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# Unit-2

Transient Resonance in RLC Circuit

Inductors - how do they work?
R

battery is connected, the inductor is resistant to the
V0 flow of current. Gradually the current increases to
the fixed value V0/R, meaning that the voltage across
the inductor goes to zero. In reality the inductor has
L
a finite resistance since it is a long wire so it will then
be more like a pair of series resistances.

dI
VL  L
dt

Inductors - time constant L/R
VR Again the behavior of an inductor is seen by analysis

V0 dI
V0  VR  VL  IR  L
VL dt
V0   Rt 
then I 1  exp  L 
and
R  
 Rt   Rt 
VL  V0 exp   VR  V0 1  exp   
 L   L 

There is a fundamental time scale set by L/R, which has units of seconds
(=Henry/Ohm)

First
v (t)
r
Order Circuits iL(t)
+ -
ic(t)
+
R
+ +
vs(t) C vc(t) is(t) R L vL(t)
- -
-

KVL around the loop: KCL at the node:
vr(t) + vc(t) = vs(t) v(t ) 1
t
  v( x)dx  is (t )
R L 
dvc (t )
RC  vc (t )  vs (t ) L diL (t )
dt  iL (t )  is (t )
R dt

– The initial conditions determine the value of K. x(t )  x p (t )  xc (t ) – Particular solution satisfies the forcing function – Complementary solution is used to satisfy the initial conditions. dxc (t ) xc (t )   0 dx p (t ) dt x p (t )    f (t ) Homogeneous dt xc (t )  Ke t / equation . Complete Solution • Voltages and currents in a 1st order circuit satisfy a differential equation of the form dx(t ) x(t )    f (t ) dt – f(t) is called the forcing function. • The complete solution is the sum of particular solution (forced response) and complementary solution (natural response).

 = L/R . The Time Constant • The complementary solution for any 1st order  t / circuit is xc (t )  Ke • For an RC circuit.  = RC • For an RL circuit.

7% of its initial value.What Does Xc(t) Look Like? xc (t )  e t /  = 10-4 •  is the amount of time necessary for an exponential to decay to 36. • -1/ is the initial slope of an exponential with an initial value of 1. .

The Particular Solution • The particular solution xp(t) is usually a weighted sum of f(t) and its first derivative. • If f(t) is sinusoidal. then xp(t) is sinusoidal. • If f(t) is constant. then xp(t) is constant. .

From a phasor point of view this means that the inductor leads the resistor by 90 degrees. Another limitation is that they are far from ideal. However the inductors are usually bulkier and relatively expensive compared to capacitors (and more difficult to make in an integrated circuit) so are not used as commonly. . which means that in order to find the breakpoint you use f = L/(2(RL+R)). The impedance is usually RL+iL. High pass and low pass filters can be made from inductors as well. RLC circuits with sinusoidal sources The AC analysis of circuits with inductors is also easy. with the effective resistance (impedance) of an inductor equal to iL.

R    tan 1  1    L     C  . Mathematical analysis of a series LRC circuit - bandpass filter First find the total impedance of the circuit Z L  iL Vin  1  L Z  R  i  L    C  1 Using a voltage divider ZC  iC Vout R C i   Vin  1  C R  i  L   R   C  Vout The phase shift goes from 90°to - 90°.

is Vout R Vin L Av   Vin  1  2 R   L  2   C  C Note that for high frequencies L is dominant and the gain is R/ L or small. At 2 = 1/LC the gain is one (assuming ideal components). At low frequencies the gain is  RC because R the impedance of the capacitor is Vout dominant. Av. . Mathematical analysis of a series LRC circuit - bandpass filter (2) The magnitude of the gain.

since this emphasizes the peak.4 0.8 to plot it as shown on a semi-log Gain 0. 0.6 graph.2 dB/decade at high and low 1 1 f peak  frequencies (this means that it is 2 LC proportional to ) it is more typical 0. Graphing for a series LRC circuit RLC bandpass filter Although the gain falls off at 20 1.2 0 0 2 4 6 Log10 Freq .

6  frequencies where the gain is 3 dB 0. 0. Q factor for a Series LRC circuit RLC bandpass filter The quality factor or Q is defined as 1.2 0 0 2 4 6 Log10 Freq 1 R  R Solve 2  1  2 f 3dB  R   L  2  L   C  .2 the energy stored divided by the energy loss/cycle.4 R LC lower than the maximum). For an electronic 1 f peak bandpass it is the peak frequency Q divided by the width of the peak or 0.8 f 3dB bandwidth (defined by the Gain L 0.

f peak Q f 3dB f valley  1  RC 2 LC LC . this circuit is a notch filter. that is it attenuates a small band of frequencies. Parallel LRC circuit 1 L Z  Ri  Ri Vin   C  1   1   2 LC    L  R Vout  R Av  Vin R  i L  L  2 C R  2  1   2 LC  1   LC  2 R Vout Measured across the resistor. The bandwidth in this case is defined by 3dB from the lowest point on the graph.

Transients in a series LRC circuit Suppose instead of a sinusoidal source we had a slowly varying square waveform or a sharp turn on Vin of voltage. . How would a LRC circuit behave? L C We can start by using Kirchoff’s laws again. R Vout dI Q V0  VR  VL  VC  IR  L  dt C 2 d Q dQ Q L 2  R dt dt C This is a second order differential equation that can be solve for the general and particular solutions.

C R  1  2 Vout   : Overdamped  RC  LC  1  2   : Critically damped  RC  LC  1  2   : Underdamped  RC  LC . Transients in a series LRC circuit 1 1 x  2 x 0 Vin L RC LC The solutions to the quadratic above determine the form of the solutions. We will just state the solutions for different value of R. L and C.

underdamped. This not exact so lets look at the mathematical solution. results in an exponentially decaying envelope and a sinusoidal oscillations. C R Vout  1 1   t  VR (t )  K1 cos   2 2 t  exp    LC 4 R C   2 RC When (RC)2>>LC the cos will oscillate several times at a frequency almost equal to the resonant frequency. . This Vin ringing is commonly observed. Transients in a series LRC circuit The last. It can be thought of as two L parts: a loss of energy related to R and an oscillation related to the product LC.

Introduction • Alternating currents and voltages vary with time and periodically change their direction .

Fundamentals of AC

• AC means Alternating Current
• It is changes its direction at regular intervals of time
• Direction of current depends on the direction of voltage.
• Therefore changing the direction of voltage at regular interval of time
results in Alternating Current
• Commonly used AC is the Sinusoidal AC
• By convention, alternating currents are called ac currents and
alternating voltages are called ac voltages.
• Other types: Square, Triangle, Trapezoidal, Saw tooth, etc.

Reasons for using Sinusoidal Voltage

• Rotating machines produce AC sinusoidal voltage.
• Generating and transporting AC across long distances is relatively
easy.
• AC can be converted to and from high voltages easily using
transformers.
• AC is also capable of powering electric motors.
• Sine waveform is the base wave that can be represented using
Fourier series.

Sinusoidal ac waveforms.

Values above the axis are
positive while values below
are negative.

.Sinusoidal AC Current Current has the same wave shape as voltage.

Generating AC Voltages .

. .Generating AC Voltages – Cont.

Coil voltage versus angular position. .

Characteristics of a Sine Wave Period (T) Frequency (f) Angular Frequency (ω)  The maximum and minimum voltage or current swing Peak Amplitude Peak-to-peak amplitude Average Value (Half Cycle) Value of the root mean square (RMS)  Average value of a sine wave (Full Cycle) DC offset  Comparison between two sine waves Magnitudes Phase angle (Lagging and leading signals) .

Ireland. the AC power system operates at a frequency of 60 Hz. of cycles per second) Hertz f =1 Hz f = 2 Hz f = 50 cycles per second = 50 Hz In North America (primarily the US and Canada). including the UK. and Scotland.Frequency f (No. In Europe. . the power system operates at a frequency of 50 Hz.

a. Period (T) Period T is the duration of one cycle.000001 seconds/cycle . Exercise: measured in seconds. What is the period of a 1MHz 𝟏 current? 𝒇 = Hz 𝑻 • AC voltage at 50Hz will have a period of 1/50 = 0. What is the period of a 50Hz voltage? b.02 seconds/cycle 𝟏 • AC voltage at 1MHz will have a 𝑻= s 𝒇 period of 1/(1M) = 0.

Angular frequency • Frequency in cycles per second (f) can be converted in to radians per second (ω) 2   2 f  rad/s T Example: f  50 Hz   314.2857 rad/s .

Radians One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc that has a circumference that is equal to the length of the radius of a circle .

Radians Graph showing a sine wave with the y axis giving phase in degree and radians. .

the conversion between radians and degrees is easy to write. To find the number of radians. given the radians: 360 • 1 rad = 57.3o deg   rad • 2 rad = 360o 2 rad .Angular measurement Because there are 2 radians in one complete revolution and 360o in a revolution. given the number of degrees: 2 rad rad   degrees 360 To find the number of degrees.

Peak-to-Peak Value(Vpk-pk) .Peak Value (Vp) .

The Average Value of an Alternating Current (or Voltage) .

• The average of half a sine wave. the net area for a full cycle is equal to zero.Average Value • For a symmetrical sine wave. however. is not zero. .

(Full wave Average and Half wave average) • For a full-wave case • For the half-wave case The corresponding expressions for voltage are Vavg = 0.318Vm (half-wave) .637Vm (full-wave) Vavg = 0.Average Value .cont..

Value of an Alternating Current (or Voltage) .S.The R.M.

.

c.If an a. supply is connected to a component of resistance R. the instantaneous power dissipated is given by .

If an a. supply is connected to a component of resistance R. the instantaneous power dissipated is given by power = i2 R .c.

.

The mean (average) power is given by .

The mean (average) power is given by mean power = (mean value of i2) R .

The mean value of i2 is .

I2 The mean value of i2 is 2 .

The square root of this figure indicates the effective value of the alternating current .

s.The square root of this figure indicates the effective value of the alternating current r. = root mean square .m.

.

Irms = I 2 where I is the maximum (or peak) value of the a.c. .

value of an a.m.c. supply is equal to the direct current which would dissipate energy at the same rate in a given resistor .The r.s.

supply is equal to the direct current which would dissipate energy at the same rate in a given resistor We can use the same logic to define the r.c.s. value of an a.m. value of the voltage of an alternating voltage supply.The r.m. .s.

m.The r.s.c.m. value of the voltage of an alternating voltage supply. Vrms = V 2 where V is the maximum (or peak) value of the voltage . supply is equal to the direct current which would dissipate energy at the same rate in a given resistor We can use the same logic to define the r.s. value of an a.

We have been considering a sinusoidal variation of current (or voltage) .

We have been considering a sinusoidal variation of current (or voltage) .

We have been considering a sinusoidal variation of current (or voltage) For this variation.m.s. the r. value would be .

m.s. value would be equal to the maximum value . the r.We have been considering a sinusoidal variation of current (or voltage) For this variation.

s.• r.m. values are useful because their relationship to average power is similar to the corresponding DC values P V I av rms rms 2 V P  rms av R 2 P I R av rms .

11 0.• Form factor • for any waveform. 0. form factor is defined as Form factor  r.m. value average value • for a sine wave.707 V p Form factor   1.637 V p .s.

414 0.s.707 V p . value • for a sine wave. peak factor is defined as peak value Peak factor  r. V p Peak factor   1.m.• Peak factor • for any waveform.

fill in the values for A and ) • Express this signal as v(t )  A sin( 2ft) . • what is the angular frequency in rad/s? • what is the period in m s? • Express this signal as v(t )  A sin( t ) (i.Practice problem • A device emits a sinusoidal signal that has a magnitude of 1 volt and a frequency of 690 kHz.e.

Practice problem • An AC voltage in volts is given by v(t )  10 sin( 377t ) • what is the unit of the number 10? • what is the unit of the number 377? • what is the angular frequency in rad/s? • what is the frequency in Hz or cps? • what is the period in ms? .

Problem What is the resistance of a light-bulb that uses an average power of 75 W when connected to a 60 Hz power source with a peak voltage of 170V? .

Phasor Representation of a Sinusoid .

their frequency and their phase • In many circuits the frequency is fixed (perhaps at the frequency of the AC supply) and we are interested in only magnitude and phase • In such cases we often use phasor diagrams which represent magnitude and phase within a single diagram .Phasor Diagrams • Sinusoidal signals are characterised by their magnitude.

.  A diagram containing phasor is called phasor diagram.Phasor diagram  Phasor is defined as a vector that rotate anticlockwise about its axis with constant angular velocity.  It is used to represent a sinusoidal alternating quantity such as current and voltage.  It also being used to determine the phase difference between current and voltage in ac circuit.

ac Waveform Vmax v t v  Vmax sin  t  2  f f is the frequency of the waveform .

AC Phasor Representation v t Vmax v  Vmax sin t   2  f rad / sec Vmax Vrms  V  2 .

• Examples of phasor diagrams (a) here L represents the magnitude and  the phase of a sinusoidal signal (b) shows the voltages across a resistor. an inductor and a capacitor for the same sinusoidal current .

This gives both the magnitude and phase of the resultant signal .• Phasor diagrams can be used to represent the addition of signals.

• Phasor diagrams can also be used to show the subtraction of signals .

Here is a simple ac circuit: . Alternating Voltages and Currents R circuit Wall sockets provide current and voltage that vary sinusoidal with time.

i) Pure Resistor in the AC Circuit VR I ω I V Phasor diagram .

QUICK QUIZ Which of the following statements might be true for a resistor connected to an AC generator? (a) Paverage= 0 and iaverage = 0 (b) Pav = 0 and iav > 0 (c) Pav > 0 and iav = 0 (d) Pav > 0 and iav > 0. .

ii) Pure Capacitor in the AC Circuit I VR I    rad 2 ω I V Phasor diagram .

ii) Pure Capacitor in the AC Circuit Example An 8.0 Hz.452 A Peak current ? XC .00 μF capacitor is connected to the terminals of an AC generator with an r m s voltage of 150 V and a frequency of 60. r m s current and the peak current in the circuit. Capacitive reactance. 1 1 Xc    332 Ω C 2fC R m s current. Vrms I rms   0. Find the capacitive reactance.

iii) Pure Inductor in the AC Circuit VL I I ω V I  Phasor diagram   rad 2 .

60 Hz power source. If the resistance of the coil is neglected. what is the effective current through the coil.26 H .0 A to flow through an pure inductor. V XL   80  I X L  2fL  L  0. Vrms Vrms I rms    0.5 H is connected to a 120 V. Calculate the inductance of the inductor.64 A X L 2fL Example A 240 V supply with a frequency of 50 Hz causes a current of 3.iii) Pure Inductor in the AC Circuit Example A coil having an inductance of 0.

7  Therefore VL 5 IL    318 mA peak X L 15. the reactance of the inductor is given by X L  L  2fL  2    100  25  10  3  15.• Example A sinusoidal voltage of 5 V peak and 100 Hz is applied across an inductor of 25 mH.7 . What will be the peak current? At this frequency.

i) RC in series circuit R C VR I VR VC  VC V  : phase angle I V  supply voltage V ω Phasor diagram In the circuit diagram : • VR and VC represent the instantaneous voltage across the resistor and the capacitor. In the phasor diagram : • VR and VC represent the peak voltage across the resistor and the capacitor. .

d (supply voltage). V 2  VR2  VC2 V  I R2  1 VR  IR ω2C 2 V 2  IR   IX C  2 2 VC  IX C  V 2  I 2 R 2  X C2  1 and XC  ωC . i) RC in series circuit VR R C I  VC  : phase angle VR VC V V  supply voltage I V ω Phasor diagram • The total p. V across R and C is equal to the vector sum of VR and VC as shown in the phasor diagram.

i) RC in series circuit R VR I   XC VC Z V ω ω Impedance diagram Phasor diagram • From the phasor • The impedance in diagrams. RC I leads V by Φ circuit. I R 2  1 V Z  rms   2C 2 tan   VC XC I rms I tan   VR R 1 or Z  R2   2C 2 IX C 1 tan   tan   IR ωCR .

i) RC in series circuit Z 1 XC  2fC R 0 f Graph of Z against f .

i) RC in series circuit Example An alternating current of angular frequency of 1.10 F capacitor which are connected in series. XC VC Fro tan   and tan   m R VR VC X 1 0.0 x 10 4 rad s-1 flows through a 10 k resistor and a 0.1  tan   C   0.0 V .1  2. Calculate the r m s voltage across the capacitor if the r m s voltage across the resistor is 20 V.1 VR R CR VC  200.

then  = 250 Therefore Z  R  j XC 1 Rj C 1  100  j 250  10  4  100  j40 .• Using complex impedance • Example Determine the current in this circuit. Since v = 100 sin 250t .

7  40 Z  tan  1  21.7  21.8 100 Z  107.8 Z 107.9321.7  21.8 .• Example (continued) The current is given by v/Z and this is easier to compute in polar form Z  100  j40 Z  1002  402  107.8  Therefore v 1000 i   0.

ii) RL in series circuit R L ω VR VL V  : phase angle VL V  supply voltage I  I V VR Phasor diagram • The voltage across the resistor VR and the capacitor VL are VR  IR VL  IX L .

d (supply voltage). V 2  VR2  VL2 V 2  IR   IX L  V  I R 2  ω2 L2 2 2  V 2  I 2 R 2  X L2  and X L  ωL . ii) RL in series circuit R L ω V  : phase angle VR VL VL  V  supply voltage I I VR V Phasor diagram • The total p. V across R and L is equal to the vector sum of VR and VL as shown in the phasor diagram.

ii) RL in series circuit ω ω Z V XL VL   R I VR Impedance diagram Phasor diagram • From the phasor • The impedance in diagrams. V XL Vrms I R   L 2 2 2 tan   L tan   Z  VR R I rms I or Z  R 2   2 L2 IX L ωL tan   tan   IR R . RC V leads I by Φ circuit.

ii) RL in series circuit Z X L  2fL R 0 f Graph of Inductive reactance. Resistance against frequency .

0. 61. the r m s current flows in the coil. 25 Hz. 0. the phase angle between the current and supply voltage.14 H and resistance of 12  is connected to an alternating source 110 V. c.3o . 4. b.4 A.48. the power factor of the circuit. d.23 kW .Exercise A coil having inductance 0. the average power loss in the coil. Calculate a.

iii) RLC in series circuit L R C VL VR VC I V .

iii) RLC in series circuit VL L R C ω VL  VC  V VL VR VC  I I VR VC V Phasor diagram .

iii) RLC in series circuit L R C VL ω VL VR VC VL  VC  V I  I VR V VC Phasor diagram • The voltage across the inductor VL . resistor VR and capacitor VC are V  IX V  IR V  IX L L R C C .

V across L. iii) RLC in series circuit VL L R C ω VL  VC  V VL VR VC  I I VR VC V Phasor diagram • The total p.d (supply voltage). R and C is equal to the vector sum of VL .VR and VC as shown in the phasor diagram. V 2  VR2  VL  VC  2 V 2  IR   IX L  IX C  V  I R2  X L  X C  2 2 2  V 2  I 2 R2  X L  X C  2  .

VL  VC I X L  X C  I R2  X L  X C  tan   tan  2 V Z  rms  VR IR I rms I  1  Z  R2  X L  X C  2 X L  XC  ωL   tan    ωC  tan   R R . iii) RLC in series circuit XL VL ω ω X L  X C  Z VL  VC  V   R I XC VR VC Impedance diagram • From the phasor Phasor diagram • The impedance in RLC diagrams. V leads I by Φ circuit.

The series resonant circuit .Resonance Resonance is a condition in an RLC circuit in which the capacitive and inductive reactances are equal in magnitude. thereby resulting in a purely resistive impedance.

Series Resonance Input impedance: Vs 1 Z  H()   R  jL  I jC  1  Resonance Z  R  j L   occurs when  C  imaginary part is 0 Resonant/center frequency: 1 0  rad / s LC .

pf=1 3.Series Resonance At resonance: 1. The impedance is purely resistive. The inductor voltage and capacitor voltage can be much more than the source voltage . The voltage and the current are in phase. Z = R 2. The magnitude of transfer function H(w) = Z(w) is minimum 4.

Series Resonance Average power dissipated by the RLC circuit: 1 2 P()  I R 2 Where: Vm I  R 2  L  1 / C  2 .

Series Resonance The current amplitude vs. frequency for the series resonant circuit Maximum power: 1 Vm2 P(0 )  2 R Power at certain frequency: Vm2 P(1 )  P(2 )  4R .

Series Resonance Half power frequency: 2 R R  1 1       2L  2L  LC 2 R R  1 2      2L  2L  LC 0  12 .

Series Resonance The “sharpness” of the resonance in a resonant circuit is measured quantitatively by the quality factor Q 0 L 1 0 Q   R 0 CR B The quality factor of a resonant circuits is the ratio of its resonant frequency to its bandwidth .

the smaller the bandwidth .Series Resonance Relation between Q and bandwidth B: R 0 B   2  1   L Q The higher the circuit Q.

Q  10 and half power frequency can be approximated as: B 1  0  2 B 2  0  2 .Series Resonance High Q circuit if.

Determine : a) The resonant frequency and the half-power frequency b) The quality factor and bandwidth c) The amplitude of the current at ω0. L=1mH. ω1 and ω2 . C=0.4μF.Example 1 R=2Ω.

1 XC  0 f fr f Graph of impedance Z. L. X C . X L . Resonance in RLC series circuit • Resonance is defined as the phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of the applied voltage is equal to the frequency of the R. inductive reactance XL. capacitive reactance XC and resistance R with frequency. . Z Z The series resonance XL  f circuit is used for R tuning a radio receiver. C series circuit. R.

Resonance in RLC circuit X C . X L . 0 f fr f • at resonance. Z The graph shows that : Z • at low frequency. R • at high frequency. R. impedance Z 1 XC  is high because ωL is large. impedance Z is minimum (Z=R) which is X X Z  R  X L  X C  2 2 L C 1 2f r L  2f r C Z min  R 2  0 resonant fr  1 Z min  R frequency 2 LC Vrms Vrms and I is maximum I rms   Z R . impedance Z XL  f is large because 1/ωC is large.

the larger the resonant current: . Resonance in Electrical Circuits The smaller the resistance.

Application of series resonance Radio communication • How does a radio tune to a particular station? • Use a variable capacitor in concert with inductors and resistors! .

Tuning a radio • RMS voltage of 1. what is resonance frequency? At that frequency what are XL and XC and Z? .0V.

A useful application: the loudspeaker • The woofer (low tones) and the tweeter (high tones) are connected in parallel across the amplifier output. .

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050μF capacitor.6kV) c) What is the voltage across the series combination of the inductor and capacitor ? a) Write the equation for the supply voltage at fr. .iii) RLC in series circuit EXERCISE A series circuit contains a 50 Ω resistor adjacent to a 200 mH inductor attached to a 0. all connected across an ac generator with a terminal sinusoidal voltage of 150 V effective.59 kHz) b) What voltages will be measured by voltmeters across each element at resonance ? (150V. a) What is the resonant frequency ? (1.

Sketch the phasor diagram. the impedance of the circuit at resonance. a 0. the current flows through the circuit at resonance. . fr = 600 Hz. Calculate a. iii) RLC in series circuit Example A 200  resistor.75 H inductor and a capacitor of capacitance C are connected in series to an alternating source 250 V. the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance when resonance is occurred. the capacitance C. c. e. d. b.

75 H .iii) RLC in series circuit Solution R = 200  . L = 0.83 k X C  2. f = 600 Hz.9 nF 2fC VL c) Z = R = 200 e) I  VR Vrms Vrms VC d) I rms    1. a) X L  L  2.25 A Z R .83 k 1 b) 2.Vrms = 250 V.83 x10 3  . C  93.

iii) RLC in series circuit Exercise A series RLC circuit has a resistance of 25.9 Ω . 67. 60 Hz source. and an inductance of 0. 64. 1.0 Ω.85 A.3o . a capacitance of 50.300 H. calculate a) The total impedance of the circuit b) The r m s current in the circuit c) The phase angle between the voltage and the current.0 μF. If the circuit is driven by a 120 V.

A 24.0μF capacitor. e) Find the power factor. a 10. a) What will an ammeter in the circuit read ? b) What will a voltmeter read across each element ? c) What is the real power dissipated in the circuit? d) Calculate the power supply.0 mH inductor in series are wired across the terminals of the oscillator. and a 50.Example An oscillator set for 500 Hz puts out a sinusoidal voltage of 100 V effective.0 Ω resistor. f) What is the phase angle? .

L=50.0μF.9 V c) Real power ? Pave  I rmsV cos  Pave  0. Vrms a) I rms   784 mA Z b) VR  IR  18.Solution f=500 Hz .0 mH.0 Ω . R=24.188  Pave  14. C=10. V=100 V .8 V VL  IX L  123 V VC  IX C  24.7 W  Pr .784 1000.

784(100)  78.188 Z f ) cos   0.188)   79.188   cos 1 (0.4 W e) Power factor.d) Power supply. Pa  I rmsVrms  0. R cos    0.16o .

Example Analyzing a Series RLC Circuit .

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The instantaneous voltages across the three elements as .

the angular frequency  = 2f = 2 50 = 314 rad/s Therefore 1 Z  Z C  Z R  Z L  R  j( X L  XC )  R  j(L  ) C 1  200  j(314  400  10 3  6 ) 314  50  10  200  j62 ohms .• Example • Determine the complex impedance of this circuit at a frequency of 50 Hz. At 50Hz.

the inductance b.163 .Exercise A series RCL circuit contains a 5. the power factor when the generator frequency is 2. Calculate a.0 V. 2.30 kHz the power dissipated in the circuit is 25.31 kHz.94 x 10-3 H . At a resonant frequency of 1.84 Ω . 4.0 W. 0. the resistance c.10 μF capacitor and a generator whose voltage is 11.

308 A e. with an ammeter in series.626 A (rms) d. 0. 0. 54 mA d.2-H inductor are connected in series with a V = 150 sin (377t) volts source. What is the rms value of the current through the capacitor? a.007 A b. 0.A 10-μF capacitor is plugged into a 110 V-rms 60-Hz voltage source. 0. 0.1. and an L = 0.202 A (rms) b. 0. a C = 1-μF capacitor. 0. 0.838 A (rms) e. 27 mA c.066 A (rms) 2. what is the maximum current delivered by the source? a.If an R = 1-kΩ resistor.34 A .415 A (rms) c.

0 V 60 Hz source. What value of capacitor must be inserted in a 60 Hz circuit in series with a generator of 170 V maximum voltage to produce an rms current output of 0. and a 0.0 Q resistor.75 A? 2. Find the voltage across the LC combination. A 60. .00 mF capacitor.Exercise 1. a 3. Repeat for the RC combination.400 H inductor are connected in series to a 90.

Quiz .

What is the impedance of an RLC circuit at the resonance frequency? 2.Conceptual questions 1. Why? . When a dc voltage is applied to a transformer. the primary coil sometimes overheats and burns.

Parallel Resonance The parallel-resonant circuit .

Parallel Resonance Input admittance: I 1 1 Y  H()    jC  V R jL 1  1  Resonance Y   j C   occurs when Resonant frequency: R  L  imaginary part is 0 1 0  rad / s LC .

Parallel Resonance Half power frequency: 2 1  1  1 1       2RC  2RC  LC 2 1  1  1 2      2RC  2RC  LC .

Parallel Resonance 1 B  2  1  RC 0 R Q  0 RC  B 0 L .

Parallel Resonance High Q circuit if. Q  10 and half power frequency can be approximated as: B 1  0  2 B 2  0  2 .

Example 2 R=8 kΩ. quality factor and bandwidth b) The half-power frequencies c) The power dissipated at ω0. Determine : a) The resonant frequency. C=8 μF. ω1 and ω2 .2 mH. L=0.

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Highpass filter: passes high frequencies and rejects low frequencies 3.Filters A filter is a circuit that is designed to pass signals with desired frequencies and reject or attenuate others. 4 types of filters: 1. Lowpass filter: passes low frequencies and stops high frequencies 2. Bandstop filter: passes frequencies outside a frequency band and blocks or attenuates frequencies within the band . Bandpass filter: passes frequencies within a frequency band and blocks or attenuates frequencies outside the band 4.

Filters Ideal frequency response of four types of filters: a) lowpass b) highpass c) bandpass d) bandstop .

Lowpass Filters A lowpass filter is designed to pass only frequencies from dc up to the cutoff frequency ωc .

Lowpass Filters Transfer function: V0 1/ jC 1 H()    Vi R  1/ jC 1  jRC 1 1 H(C )   1  C R C 2 2 2 2 Cutoff frequency: 1 C  RC .

Highpass Filter A highpass filter is designed to pass all frequencies above its cutoff frequency ωc .

Highpass Filters Transfer function: V0 R jRC 1 H ( )     Vi R  1 / jC 1  jRC 1  1 jRC 1 1 H (C )   1 2 1 2 2 2 C R C Cutoff frequency: 1 C  RC .

ω1 < ω0 < ω2 .Bandpass Filter A bandpass filter is designed to pass all frequencies within a band of frequencies.

Bandpass Filters Transfer function: V0 R H()   Vi R  jL  1/ C Center frequency: 1 0  LC .

Bandstop Filter A bandstop filter is designed to stop or eliminate all frequencies within a band of frequencies. ω1 < ω0 < ω2 .

Bandstop Filters Transfer function: V0 jL  1/ C H()   Vi R  jL  1/ C Center frequency: 1 0  LC .

For R=150 Ω and bandwidth 100 Hz. determine: a) L b) C .Example 3 Bandstop filter rejects 200 Hz while passing other frequencies.

Determine : a) The center frequency b) The bandwidth c) The half-power frequencies d) The quality factor .1 mH. L=0. R=2 kΩ. C=40 pF.Exercise 1 For a series RLC bandstop filter.

Power in AC Circuits .

there will normally be some phase shift between v and i.Introduction • The instantaneous power dissipated in a component is a product of the instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current p = vi • In a resistive circuit the voltage and current are in phase – calculation of p is straightforward • In reactive circuits. and calculating the power becomes more complicated .

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.Power in ac circuits • Power = I x V • Average Power = Irms Vrms cos  • Note that the net energy transfer over one cycle is zero for an inductor and a capacitor.

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and average power mean the same thing .Active Power • Average value of instantaneous power. active power. real power.

power is being returned from load • This can happen for inductive or capacitive loads .Reactive Power • During times when p is negative.

Reactive Power • Power that flows into these loads and back out is called the reactive power • Average value of reactive power is zero .

• p is always positive (except when zero)
• Power flows only from source to load
• Power is absorbed by the load
• Power to a pure resistance consists of active power
only

Average Power

• Average value of power is halfway between zero
and peak value of VmIm
• P = VmIm/2
• If V and I are in RMS values
• Then P = VI

Average Power

• Also, P = I2R and P = V2/R
• Active power relationships for resistive circuits are
the same for ac as for dc

• Voltage and current of an inductor are 90°out of phase
• Average power to an inductance over a full cycle is zero
• There are no power losses associated with a pure inductance

Power to an Inductive Load • Power that flows into and out of a pure inductance is reactive power only .

QL • QL = VI = I2XL = V2/XL • Units are VARs .Power to an Inductive Load • pL = VI sin 2t (V and I rms values) • Product VI is the reactive power.

Power to an Inductive Load • VAR means Volt-Amperes-Reactive • Inductive reactive power is represented as positive .

Power to a Capacitive Load • Voltage and current are 90°out of phase • Average power over one complete cycle is equal to zero • There are no power losses associated with a pure capacitance .

Power to a Capacitive Load • Power that flows into and out of a pure capacitance is reactive power only • This power cycle is 180°out of phase with the inductive cycle .

Power to a Capacitive Load • pC = –VI sin 2t • QC = VI • QC = I2XC = V2/XC • Capacitive reactive power is represented as negative • Units are VARs .

Power in More Complex Circuits • It does not matter how a circuit or system is connected • Sum of the power is found by summing individual powers • Total real power P is found by summing each of the individual real powers .

Power in More Complex Circuits • Total Reactive power Q is found by summing individual Q’s • Inductive powers are positive • Capacitive powers are negative .

Apparent Power • Power to a load is VI • If load has both resistance and reactance • Product is neither the real power nor the reactive power. but a combination of both .

Apparent Power • This is called the apparent power. S • S = VI = I2Z = V2/Z • Units are volt-amperes (VA) .

Q. Q. Relationship Between P. and S are related by the “power triangle” S Q  P S  P 2  Q2 . and S • P.

Active and Reactive Power Equations • P = VI cos  = S cos  • Q = VI sin  = S sin  • V and I are RMS values •  is the phase angle between V and I • Q is positive for inductive circuits and negative for capacitive circuits .

Power Factor • Ratio of real power to apparent power is called the power factor. Fp • Fp = P/S = cos  • Angle  is angle between voltage and current .

 is somewhere between 0° and 90° .  = -90° • For a circuit containing a mixture.  = 90° • For capacitance.Power Factor • For pure resistance  = 0° • For inductance.

the power factor will be one • For load containing resistance and inductance • Power factor will be less than one and lagging • Current lags the voltage .Power Factor • Unity power factor • For a purely resistive circuit.

Power Factor • For a circuit containing resistance and capacitance • Fp is less than one and is leading .

Why Equipment Is Rated in VA • A highly reactive load • May seem to require a small amount of power while requiring a large current • Equipment is rated in VA to prevent overloading the circuit .

Why Equipment Is Rated in VA • Size of electrical apparatus required by a load • Governed by its VA requirements .

Power Factor Correction • A load with a small power factor can draw a large current • Can be alleviated by • Cancelling some or all reactive components of power by adding reactance of opposite type to the circuit • This is power factor correction .

Power Factor Correction • Industrial customers may pay a penalty for low power factors due to large currents required for highly reactive loads .

AC Power Measurement • To measure power in an ac circuit you need a wattmeter • Meter consists of • Current-sensing circuit • Voltage-sensing circuit • Multiplier circuit • Averaging circuit .

AC Power Measurement • This will measure load voltage and current and find the product and the angle between these .

Therefore. the current will be given by i = Ip cos t • Then p  vi  VP sin t  IP cos t  VP IP (sin t  cos t ) sin 2t  VP IP ( ) 2 • The average power is zero .Power in Capacitors • From our discussion of capacitors we know that the current leads the voltage by 90. if a voltage v = Vp sin t is applied across a capacitance C.

• Relationship between v. i and p in a capacitor .

Power in Inductors • From our discussion of inductors we know that the current lags the voltage by 90. if a voltage v = Vp sin t is applied across an inductance L. the current will be given by i = -Ip cos t • Therefore p  vi  VP sin t  IP cos t  VP IP (sin t  cos t ) sin 2t  VP IP ( ) 2 • Again the average power is zero . Therefore.

• Relationship between v. i and p in an inductor .

the instantaneous power. p is given by p  vi  VP sin t  IP sin(t   ) 1  VP IP {cos   cos( 2t   )} 2 1 1 p  VP IP cos   VP IP cos( 2t   ) 2 2 .) • Therefore. the current will be of the general form i = Ip sin (t .Circuit with Resistance and Reactance • When a sinusoidal voltage v = Vp sin t is applied across a circuit with resistance and reactance.

1 1 p VP IP cos   VP IP cos( 2t   ) • The expression for 2 p has two components 2 • The second part oscillates at 2 and has an average value of zero over a complete cycle • this is the power that is stored in the reactive elements and then returned to the circuit within each cycle • The first part represents the power dissipated in resistive components. Average power dissipation is 1 V I P  VP IP (cos  )  P  P  (cos  )  VI cos  2 2 2 .

• The average power dissipation given by 1 P  VP IP (cos  )  VI cos  2 is termed the active power in the circuit and is measured in watts (W) • The product of the r.m. S. To avoid confusion this is given the units of volt amperes (VA) .s. voltage and current VI is termed the apparent power.

• From the above discussion it is clear that P  VI cos   S cos  • In other words. the active power is the apparent power times the cosine of the phase angle. • This cosine is referred to as the power factor Active power (in watts)  Power factor Apparent power (in volt amperes) P Power factor   cos  S .

Q . it increases the current that must be supplied and increases losses with cables . This is the active power.Active and Reactive Power • When a circuit has resistive and reactive parts. P • The second is stored and returned by the reactive element. which has units of volt amperes reactive or var • While reactive power is not dissipated it does have an effect on the system • for example. This is the reactive power. the resultant power has 2 parts: • The first is dissipated in the resistive element.

• Consider an RL circuit • the relationship between the various forms of power can be illustrated using a power triangle .

• Therefore Active Power P = VI cos  watts Reactive Power Q = VI sin  var Apparent Power S = VI VA S2 = P2 + Q2 .

9 lagging • the total load on the national grid is 0.9 lagging • this leads to major efficiencies • power companies therefore penalise industrial users who introduce a poor power factor .Power Factor Correction • Power factor is particularly important in high-power applications • Inductive loads have a lagging power factor • Capacitive loads have a leading power factor • Many high-power devices are inductive • a typical AC motor has a power factor of 0.8-0.

• The problem of poor power factor is tackled by adding additional components to bring the power factor back closer to unity • a capacitor of an appropriate size in parallel with a lagging load can ‘cancel out’ the inductive element • this is power factor correction • a capacitor can also be used in series but this is less common (since this alters the load voltage) .

Power Transfer • When looking at amplifiers. we noted that maximum power transfer occurs in resistive systems when the load resistance is equal to the output resistance • this is an example of matching • When the output of a circuit has a reactive element maximum power transfer is achieved when the load impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of the output impedance • this is the maximum power transfer theorem .

jX . maximum power transfer will occur with a load ZL = R .• Thus if the output impedance Zo = R + jX.

Y & B) . our discussion of AC systems has been restricted to single-phase arrangement • as in conventional domestic supplies • In high-power industrial applications we often use three-phase arrangements • these have three supplies. yellow and blue (R.Three-Phase Systems • So far. differing in phase by 120  • phases are labeled red.

• Relationship between the phases in a three-phase arrangement

• Three-phase arrangements may use either 3 or 4 conductors

Power Measurement

• When using AC, power is determined not only by the
r.m.s. values of the voltage and current, but also by the
phase angle (which determines the power factor)
• consequently, you cannot determine the power from
independent measurements of current and voltage
• In single-phase systems power is normally measured
using an electrodynamic wattmeter
• measures power directly using a single meter which
effectively multiplies instantaneous current and voltage

• In three-phase systems we need to sum the power taken from the
various phases
• in three-wire arrangements we can deduce the total power from
measurements using 2 wattmeter
• in a four-wire system it may be necessary to use 3 wattmeter
• in balanced systems (systems that take equal power from each phase) a
single wattmeter can be used, its reading being multiplied by 3 to get the
total power

Key Points

• In resistive circuits the average power is equal to VI, where V and
I are r.m.s. values
• In a capacitor the current leads the voltage by 90 and the
average power is zero
• In an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90 and the
average power is zero
• In circuits with both resistive and reactive elements, the average
power is VI cos 
• The term cos  is called the power factor
• Power factor correction is important in high-power systems
• High-power systems often use three-phase arrangements

FREQUENCY RESPONSE FOR SERIES ac CIRCUITS

FIG. Reviewing the frequency response of the basic elements.

000 rad/sec What are XL. Z. Xc.50 mF V = 50 V w = 10. Phase angle . VL? .An L-R-C series circuit R = 300 Ohms L = 60 mH C = 0. Vc. I. and VR.

Series Resonance Consider the series RLC circuit shown below. Vm I | I | 1 2 R 2  ( wL  ) wC . V = VM 0 R L + V _ C I The input impedance is given by: 1 Z  R  j ( wL  ) wC The magnitude of the circuit current is.

1 wo  LC This is an important equation to remember. It applies to both series And parallel resonant circuits. Series Resonance Resonance occurs when. 1 wL  wC At resonance we designate w as wo and write. .

Vm R |I| Vm 2R Half power point w1 wo w2 w Bandwidth: BW = wBW = w2 – w1 . Series Resonance The magnitude of the current response for the series resonance circuit is as shown below.

The so-called half-power is given when I 2R We find the frequencies. Series Resonance The peak power delivered to the circuit is. 1 2 2 R  R  ( wL  2 ) wC . at which this half-power occurs by using. 2 V P m R Vm . w1 and w2.

Series Resonance After some insightful algebra one will find two frequencies at which the previous equation is satisfied. they are: 2 R  R  1 w1       2L  2 L  LC and 2 R  R  1 w2      2L  2 L  LC The two half-power frequencies are related to the resonant frequency by wo  w1w2 .

R BW  wb  w2  w1  L We define the Q (quality factor) of the circuit as. wo BW  Q These are all important relationships. we can write the bandwidth as. . wo L 1 1 L Q     R wo RC R  C  Using Q. Series Resonance The bandwidth of the series resonant circuit is given by.

resonant circuit.we circuit. Parallel Resonance Background What Whatthis thismeans this meansisisisthat means thatfor that forall for allthe all theequations the equations equations we we wehave have have derived derivedforforthe for theparallel the parallelresonant parallel resonantcircuit. wecan we canuse can use use for the series for the series resonant series resonant circuit resonant circuit provided circuitprovided we providedwe make wemake make the thesubstitutions: substitutions: substitutions: 1 R replaced be R L replaced by C C replaced by L .

Parallel Resonance Parallel Resonance Series Resonance 1 w  O w  1 LC O LC wL Q  w RC Q O o R R ww .w            1 2 2 L 2 L LC  2 RC  2 RC  LC  1 2 1  1   2 1  1   2 w .w 1 BW  ( w  w )  w  1 2 BW  w  BW L 2 1 BW RC  R  R  1  2  1  1  1  2 w .w  w     1  2Q  1 2 o  2Q   2Q  1 2 o  2Q  .w        w .w  w     1 w .