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11UEE757- ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL

ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL -
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R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor

• COURSE OBJECTIVES
• To give an introduction to electrical drives
• To expose the students to the basic operation
of different drives and its characteristics
• To study the starting and speed control
operation of ac and dc drives

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R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor

UNIT I - INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC
DRIVES
 Introduction - Electric drives – Types
 Speed - Torque characteristics of various types
of loads and drive motors
 Selection of power rating for drive motors
with regard to thermal overloading and load
variation factors
 load equalization
 Starting, braking, and reversing operations.
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UNIT II - DC DRIVES
 Speed control of DC motors - Ward Leonard
scheme - drawbacks
 Thyristor converter fed dc drives: Single, two
and four quadrant operations
 Chopper fed DC drives : Time ratio control and
current limit control - Single, two and four
quadrant operations
 Effect of ripples on the motor performance.
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Rotor resistance control and slip power recovery schemes 2. Static control of rotor resistance using DC chopper 3. Static Krammer and Scherbius drives  Introduction to Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drives ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 5 R. Stator control: 1. UNIT III . Stator voltage and frequency control 2.THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES  Speed control of 3 phase Induction Motors 1. Emmanuel. Assistant Professor . Rotor control: 1. Inverter and cycloconverter fed Induction Motor drives 2.

THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES  Speed control of 3 phase Synchronous Motors  Inverter fed Synchronous Motors  Commutator-less DC motors  Cycloconverter fed Synchronous Motor  Effect of harmonics on the performance of AC motors ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 6 R. Assistant Professor . UNIT IV . Emmanuel.

Emmanuel. UNIT V .SPECIAL DRIVES . Assistant Professor . Stepper motor drive. DIGITAL CONTROL AND DRIVE APPLICATIONS  Special drives BLDC Motor drives.  Digital techniques in speed control . Linear induction / synchronous motor drive. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 7 R. Switched reluctance motor drives.Advantages and limitations – Microprocessor / Microcontroller and PLC based control of drives  Selection of drives and control schemes for Steel rolling mills. Paper mills. Lifts and Cranes.

New York. Emmanuel. “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives". Ltd. Inc. 2002 • Ion Boldea and S... Tata McGraw hill Pvt. Analysis and Control. New Delhi. Prentice Hall of India. “ Electric Drives: Concepts and Applications”.1999. New Delhi. Narosa Publishing House. B. "Power Electronics and Variable frequency Drives – Technology and Applications". “Electrical Drives and Control”. • Bose. Books TEXT BOOKS • Dubey G. 2002 REFERENCE BOOKS • Bose.K. "Fundamentals of Electrical Drives". Assistant Professor . 2003 • Vedam Subramanyam. B. New Delhi. Gnanavadivel. ”Electric Drives”.. Ltd.K. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. 2003. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 8 R. “ Electric Motor Drives: Modeling. Pvt. 1997. Press. • Krishnan R. Ltd. CRC Press LLC. IEEE. A.K.. New York. New Delhi. Nasar. Anuradha Publications. • J.

UNIT I . Let’s start. Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 9 R.

and microprocessors. sensors. Emmanuel. switches.What is an electric drive? An electric motor driving a mechanical load. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 10 R. constitute an electric drive system. Assistant Professor . relays. directly or indirectly (through a gearbox or a V-belt transmission). and the associated control equipment such as power converters.

Block Diagram of Electric Drive Power Source Motor Load Modulator Control Sensing Unit Unit Input Command ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 11 R. Emmanuel. Assistant Professor .

Single.induction. fuel cell. cost. Emmanuel.phase utility. environment Power sources • DC . wound field • AC motors . photovoltaic • AC . Assistant Professor . Components in electric drives Motors • DC motors . brushless DC Applications. wind generator Unregulated ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 12 R. synchronous.permanent magnet.three.batteries.

Power processor • To provide a regulated power supply • Combination of power electronic converters • More efficient • Flexible • Compact • AC-DC DC-DC DC-AC AC-AC ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 13 R. Assistant Professor . Emmanuel. Components in electric drives .cont.

configurable.DSPs perform faster operation than microprocessors (multiplication in single cycle). lower bandwidth . inflexible. • Digital – immune to noise. can perform complex estimations ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 14 R. Control unit • Complexity depends on performance requirement • Analog.noisy. Emmanuel. Assistant Professor .cont. ideally has infinite bandwidth. Components in electric drives . bandwidth is smaller than the analog controller’s • DSP/microprocessor – flexible.

Individual motor drive. Multi-motor drive. 3. Group drive. Type of Drives The various types of electric drives used in industries may be divided into three types: 1. . 2.

Individual Motor Drives DRIVE 1 DRIVE 1 Part 1 Part 2 Part 1 Part 2 Machine 1 Machine 2 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 16 R. Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.

Assistant Professor . Group Drive DRIVE Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Machine 4 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 18 R. Emmanuel.

Motor Drives DRIVE 1 DRIVE 2 DRIVE 2 Part 1 Part 2 Part 2 Machine 1 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 21 R. Multi . Emmanuel. Assistant Professor .

fans. Some Applications of Electric Drives • Electric Propulsion • Pumps. Assistant Professor . lifts ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 24 R. elevators. textile mills • Automotive applications • Conveyors. compressors • Plant automation • Flexible manufacturing systems • Spindles and servos • Appliances and power tools • Cement kilns • Paper and pulp mills. Emmanuel. escalators.

Emmanuel. Electric drives .variable speed applications ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 25 R. APPLICATION RANGE OF ELECTRIC DRIVES A summary of main industrial applications and power range of electric drives. Assistant Professor . Figure .

Assistant Professor . Emmanuel. Overview of AC and DC drives ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 26 R.

ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 27 R. Emmanuel. Assistant Professor . speed requirement. Load • The motor drives a load that has a characteristic torque vs.

Assistant Professor . Emmanuel. General Torque Equation Translational (linear) motion: dv F : Force (Nm) F M M : Mass (Kg ) dt v : velocity (m/s) Rotational motion: d T : Torque (Nm) TJ J : Moment of Inertia (Kgm2 )  : angular velocity ( rad/s ) dt ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 28 R.

Torque Equation: Motor drives

d d
Te  TL  J or Te  TL  J
dt dt
Te : motor torque (Nm) TL : Load torque (Nm)

Te  TL  0 Acceleration

Te  TL  0 Deceleration

Te  TL  0 Constant speed
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R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor

Torque Equation: Motor drives – cont.

Drive accelerates or decelerates depending on
whether Te is greater or less than TL

During acceleration, motor must supply not only
the load torque but also dynamic torque, ( Jdw/dt ).
During deceleration, the dynamic torque, ( Jdw/dt ), has
a negative sign. Therefore, it assists the motor
torque, Te.

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Electric Machines
• DC Machines - shunt, series, compound, separately
excited dc motors and switched reluctance machines

• AC Machines - Induction, wound rotor synchronous,
permanent magnet synchronous, synchronous
reluctance, and reluctance machines.

• Special Machines – Steppers, Linear Induction
machines.

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DC Motors

Advantage:
• simple torque and speed control without sophisticated
electronics

Limitations:
• Regular Maintenance • Expensive motor
• Heavy motor • Sparking

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Emmanuel. DC DRIVES • DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors as the prime movers • DC motor: Industry workhorse for decades • Dominates variable speed applications before PE converters were introduced • Will AC drive replaces DC drive ? – Predicted 30 years ago – DC strong presence – easy control – huge numbers – AC will eventually replace DC – at a slow rate ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 33 R. Assistant Professor .

Induction Motor Drives 2. Emmanuel. Synchronous Motor Drives ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 34 R. lift. Assistant Professor . AC DRIVES AC motor Drives are used in many industrial and domestic application. There are two type of AC motor Drives : 1. such as in conveyer. mixer. escalator etc.

Assistant Professor . Advantages of AC drives:  Lightweight (20% to 40% lighter than equivalent DC motor)  Inexpensive  Low maintenance Disadvantages AC drives:  The power control relatively complex and more expensive ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 35 R. Emmanuel.

Assistant Professor . Emmanuel. Ra Va  T  kT  2 e kT  Speed of a DC motor can be varied by varying  Armature resistance Ra  Field flux φ  Armature voltage Va ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 36 R. Va  Ra I a  Ea Therefore speed is given by. Torque-speed characteristics Armature circuit: dia Va  Ra ia  L  ea dt In steady state.

19 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.2 0.25 20 15 torque (Nm) 10 5 0 0.21 0.25 .23 0. the faster the acceleration is.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Elementary principles of mechanics For constant J.2 0.23 0.24 0.19 0. dm Te  Tl  J dt dm  J Torque dynamic – present during speed transient dt dm  Angular acceleration (speed) dt The larger the net torque. 200 100 speed (rad/s) 0 -100 -200 0.

  r M r Tl v dv  Fe  Fl  M Te = r(Fe). v =r dt d Te  Tl  r 2M dt r2M .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Elementary principles of mechanics Combination of rotational and translational motions Fl Fe Te.Equivalent moment inertia of the linearly moving mass . Tl = r(Fl).

J1 Tl2 .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Elementary principles of mechanics – effect of gearing Motors designed for high speed are smaller in size and volume Low speed applications use gear to utilize high speed motors m m1 Motor Load 1. n1 Te Tl1 J2 m2 n2 Load 2.

Tlequ Tlequ = Tl1 + a2Tl2 Jequ a2 = n1/n2 .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Elementary principles of mechanics – effect of gearing m m1 Motor Load 1. J1 Tl2 m J equ  J1  a 22 J 2 Motor Equivalent Te Load . n1 Te Tl1 J2 m2 n2 Load 2.

SPEED Synchronous mch Induction mch Separately / shunt DC mch Series DC TORQUE By using power electronic converters.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Motor steady state torque-speed characteristics – cont. the motor characteristic can be change at will .

torques due to friction. Loads with high inertia.the sense of the load torque changes with the change in the direction of motion of drive.Active torques continues to act in the same direction irrespective of the direction of the drive.g. e. • (2) Passive load torque:. 43 R. Emmanuel. g. due to shear and deformation of inelastic bodies. Type of Load torques • Load torque can be of two types • (1) Active load torque:. e. Assistant Professor . 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL .

Types of load • TL= constant (constant torque load) • TL =kω • TL =kω2 • Impact load .

Assistant Professor . • Characterized by the requirement of an extra torque at very near zero speed. Friction 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . • It is also known as break away torque or Dry Friction Load OR Coulomb stiction. Type of Loads (Cont. Emmanuel. • Load torque is independent of the speed of the motor. 45 R.) • It is a passive load to the motor.

Viscous Friction Load 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL .) • Torque is directly proportional to the speed. Type of Loads (Cont. Assistant Professor . eddy current brakes and separately excited dc generators feeding fixed resistance loads have such characteristics. 46 R. • Calendering machines. Emmanuel.

) • Load torque magnitude is proportional to some power of speed. propeller in ships or aeroplanes. 47 R. Type of Loads (Cont. Emmanuel. Torque  (Speed)2 Fan type Load 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . • For fan. Assistant Professor . fan or blower type of load has such characteristics. • Centrifugal pumps.

Assistant Professor . press etc are having this type of load characteristics. Types of Load (Cont.) • Hyperbolic speed- torque characteristics. Emmanuel. 48 R. boring machines. • Certain type of lathes. milling machines. where load torque is inversely proportional to speed or load power is constant. Impact Load 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL .

only one or two T~  are dominating • Exists when there is motion TORQUE Coulomb friction Viscous friction Friction due to turbulent flow .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Frictional torque (passive load) • Exist in all motor-load drive SPEED T~ C system simultaneously T~ 2 • In most cases.

gravitational torque (active load) SPEED Gravitational torque Vehicle drive Te TORQUE TL gM  FL TL = rFL = r g M sin  .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Constant torque. e.g.

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Load steady state torque-speed characteristic Hoist drive Speed Torque Gravitational torque .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Load and motor steady state torque At constant speed. Te= Tl Steady state speed is at point of intersection between Te and Tl of the steady state torque characteristics Torque Te Tl Steady state speed r3 r1r r2 Speed .

Emmanuel. 53 R.) Load torques that vary with time • Load variation with time can be periodic and repetitive in certain applications. • Classification of loads that vary with time: (a) Continuous. 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . Types of Load (Cont. constant loads: Centrifugal pumps or fans operating for a long time under the same conditions. • One cycle of the load variation is called a duty cycle. • The variation of load torque with time has a greater importance in the selection of a suitable motor. Assistant Professor . paper making machines etc.

conveyors etc. (c) Pulsating loads: Reciprocating pumps and compressors. regular and repetitive load peaks or pulses which occurs in rolling mills. Drives for such machines will have heavy fly wheels. hoisting winches. (d) Impact loads: Apparent. presses.) (b) Continuous. variable loads: Metal cutting lathes. textile looms and generally all machines having crank shaft. frame saws. 54 R. Types of Load (Cont. shearing machines. Assistant Professor . forging hammers etc. Emmanuel. 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL .

roll trains etc. Types of Load (Cont. 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . excavators. Emmanuel.) • (e) Short time intermittent loads: Almost all forms of cranes and hoisting mechanisms. • (f) Short time loads: Motor generator sets for charging batteries. Assistant Professor . • Loads of the machines like stone crushers and ball mills are characterized by frequent impact of small peaks so they are classified as continuous variable loads rather than the impact loads. 55 R. servo motors used for remote control of clamping rods of drilling machines.

) • One and the same machine can be represented by a load torque which either varies with the speed or with the time. is also a continuous. 56 R. Assistant Professor . Emmanuel. • Rocking pumps for petroleum have a load which vary with angular position of the shaft. a fan load whose load torque is proportional to the square of the speed. • For example. • Load torque of a crane is independent of the speed and also short time intermittent nature. constant load. 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . Types of Load (Cont. but also be classified as a pulsating load.

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Torque and speed profile speed Speed profile (rad/s) 100 10 25 45 60 t (ms) The system is described by: Te – Tload = J(d/dt) + B J = 0.01 kg-m2. What is the torque profile (torque needed to be produced) ? .01 Nm/rads-1 and Tload = 5 Nm. B = 0.

01(0) + 0.01(-66.67t) + 5 = -57.01(0) + 0.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .015) + 0.67 + 6666.67t) + 5 = (71 + 66.015) +0.01(-100/0.67 – 66.01(400 -6666.67t) Nm 25ms < t< 45ms Te = 0.01(100/0.01(0) + 5 Nm = 5 Nm 10ms < t <25 ms Te = 0.MODULE 1 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) d 100 Te  J  B  Tl dt 10 25 45 60 t (ms) 0 < t <10 ms Te = 0.67t .01(100) + 5 = 6 Nm 45ms < t < 60ms Te = 0.

67 .67 torque profile 71.67 6 5 10 25 45 60 t (ms) -60.MODULE 1 Torque and speed profile speed (rad/s) 100 Speed profile 10 25 45 60 t (ms) Torque (Nm) 72.67 -61.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .

MODULE 1 Torque and speed profile Torque (Nm) 70 J = 0. B = 0.1 Nm/rads-1 and Tload = 5 Nm. what would be the speed profile? . 6 10 25 45 60 t (ms) -65 For the same system and with the motor torque profile given above.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .001 kg-m2.

Emmanuel.Core losses – hysteresis and eddy current . 61 R. Assistant Professor . brush windage 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL .Conductor heat losses (i2R) .  Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature  Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase): . Thermal considerations  Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase  Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the temperature it can withstand.Friction losses – bearings.

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature does not exceed the temperature limit Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is complex – hetrogeneous materials. C (Ws/oC) Emitted heat Surface A. To p2 p1 Thermal capacity. (m2) power Input heat power Surface temperature. T (oC) (convection) (losses) . complex geometrical shapes Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body Ambient temperature.

Heat Heat Heat = - Stored Developed Dissipated .

where   C A . where  is the coefficient of heat transfer Which gives: dT A p  T  1 dt C C With T(0) = 0 and p1 = ph = constant .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Thermal considerations Power balance: dT C  p1  p 2 dt Heat transfer by convection: p 2  A(T  To ) . T  ph A  1  e t /   .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Thermal considerations ph T A T  ph A  1  e t /   Heating transient t  T T  T(0)  e  t /   T ( 0) Cooling transient  t .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES Thermal considerations The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation: Continuous duty Load torque is constant over extended Continuous duty period multiple Short time intermittent duty Steady state temperature reached Periodic intermittent duty Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load p1n Losses due to continuous load T A p1n  t .

 Motor allowed to cool before next cycle Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty Operation considerably less than time constant.

MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty p1s p1 p1n T p 1s A p1n A Tmax  t t1 .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations p1s p p1  Short time intermittent duty p 1n p 1s1t11 e/ e t /    t1 /  1 T p1n A1  eA1n 1s t1 T  p1s A  1  e t /   p1n A Tmax  t t1 .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Load cycles are repeated periodically Motors are not allowed to completely cooled Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty p1 heating coolling heating coolling heating coolling t .

48 kWs/kgoC. thermal time constant = 384000/180 = 35 minutes . nominal power M = 800kg = 0. thermal capacity C is given by C = cFE M = 0.92. A    180 W / o C   T 50 If we assume motor is solid iron of specific heat cFE=0. steady state temperature rise due to pn 1  p1 9000 p1  pn   1  9kW Also.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES . nominal efficiency T= 50oC.MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case – p1 rectangular periodic pattern pn = 100kW.48 (800) = 384 kWs/oC Finally .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .5 2 2.5 1 1.5 4 x 10 .MODULE 1 Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty Example of a simple case – p1 rectangular periodic pattern For a duty cycle of 30% (period of 20 mins). 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0. heat losses of twice the nominal.

R. Motor Selection 1. Cost 2. cogging torque 8. Torque-speed profile 5. Acceleration 6. Power density. . Peak torque capability 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 74 CONTROL . Efficiency 4. Thermal capacity 3. Ripple. volume of the motor 7.

Assistant Professor . Availability of spare parts Cog: Mechanical transmission Gear Toothed wheel 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . 75 R. Suitability for hazardous environment 10. Emmanuel. Motor Selection (contd’) 9.

. Start the equipment load 2. Survive the abuse of the surroundings in which it operates 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 76 CONTROL . Drive the load once it is started 3. R. Motor Selection (contd’) A motor must do three things: 1.

. Type of Power Available • 230-volt motor should not be used if only 115-volt circuits are available • Three-phase motor cannot be operated on electrical system with only single-phase service • Typical Operating Voltages: Single-Phase Three-phase 115 208 208 230 230 460 240 480 460 480 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 77 CONTROL . R.

R. an electric motor approximately 2/3 the HP rating of the engine will be adequate – Replace tractor PTO with an electric motor of approximately the same HP 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 78 CONTROL . Size of Motor • Rated in HP • Refers to the power that it will develop when the motor is turning at full speed • “Rules of Thumb” for estimating size needed: – If equipment can be operated by hand. a 1/4 HP motor will usually be adequate – If gasoline engine is to be replaced by electric motor. .

. R. Starting Load • Motor selected must produce adequate starting torque to start the load • Commonly–used motors: – Split phase – Capacitor start-induction run – Capacitor start-capacitor run – Repulsion start-induction run – Series or universal – Shaded pole – Three-phase – Capacitor start-induction run & Three-phase are the most common and produce highest starting torque 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 79 CONTROL .

R. Speed Requirement • Rated at the speed the shaft will turn in revolutions per minute (rpm) when motor is operating at full speed • Rpm of motor should be speed needed to operate equipment at proper speed 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 80 CONTROL . .

R. Bearing Type • Sleeve bearings • Anti-friction bearings – Require less maintenance and can be mounted in any position 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 81 CONTROL . .

. Base Type • Rigid base • Sliding adjustable base • Cushion mount – Reduces vibration & wear • Determined by application of motor 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 82 CONTROL . R.

• The environment in which the motor is placed helps to dictate the type of enclosure of the motor. Motor Enclosures • Motors must operate in all kinds of environments. R. 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 83 CONTROL . .

. R. • Two types: – Open Enclosure: • Allow movement of air through it to help in cooling • May not be used in any situation where moisture or explosive dust or gases are present – Totally Enclosed: • Have fins on the housings to provide radiant and convection cooling • Must use a higher degree of insulation on windings to prevent overheating • Should be used on all motors in animal confinement situations 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 84 CONTROL .

85 R. Typical motor enclosures: – Open Drip-proof (ODP) – Totally-enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC)—used in outdoor or dirty applications – Totally-enclosed air-over (TEAO)—used in grain handling applications – Totally-enclosed non-ventilated (TENV)—used in milk pumps and similar applications – Explosion-proof 6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.

6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND 86 CONTROL . . R.

87 R.6/24/2017 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL . Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.

Steady-state stability ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 93 R. Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.

a dc motor may be operating in one or more modes: – motoring. Assistant Professor . – plugging. and – four quadrants. The motor develops torque to meet the load demand. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 94 R. Both armature and field currents are positive. Motoring: The arrangements for motoring are shown in Figure Back emf Eg is less than supply voltage Vy. – regenerative braking. Emmanuel. Operating Modes • In variable-speed applications. – dynamic braking.

it is necessary that the field current aids the residual flux. • The kinetic energy of the motor is returned to the supply. Assistant Professor . • A series motor is usually connected as a self-excited generator. This is normally accomplished by reversing the armature terminals or the field terminals. Eg must be greater than supply voltage Va. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 95 R. • The armature current is negative. • For self-excitation. Operating Modes Regenerative braking: • The arrangements for regenerative braking are shown in Figure 15. but the field current is positive.7b. Emmanuel. • The motor acts as a generator and develops an induced voltage Eg.

Assistant Professor . Emmanuel.7c are similar to those of regenerative braking.. • The kinetic energy of the motor is dissipated in Rb. except the supply voltage Va is replaced by a braking resistance Rb. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 96 R. Operating Modes Dynamic braking: • The arrangements shown in Figure 15.

but not both. • The armature current is reversed. either the armature terminals or field terminals should be reversed. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 97 R. The connections for plugging are shown in Figure. Assistant Professor . The field current is positive. The supply voltage Va and the induced voltage Eg act in the same direction. Emmanuel. • The armature terminals are reversed while running. Operating Modes Plugging: • Plugging is a type of braking. thereby producing a braking torque. • For a series motor.

Emmanuel. Assistant Professor . Four quadrant operation of the motor driving a hoist load ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL - 6/24/2017 98 R.

MODULE 1 Ratings of converters and motors Torque Transient Power limit for torque limit transient torque Continuous torque limit Power limit for continuous torque Maximum speed limit Speed .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .

MODULE 1 Steady-state stability .INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .