. puddle Wafer Catch cup Wafer Ɣ A rising distilled water follow Vacuum chuck Vacuum chuck the development. Ɣ Etching will remove all residue photoresist. pump Photoresist removal and postbaking Ɣ After development and the desired pattern in created in the substrate. .ends Photoresist development Dispenser Ɣ The same spinner may be used for Resist Edge Photoresist development after exposure with Resist spray bead dispensing development solvent. Photolithography. Ɣ The process uses O2 plasma to remove the bulk of photoresist. Ɣ Postbaking to remove the residue of solvent at 120oC for 20 minutes. Xylene is the To vacuum exhaust agent for -ve resistors. Spinner Ɣ Developers agent for +ve resistor motor To drain & are KOH or TMAH.

g. SiO 2) Distribution of dopant ion beam Ion Source (ionized dopant atoms) Silicon substrate (See Figure 3. Ɣ These ions associated with sufficiently high kinetic energy will be penetrated into the silicon substrate. Ion Implantation Ɣ It is physical process used to dope silicon substrates.4) . P of As into silicon crystals. Ɣ Physical process is illustrated as follows: High Beam energy beam Beam Accelerator controller controller Ion beam Shield High energy (e. Ɣ It involves “forcing” free charge-carrying ionized atoms of B.

045 Aluminum (A ) p 0.049 Antimony (Sb) n 0.or n-type Ionization Energy (eV) Phosphorus (P) n 0.044 Arsenic (As) n 0.057 Gallium (Ga) p 0.065 Indium (In) p 0.039 Boron (B) p 0.Required energy for ion implantation: Dopants p.160 .

1) 2 2π∆ Rp ⎣ 2∆R p ⎦ where Rp = projected range in µm.Cont’d Density distribution in depth Energized ion beam Shield Rp N(x) Doped zone ∆Rp Silicon substrate x 2 Q ⎡−(x− Rp ) ⎤ N(x)= exp ⎢ ⎥ (8. Ion Implantation . ∆Rp = scatter or “straggle” in µm. and Q = dose of ion beam (atoms/cm2) .

Cont’d (a) At 30 KeV energy level: Ion Range.0 19. ∆Rp(nm) Boron (B) 106.0 Phosphorous (P) 135.Cont’d Density distribution in depth .0 69.0 Phosphorous (P) 42.0 (b) At 100 KeV energy level: Ion Range.1 .0 53.5 Arsenic (As) 23. Ion Implantation .8 26.3 9.5 39.5 Arsenic (As) 67. R p (nm) Straggle. ∆Rp(nm) Boron (B) 307. R p (nm) Straggle.

so from the same equation. Since we have the maximum concentration.15 µm. Q in Eq.2 x 1014/cm2 .2. (8-1).5(69 x 10-7 cm)(30 x 1018 cm-3) = 5.1 A silicon substrate is doped with boron ions at 100 KeV. we will have: Q Nmax= 2π∆Rp from which. we have the dose: Q = (2π)0. (8-1). Find: (a) the dose. Nmax = 30 x 1018/cm3 at x = Rp in Eq. we find Rp = 307 nm = 307x10-7 cm and ǻRp = 69x10-7 cm at 100 KeV energy level. Example 8.28)0. (b) the dopant concentration at the depth 0. (c) the depth at which the dopant concentration is at 0. Solution: (1) To find the dose: From Table 8.5(∆Rp)Nmax = (6.1% of the maximum value. Assume the maximum concentration after the doping is 30 x 1018/cm3.

27x10 / cm ⎣ 2(0. Example 8.15µm)= Nmax exp ⎢ − 2 ⎥ =(30x10 ) exp⎜⎛− ⎟=2.307) ⎤ 18 0. we solve for xo = 563.0246 ⎞ 18 3 N(0.150−0. .009522⎠ (3) To find x = xo at which the concentration N(xo) = (0.069) ⎦ ⎝ 0.5635 µm.1 .15 µm: We may use the following relationship derived from Eq.1%)Nmax = 3 x 1016/cm3: We may solve xo from the following equation: x 1014 ⎡ ( xo −307x10 −7 ) 2 ⎤ N(x o)= −7 exp ⎢ − −7 2 ⎥ = 3x10 16 2x3.14x69x10 ⎣ 2(69x10 ) ⎦ from which. (8-1): 2 ⎡ (0.5x10-7 cm or 0.Cont’d (2) To find the concentration at x = 0.

Ion beam at RT dopant gas Mask Silicon substrate Dopant profile by Diffusion Dopant profile by ion implantation . Ɣ Unlike ion implantation. diffusion takes place at high temperature. Ɣ Diffusion is a chemical process. Ɣ The profile of the spread of dopant in silicon by diffusion is different from that by ion implantation: High temp. Diffusion Ɣ Diffusion is another common technique for doping silicon substrates.

Diffusion . N(x.Cont’d Design analysis of diffusion Fick’s law governs diffusion (Chapter 3): ∂N(x) F=−D (8. (atoms/cm3) The distribution of dopant. which is the number of dopant atoms passing through a unit area of the substrate in a unit time (atoms/cm2-sec) D = Diffusion coefficient or diffusivity of the substrate to the dopant (cm2/sec) N = Dopant concentration in the substrate per unit volume.3) ∂t ∂x 2 .t) =D (8.t) in the “depth” direction of the substrate at time t is obtained from the “Diffusion equation”: ∂N(x.t) ∂ 2 N(x.2) ∂x where F = Dopant flux.

Cont’d Solution of diffusion equation ∂N(x. Diffusion .t) (8. and that the concentration far away from the contacting surface is negligible. t) = 0.t)= Ns erfc ⎢ ⎥ (8.5) π 0 . meaning the diffusion of foreign substance is highly localized.4) ⎣2 Dt ⎦ where erfc(x) is the complementary error function that has the form: x y dy 2 2 − erfc(x)=1−erf(x) =1− ∫e (8.t) = Ns. which is the concentration at the surface exposed to the gaseous dopant.0) = 0.t) ∂ 2 N(x.3) =D ∂t ∂x 2 Initial condition (t = 0): N(x. The solution of the diffusion equation in (8. N(∞.3) with these conditions is: ⎡ x ⎤ N(x. Boundary conditions (at x = 0 and ∞ ): N(0. meaning there is no impurity in the substrate when the diffusion process begins.

b Boron -19. a Constant.8456 11. The constants a and b for common dopants can be obtained from: Dopants Constant.4278 13.6) in which the temperature.1168 Phosphorus (Ns = 1019/cm3) -20. D: The diffusivity of silicon with common dopants can be obtained by an empirical formula: ln( D) =aT '+b (8.9820 13.1109 Arsenic -26.Cont’d The diffusivity. T’ = 1000/T with T = diffusion temperature in K. Diffusion .6430 .8404 17.2250 Phosphorus (Ns = 1021/cm3) -15.

D is: 0.5766x10-6 µm2/s.005676 µm2/h = 1. Thus. a = -19. From the Table.2 A silicon substrate is subjected to diffusion of boron dopant at 1000oC with a dose 1011/cm2.t)=Nserfc ⎢ ⎥ =10 11 erfc⎢ ⎥ =10 11 erfc ⎜ ⎟ Dt⎦ ⎣2 1. Example 8.0) = 0.7855.21x⎞⎤ N(x. (b) the concentration at 0. Solution: First. D with temperature T’ = 1000/(1000+273) = 0.1 µm beneath the surface after one hour into the diffusion process.982 and b = 13. and N(0. from Eq.1109. (8. and N(∞. we have constants. which is in a ”ball park” agreement with that from Figure 3. 95 (a) Since initially N(x.t) = 0.21x⎞ N(x. we have: ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎛398.12 on P. Find: (a) the expression for estimating the concentration of the dopant in the substrate. The substrate is initially free of impurity.5766x10 −6t⎦ ⎝ t ⎠ ⎣2 11 ⎡ ⎛398.t)=10 ⎢ 1−erf ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎣ ⎝ t ⎠⎦ .4).t) = Ns = 1011 atoms/cm2. to find the diffusivity.

2 . erf (0.1µm.1hour) =10 11 ⎢ 1−erf ⎜ ⎟⎥ =10 11[1−erf(0. or 3600 seconds into the diffusion. 96 .1 µm at t = 1 h.cont’d (b) For x= 0.6637)] ⎣ ⎝ 3600 ⎠⎦ 11 (1− 0.6637) is obtained from Figure 3.Example 8. the concentration is: ⎡ ⎛398.21x ⎞⎤ N(0.6518)=3.14 on P.482x1010 / cm 3 =10 The numerical value of the error function.

Major application of SiO2 layers or films are: (1) To be used as thermal insulation media (2) To be used as dielectric layers for electrical insulation Ɣ SiO2 can be produced over the surface of silicon substrates either by: (1) Chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Oxidation SiO2 is an important element in MEMS and microsystems. or (2) Growing SiO2 with dry O2 in the air. or wet steam by the following two chemical reactions at high temperature: Si (solid) + O2 (gas) → SiO2 (solid) Si (solid) + 2H2O (steam) → SiO2 (solid) + 2H2 (gas) Resistance heater Controlled air chamber O2 or H2O + carrier gas Fused quartz cassette to vent Wafers Fused quartz Resistance heater tubular furnace .

Oxidation .Cont’d Principle of thermal oxidation: It is a combined continuous physical diffusion and chemical reactions Oxidizing species: O2 or steam Oxidizing species: O2 or steam SiO2 layer Silicon substrate (1) At the inception of oxidation (2) Formation of oxide layer by chemical reaction Oxidizing species: O2 or steam Growing SiO2 layer Instantaneous SiO2/Si boundary (3) Growth of oxide layer with diffusion and chemical reactions .

t: x= B(t+τ) (8.10) 2 ⎛ +2D do ⎞ in which ⎜d o ⎟ (8. The following quasi- empirical formulas are used for the thickness of SiO2 layer (x): B (8. = 4. = 3000x1016 molecules/cm3 in water vapor at the same temperature and pressure.4x10-16 cm2/sec at 900oC. N1 = number of oxidizing species in the oxide.g. = 2.2x1022 SiO2 molecules/cm3 with dry O2.9) For small time. No = concentration of oxygen molecules in the carrier gas.11) ⎜ ⎟ N1 τ= ⎝ ks ⎠ 2D No D = diffusivity of oxide in silicon.Cont’d Rate of thermal oxidations: Because of the extreme complexity of thermal oxidation.2x1016 molecules/cm3 in dry O2 at 1000oC and 1 atm. Oxidation . t: x= (t+τ) A For larger time. D = 4.4x1022 SiO2 molecules/cm3 in water vapor. = 5. do = initial oxide layer (∼ 200 in dry oxidation. analytical methods for predicting the rate of this process is impossible. . = 0 for wet oxidation) ks = surface reaction rate constant. e.

Ea = 2 eV. (8. Ea = 0.92655 7.9): ⎛B⎞ (8. (111) silicon Eq. (8. Constant a and b are from the Table: Constants Coefficient (a) Coefficient (b) Conditions Linear rate -10.05 eV. (100) silicon constant -10. 760 Torr Eq. Ea = 1.Cont’d Determination of constant A and B in Eqs. (8-13) vacuum .12) log⎜ ⎟=aT'+b ⎝A⎠ For larger time.93576 Dry O2.1257 6. (8.4422 6.96426 Dry O2.905525 7.Cont’d Rate of thermal oxidations .9) and (8.13) ln(B) =aT '+b where T’ = 1000/T.10): (8.71 eV. with temperature T in Kelvin. Ea = 2.1040 H2O vapor. 760 Torr vacuum constant -10.615 7. Ea = 2 eV.10): For small time. (110) silicon -9.948585 H2O vapor.74356 Dry O2.24 eV. (8-12) -9. Oxidation . t in Eq.05 eV. t in Eq. Ea = 2. (111) silicon Parabolic rate -14.40273 6.82039 H2O vapor. K.

A for small time. (8-13) -14.4 as follows: a b Conditions Eq.9486 Wet steam Eq. (8-12) -10.9357 Dry O2 Eq. (8-12) -9. (8-13) -10.3 Estimate the thickness of the SiO2 layer over the (111) plane of a “clean” silicon wafer. Solution: Since oxidation take place on a new “clean” silicon wafer. we may use: B x= t = Bt for larger time.7436 Dry O2 Eq. we can use the condition that Ρ = 0. and x The constants.1040 Wet steam .9266 7. resulting from both “dry” and “wet” oxidation at 950oC for one and half hours.1257 6.6150 7. A and B in the above expressions are selected from Table 8. Example 8.4027 6. Thus.

3 .Cont’d Since we have T’ = 1000/(950+273) = 0.12) and (8. (8. .8177. we obtained the constants B/A and B from Eqs.018 x= t A x = Bt for larger time 0.13) as: Dry oxidation Wet oxidation B/A (µm/hr) 0.068 1.5572 We observe that wet oxidation results in much fast rates in oxidation than dry oxidation.2068 The rates of oxidation in two conditions after 1.5 hours are thus obtained from the two equations available as: Dry oxidation (µm) Wet oxidation (µm) B for small time 0.006516 0.04532 0.Example 8.6786 B (µm/hr) 0.0989 0.

● Consequently.A quick way to tell! ● Both SiO2 and Si3N4 layers have distinct color from the silicon substrates in which these layers grow. ● In the case of SiO2 layers. as shown below: SiO 2 layer 0. the same color may repeat with different layer thickness.050 0.SiO2 thickness by observations .465 0. when the surface is shone by the rays of white light one can view the surface exhibiting different colors corresponding to the layer’s thickness.493 (µm) Color Tan Brown Red Blue Green to Green Yellow violet Yellow yellow green .50 0.310 0. ● However.375 0. they are essentially transparent but with distinct light refraction index from that of the silicon substrate. ● The color of the surface of a SiO2 layer is the result of the interference of the reflected light rays.075 0.275 0.390 thickness 0.

Si3N4. Ɣ Materials for CVD may include: (a) Metals: Al. Cu. and (c) PECVD (Plasma-enhanced CVD). Ɣ It is used extensively for producing thin films by depositing many different kind of foreign materials over the surface of silicon substrates. SMA TiNi. etc. Pt and Sn. Ɣ There are three (3) available CVD processes in microfabrication: (a) APCVD: (Atmospheric-pressure CVD). piezoelectric ZnO. Chemical Vapor Deposition Ɣ Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most important process in microfabrication. (b) LPCVD (Low-pressure CVD). Ɣ CVD usually takes place at elevated temperatures and in vacuum in high class clean rooms. or over other thin films that have already been deposited to the silicon substrate. polysilicon. . Au. (b) Organic materials: Al2O3. SiO2. W. Ag.

Cont’d Working principle of CVD: ● CVD involves the flow of a gas containing diffused reactants (normally in vapor form) over the hot substrate surface ● The gas that carries the reactants is called “carrier gas” ● The “diffused” reactants are foreign material that needed to be deposited on the substrate surface ● The carrier gas and the reactant flow over the hot substrate surface. Chemical Vapor Deposition . the energy supplied by the surface temperature provokes chemical reactions of the reactants that form films during and after the reactions ● The by-products of the chemical reactions are then let to the vent ● Various types of CVD reactors are built to perform the CVD processes .

Chemical Vapor Deposition .Cont’d Reactors for CVD: By-products and gas out Resistance heater Substrate Horizontal Reactor Reactant and gas in Susceptor Substrates Vertical Reactor Resistance heater Reactant To exhaust and gas in .

500oC Carrier gases are: O2 (such as in the above reaction). The diffused reactant in the reaction is Silane (SiH4) -a common reactant in CVD. NO. SiH4 → Si + 2H2 . Chemical Vapor Deposition . Ɣ CVD of Si3N4 on silicon substrates: 3SiH4 + 4NH3 → Si3N4 + 12 H2 at 650 .Cont’d Chemical reactions in CVD: Ɣ CVD of SiO2 on silicon substrates: SiH4 + O2 → SiO2 + 2H2 at 400 .750oC 3SiCl4 + 4NH3 → Si3N4 + 12 HCl 3SiH2Cl2 + 4NH3 → Si3N4 + 6HCl + 6H2 Ɣ CVD of polysilicon on silicon substrates: It is essentially a pyrolysis process of Silane at 600 . CO2 and H2. NO2.650oC.

as measured by the Reynold’s number (Re) and the associated boundary layer (į) thickness at the substrate-gas interface. Ɣ Two major factors affect the rate of CVD: (a) The velocity of carrier gas and the diffused reactant. y Reactant and gas flow Reactant and gas flow V(x) x G Boundary layer s δ(x) x x x Hot silicon substrate Hot silicon surface . Ɣ The rate of the build-up of these thin films obviously is a concern to process design engineers. A quasi- quantitative assessment of such rate of build-up may begin with the understanding of the physical-chemical principles on which CVD operates. Chemical Vapor Deposition .Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up: Ɣ CVD is the principal technique for building the desired 3-D geometry of many MEMS and microsystems by means of thin film deposition. Ɣ Quantification of the rate of CVD is extremely complicated. (b) The Diffusion flux of the reactant (N).

Ar 210 448 . Chemical Vapor Deposition . 563 1 Poise (P) = 1 dyne-s/cm2 = 0.18) x µ x where L = length of the substrate Hot silicon substrate Dynamic Viscosity (µ) of Carrier Gases Used in CVD Processes Gas Viscosity (micro poises. N2 153 337 . H2 83 167 183 214 Nitrogen. µP) @0oC @490oC @600oC @825oC Hydrogen.Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Velocity.1 N-s/m2 = 0. 501 Argon. V The Reynolds number: Reactant and gas flow ρLV (x) R e= (8. 419 Oxygen.1 Kg/m-s . O2 189 400 .

17) x Hot silicon surface Re(x) r The diffusion flux of reactant (N ) across the boundary layer is: r D N= (NG −NS) atoms or molecules/m2-s (8.19) δ where D = diffusivity of reactant in the carrier gas (cm2/s) NG = Concentration of reactant at the top of boundary layer (molecules/m3) Ns = concentration of reactant at the substrate surface (molecules/m3) .Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Ɣ A boundary layer is created at the interface between the flowing carrier gas and the hot substrate surface Ɣ The carrier gas (together with the reactant) diffuses through the boundary layer to reach the hot substrate surface for chemical reactions Ɣ The thickness of the boundary layer thus has significant effect on the rate of CVD y Reactant and gas flow V(x) Boundary layer G δ(x) The thickness of boundary layer: s x x δ(x)= (8. Chemical Vapor Deposition .

022 x 1023 molecules in one mole of gas.643 moles/m3. Step 4: The concentrations. Ar Molar mass (g) 2 28 32 40 Step 3: Use ideal gas law to determine the molar density of the gas at the operating temperature and pressure. Step2: Find molar mass of commonly used gases: Gases Hydrogen.4 x10-3 m3 at standard conditions (20oC or 293 K at 1 atm. Chemical Vapor Deposition . for ALL gases.33 KPa). N2 Oxygen. (b) A molar density of 44. and (c) Avogadro number = 6. O 2 Argon. or 101. NG and Ns can be determined by multiplication of the Avogadro’s number in Step 1 and molar density in Step 3. .Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Determination of NG and Ns: Step 1: Use Avogadro’s theory: (a) The volume occupied by one mole of any gas is 22. H2 Nitrogen.

Chemical Vapor Deposition . we have V2 = V1T2/T1= 58. Pressure variation in the process is negligible.4 x 10-3 m3/mol = the volume of the gas at the standard pressure (1 atm) and temperature (20oC or 293 K). Solution: We may follow the steps outlined above begun with Step 3 for finding the volume of the carrier gas at 490oC using the ideal gas law: P1V1 = T1 P2V2 T2 Let V1 = 22. Find the number of molecules in a cubic meter volume of the carrier gas. Since P1 § P2 and T2 = 490 + 273 = 763 K.33 x 10-3 m3/mol The molar density is d2 = 1/V2 = 1/58.1433 mol/m3 The concentration NG defined as the molecules of gas per m3 is: NG = (Avogadro’s number) x d2 = 6.Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Example 8.4 A CVD process involves the reactant being diluted at 2% in the carrier oxygen gas at 490oC.24 x 1023 molecules/m3 .1433 = 103.022 x 1023 x 17.33 x 10-3 = 17.

r Let N = the flux of carrier gas and reactant mixture. k = Boltzmann constant.21) ⎝ kT ⎠ where k’ = constant relating to the reaction and reactant concentration. Ks = surface reaction rate constant may be determined by: Ea ⎞ ks=k' exp⎜⎛− ⎟ (8.20) in which Ns = concentration of carrier gas and reactant at the substrate surface. N =K s Ns (8. Ea = activation energy. T = absolute temperature of the chemical reaction.Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Since CVD is a process with coupled diffusion and chemical reactions. . the amount of carrier gas and reactant mixture that can diffuse through The boundary layer thus has significant effect on the rate of deposition. Chemical Vapor Deposition .

r.22) D+δ ks in which δ is the mean thickness of the boundary layer as expressed in Eq. (8-20) N =K s N s as: r DNG ks N= (8.Cont’d Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: The flux of the carrier gas and the reactant. The value of γ may be estimated by a postulation that the thin film is “densely” packed by atoms or molecules in spherical shapes with the radius according to the selected materials as listed in the following Table: . The rate of the growth of the thin film over the substrate surface. (8-17). ks with the substitution of Eq. (8-19): r D N= (NG −NS) δ may be expressed in terms of the surface reaction rate.23a) r= γδ For δks << D r= NGkS (8. Chemical Vapor Deposition .23b) γ where γ is the number of atoms or molecules per unit volume of the thin film. in m/sec. in Eq. can be estimated by the following expressions: For δks ≥ D: DNG (8.

135 0.060 0.067 Nickel 0.046 0.124 0.072 Gallium 0.192 Iron 0.154 Helium 0.132 Aluminum 0.078 Copper 0.02 Oxygen 0.04 .117 0.122 0.109 0.125 0.062 Germanium 0.02 Nitrogen 0.128 0.154 Boron 0.039 Argon 0.143 0.097 0.198 Phosphorus 0.057 Silicon 0.046 0.044 Arsenic 0.071 0.125 0.Rate of CVD Build-up-Cont’d: Estimation of the number of atoms or molecules per unit volume of the thin film: 1 1 γ= = v in which v = volume of the thin film with radius a from the Table: 4π a 3 3 Reactant materials Atomic radius (nm) Ionic radius (nm) Hydrogen 0.

Chemical Vapor Deposition .e. the reactant.5 A CVD process is used to deposit SiO2 film over a silicon substrate.Cont’d Example 8. The CVD process is carried out in a horizontal reactor as illustrated below: Resistance heaters T = 490oC Tubular reactor diameter: D = 200 mm . SiH4 is diluted to 2% in the O2 gas with silicon substrate at 490oC). Oxygen is used as the carrier gas following the chemical reaction: SiH4 + O2 ĺ SiO2 + 2H2 Other conditions are identical to that given in Example 8-4 (i.

Cont’d The supply carrier gas has a flux of N = 1024 molecules/m2-s. Substrates Determine the following: (1) The density of the carrier gas (ȡ). (2) The Reynolds number of the gas flow (Re). (6) The deposition rate (r). (3) The thickness of the boundary layer over the substrate surface (į). (5) The surface reaction rate (Ks). . (4) The diffusivity of the carrier gas and reactant to the silicon substrates (D). Chemical Vapor Deposition .5 .Cont’d Example 8.

D = 200 mm = 0. V = 50 mm/s = 0.1433 mol/m3.Cont’d Example 8. (Re): We realize the facts: the diameter of the reactor for the flow. the velocity of flow.04 g/m-s.04 . and the dynamic viscosity µ = 400 x 10-6 P (Table 8. These values lead to the Reynolds number to be: ρDV (548. which leads to the density.Cont’d Solution: (1) The density of the carrier gas (ȡ): We obtained the molar density of the carrier gas in Example 8. and the molecular mass of O2 is 32 g.2 m.2)(0.147 µ 0.586 g/m3 (2) The Reynolds number.5 .6) = 0.586)(0.1433 mole/m3) = 548.4 to be: d2 = 17. Chemical Vapor Deposition . ȡ to be: ρ = (32 g/mole)(17.05 m/s.05) Re= = =137.

15 m.Cont’d (3) The thickness of the boundary layer over the substrate surface (į): From Eq. we have: L 0. (8. L = 150 mm = 0. we may calculate the diffusivity.02)(103. Ș = % of dilution (= 2% in the present case): δN D =η(NG −Ns) r In which N = given carrier gas flux = 1024 molecules/m2-sec NG = Equivalent density of gas molecules = 103.17) using the length of the sled.5 .01281m Re 137.24x10 ) .19) with a dilution factor.062 m2/s (0.Cont’d Example 8.01281)(10 24 ) D= 23 =0.24 x 1023 molecules/m3 from Example 8-4. Chemical Vapor Deposition . Ns = 0 (an assumed value for complete diffusion within the film) Thus.15 δ= = =0. (8.147 (4) The diffusivity of the carrier gas and reactant to the silicon substrates (D): This value can be obtained from Eq. D of the carrier gas-reactant mixture as: (0.

24x10 23 )(0.177x10 −9 ) 3 3 3 with the radius of O2 atoms.24x10 23 )−(0.5 .177 x10-9 m from Table 8.Cont’d (5) The surface reaction rate (Ks): We may use Eq. depending on the value of įks.0013 << D = 0. with a dilution factor.47 µm/s γ 4.23a) or (8.09884) −6 r= =(0.22) to calculate Ks.062)(103. Ș: r =ηN Gk s γ The density of SiO2 in the thin film.09884) = 0. we have the rate of CVD to be: NGks (103. So. Hence. (8.3074x10 28 molecules/m3 4 3 4 π(aSiO)2 (3.117 nm to be The radius of SiO2 molecules. Ȗ is: 1 1 γ= = =4.3074x10 28 .09884 m/sec DNG−δN (0.01281)(0.23b) to predict the rate of CVD. In this case. DNr (0.062)( 1024 ) ks = r= =0.23b) will be used for the rate prediction. aSiO2 = 0. (8.062. Chemical Vapor Deposition . we have: δks = (0.01281)(10 24 ) (6) The deposition rate (r): We may use either Eq.06 nm+ radius of Si = 0.7. aO2 = 0.02) =0. (8.4738x10 m/s or 0. Eq.Cont’d Example 8.14)(0.

Ɣ The pressure of the carrier gas. in which x is shown in Fig. Ɣ The distance in the direction of gas flow. T3/2. V-1. P-1. 8-10 (b): y Reactant and gas flow V(x) G Boundary layer s δ(x) x x Hot silicon surface . Chemical Vapor Deposition . x1/2.Cont’d Enhanced CVD The working principles of CVD process leads to the observations that the rates of CVD is proportional to the following physical parameters: Ɣ The temperature. Ɣ The velocity of gas flow.

but also results in lower Reynolds number that will increase the boundary layer thickness. D. (3) This leaves with the last option to decrease the pressure of the gas. į. it is not a positive option.5 )(x )(D) r∝ ( P)(V )(δ ) A few possibilities exist to enhance the rate of CVD: (1) To raise the process temperature. (2) To decrease the velocity. So. T would normally increase diffusivity. The CVD operates at atmospheric pressure is called APCVD. However. These two effects may cancel out each other. Thus. we may formulate the parameters that affect the rate of CVD: (T 1. LPCVD operates in vacuum at about 1 torr (1 mm Hg) has become a popular CVD process in microfabrication.Cont’d Low-Pressure CVD (LPCVD) Low-Pressure CVD (LPCVD): From the previous observation. V may enhance the rate r. P with expectation to enhance the rate. r of the CVD. it will harm the substrate.Cont’d Enhanced CVD . Chemical Vapor Deposition . .

Out to Reactant vacuum pump and gas in Ɣ A typical PECVD reactor is shown: . which often damage the silicon substrates. Chemical Vapor Deposition .Cont’d Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD) Ɣ Both APCVD and LPCVD operate at elevated temperatures.. Electrode Substrates Ɣ CVD using plasmas generated from high energy RF (radio-frequency) sources Rotating susceptor is one of such alternative methods. RF source Ɣ The operating temperatures may be avoided if alternative form of energy supply can be found. Resistance heater Heating elements Ɣ This popular deposition method is called “Plasma Enhanced CVD” or PECVD. Ɣ High substrate surface temperature is required to provide sufficient energy for diffusion and chemical reactions.Cont’d Enhanced CVD .

2-5 Torr/ 300-350 for Lower Vulnerable to Low- 300-400oC Si3N4 substrate chemical temperature temperature. good metals. low coverage. PECVD 0. and adhesion. undoped temperature particle oxides contamination LPCVD 1-8 Torr/ 50-180 for Excellent High temperature Doped and 550-900oC SiO2 purity and and low undoped 30-80 for uniformity. .Cont’d Summary and Comparison of 3 CVD Processes CVD Pressure/ Normal Advantages Disadvantages Applications Process Temperature Deposition Rates. polysilicon and tungsten. silicon Si3N4 large wafer nitride. contamination insulators over fast. passivation. Chemical Vapor Deposition . high Poor step Doped and 350-400oC rate. deposition rates oxides. (10-10 m/min) APCVD 100-10 KPa/ 700 for SiO2 Simple. 100-200 for capacity polysilicon.

Ɣ Metal films are used as electrical circuit terminals as illustrated below: Metal wire bond Metal layer Metal layers Insulation layer Wire bond Insulation Piezoresistors Silicon diaphragm surface Die bond: Pressurized medium Adhesive Constraint Base Metal Diffused piezoresistor leads Ɣ Sputtering process is carried out with plasmas under very low pressure in high vacuum up to 5x10-7 torr and at room temperature. . Ɣ It is used to deposit thin metal films in the order of 100 A (1A = 10-10 m) onto the substrate surface. Ɣ No chemical reaction is involved in the deposition process. Sputtering Ɣ Sputtering is a form of Physical Vapor Deposition.

such as the one illustrated below.M+ + M-vapor High velocity Electrodes Metal vapor Substrate Ɣ Inert Argon gas is used as the carrier gas for metal vapor. . Sputtering .Cont’d Ɣ Metal vapor is created by the plasma generated by the high energy RF sources. Ɣ The metal vapor forms the metal films after condensation of the substrate surface. Target plates e.+ M →M+ + 2e- Argon gas + Metal vapor.

Ɣ We will focus our attention on the popular “Vapor-phase epitaxy” (VPE) process. Ɣ Most polisilicons are doped pure silicon crystals randomly oriented. Ɣ One may deposit GaAs to GaAs substrates using this technique. Deposition by Epitaxy Ɣ Both CVD and PVD processes are used to deposit dissimilar materials on the silicon substrate surfaces. Ɣ This process is similar to CVD with carrier gas with reactants that release the same material as the substrates. . They are used to conduct electricity at desired locations on silicon substrates. Ɣ Epitaxy deposition process is used to deposit polysilicon films on silicon substrate surfaces. Ɣ There are four epitaxy deposition methods available.

3.7 No pattern shift Dichlorosilane (SiH 2Cl2) 1100 Very large pattern shift (SiCl4) Typical chemical reaction: SiH4 → Si (solid) + 2H2 (gas) .0.Cont’d The reactant vapors Reactant vapors Normal Normal Required Remarks process deposition energy temperature rate supply (oC) (µm/min) (eV) Silane (SiH 4) 1000 0.0 Large pattern shift Silicon tetrachloride 1225 0.2 .6 Some pattern shift Trichlorosilane (SiHCl 3) 1175 1.5 1.6 .1.8 Deposition by Epitaxy .1.1.8 0.6 .

Ɣ For safety reason. Deposition by Epitaxy . Ɣ The two types of reactors are illustrated below: Resistant heating elements Vertical reactor Vent Gas flow Substrates Carrier gas + reactant Dopant (if any) + H2 Reactant + H2 H2 N2 Horizontal reactor Susceptor Exhaust . except that many of the carrier gas used is H2.Cont’d Reactors for epitaxy deposition Ɣ Very similar to those used in CVD. N2 gas is used to drive out any O2 gas in the system before the process begins.

Ɣ In either etching processes. Ɣ There are two types of etching techniques: Ɣ Wet etching involving the use of strong chemical solvents (etchants). Etching Ɣ MEMS and microsystems consist of components of 3-dimensional geometry. masks made of strong-resisting materials are used to protect the parts of substrate from etching. or Ɣ Dry etching using high energy plasmas. Ɣ Both etching methods will be presented in detail in the subsequent chapter on Micromanufacturing. Ɣ There are two ways to create 3-dimensional geometry: Ɣ by adding materials at the desired locations of the substrates using vapor deposition techniques. or Ɣ by removing substrate material at desired locations using the etiching methods. .