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MOTOR DRIVES

UNIT III - THREE PHASE INDUCTION

MOTOR DRIVES

Speed control of 3 phase Induction Motors

1. Stator control:

1. Stator voltage and frequency control

2. Inverter and cycloconverter fed Induction Motor drives

2. Rotor control:

1. Rotor resistance control and slip power recovery schemes

2. Static control of rotor resistance using DC chopper

3. Static Krammer and Scherbius drives

Introduction to Vector Controlled Induction

Motor Drives

ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL -

6/24/2017 2

R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor

Induction Motor

Robust; No brushes. No contacts on rotor shaft

High Power/Weight ratio compared to Dc motor

Lower Cost/Power

Easy to manufacture

Almost maintenance-free, except for bearing and

other mechanical parts

Disadvantages

Essentially a fixed-speed machine

Speed is determined by the supply frequency

To vary its speed need a variable frequency supply

Classification of Ind. Motors:

Based on the stator excitation

Single phase Ind. Motors

Three phase Ind. Motors

Based on Rotor type

Squirrel Cage Ind. Motors

Slip Ring Ind. Motors (or) Wound Rotor Ind. Motors

Based on its enclosure

Open type

Semi closed

Enclosed

Induction motor

Construction

Stator

Induction Motor Construction

Stator

a 120o

120o

c

Stator windings of practical

b

machines are distributed

Coil sides span can be less than

180o short-pitch or fractional-

pitch or chorded winding

b c If rotor is wound, its winding the

same as stator

a

120o

Stator 3-phase winding

Rotor squirrel cage / wound

Rotor currents in Squirrel cage rotor

Stator winding:

Y (or) Star Configuration

Stator winding:

(or) Delta Configuration

3 Stator supply voltage

Induction Motors Construction

Squirrel Cage Motor

Construction

Squirrel Cage rotor

Skewing of rotor bars helps in

reduction of noise and the

locking tendency of rotor

Squirrel Cage motor

Construction

Slip ring Induction motor

Slip rings Wound Rotor

Cutaway in a

typical wound-

rotor IM.

Notice the

brushes and the

slip rings

Brushes

Slip rings of a wound rotor

Additional Resistance to the Rotor

Slip Ring Induction Motor (SRIM)

Star connected rotor

Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

phase windings similar which are short

to stator windings circuited at the ends

with the help of end

rings

2. Construction is 2. Construction is simple

complicated

3. Resistance can be added 3. As permanently shorted,

externally resistance cannot be

added

Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

4. Slip rings and brushes are 4. Slip rings and brushes are

present absent

5. Construction is delicate, 5. Construction is robust and

frequent maintenance is maintenance free

necessary

6. Rotor is very costly 6. Due to simple

construction, rotor is

cheap

motors in industry uses 95% of the induction

wound rotor motors use this type of

rotor

Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

be obtained by using cannot be used so starting

rotor resistance starter torque is moderate and

cannot be controlled

9. Speed control by rotor 9. Speed control by rotor

resistance is possible resistance is not possible

10. Rotor copper losses are 10. Rotor copper losses are

high hence efficiency is low hence efficiency is high

low 11. Used for lathes, drilling

11. Used for lifts, hoists, machines, fans, blowers,

cranes, elevators, water pumps, grinders,

compressors etc., printing machines etc.,

Synchronous and Actual Speed

Performance of Three-Phase Induction Motor

The speed of the rotating field (Synchronous speed ) is :

120 f 2 * 120 f 4f

ns rpm ms rad / sec .

P 60 P P

Slip speed is sl ms m sms

sl ms m

Slip, s is : s

ms ms

m Is the rotor speed , m 1 s ms

sl

Rotor frequency in Rad/Sec. is : r 2f s 2sf s

ms

Rotor frequency in Hz is : f r sf s

Rs Xs I r Xr Rr

n s nr

Is Ir

Im sE

V EE

Xm aT 1

Transformer

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r

V Xm E

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r

V Xm E

Rt Xt X r Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Vt

V Xm 1 X s Xm

t

tan

Rs X s X m

2 2

2 Rs

jX m Rs jX s

Rt jX t

Rs j X s X m

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r

V Xm E

Rr / s j X r X m I r

Is

jX m

Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Vt t 2 R

I r Pg 3I r r

R Rr j X X s

t t r

s

2

Pm Pg 3I r Rr

2 Rr

3I r2 Rr 3I r2 Rr 1 s 1 s P

Pm 3I r g

s s

2 Rr

3I r2 Rr 3I r2 Rr 1 s 1 s P

Pm 3I r g

s s

Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Rt Xt X r Rr

I r

1 s

Vt r E Rr

s

Pm Pm 1 s Pg Pg sPg 3I r2 Rr

T T

m m 1 s ms ms sms sms

Vt t Rr

I r T

3

I r

2

R Rr j X X ms

s

t t r

s

3 Vt2 Rr / s

T

ms Rr 2

j X t X r

2

Rt

s

3 2

Vt Rr / s

T

ms Rr 2 2

Rt s j X t X r

dT d 3 Vt2 Rr / s 0

0

ds ds ms Rr 2

j X t X r

2

Rt

s

Rr

sm

Rt 2 X t X r 2

3 Vt2

Tmax

2ms Rt Rt X t X r

2 2

A 3-phase, star connected, 6 pole, 60 Hz induction motor has the following

constants:Vt 231 V, Rt Rr 1 , X t X r 2

1. the motor is used for regenerative braking,

(i) Determine the range of load torque it can hold and the corresponding

range of speed.

(ii) Calculate the speed and current for a load torque of 150 N.m.

2. If the motor is used for plugging, determine the breaking torque and current

for a speed of 1200 rpm.

N s 120 f / P 120 * 60 / 6 1200 rpm

4f 4 * * 60

ms 125.7 rad / sec .

P 6

For regenerative breaking

Rr 1

sm 0.24

Rt2 X r X t

2 1 16

3 Vt2 3 231 * 231 203.9 N .m

Tmax

2ms

t

R R 2

t X r X t

2 2 * 125.7 1 1 16

(i) the range of active load torque the motor can hold: 0 to 203.9 N.m. The

speed in rpm at the maximum torque:

N 1 sm N s 1 0.24 * 1200 1488 rpm

Therefore the range of speed is 1200 to 1488 rpm.

(ii)

3 2

Vt * Rr / s 3 231 * 231 * 1 / s

T 150 N .m

ms 2 1 2

125 .7

Rr 2

1 16

Rt X r X t

s

s

1

Let x , then x 2 10.49 x 17 0

s

Then, x 2 or 8.5 then s . 5 or .118

Since stable operation is usually obtained only up to sm which is -0.24,

the feasible value of s is -0.118.

Vt 231

I r 27.2 A

2 2

Rt

Rr

X r X t

s

2

1 1 16

0.118

Ns N

2. For the motor speed N rpm s

Ns

Then for plugging N s 1200 rpm N 1200rpm

1200 1200

s 2

1200

Vt 231

I r 54.1A

2

1 0.52 16

Rt

Rr

s

X r X t

2

I r2 Rr

* 54.1 *1 / 2 34.9 N .m

3 3

T .

ms s 125.7

Speed Control of Induction Motor

Stator Voltage control

Supply Frequency control

Rotor Resistance control

Slip power recovery schemes

Pole changing method

Stator Voltage Control

AC

Variable

IM

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Voltage

Sources Td

Vs

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

' 2

Rr

S s Rs X s X r'

2

S

Td

Vs > Vs1 > Vs2

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tmax

Im Ir

Rr/s

Vs

Po Tst TL

Pi

Tst1

Tst2

air

Stator rotor

gap

2 1

S=1 S=0

s

Nm =0 Ns

Frequency Voltage Control AC

Variable

Voltage

Sources IM

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by

Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Vs Td

f

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

2

S s Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S Td

fs2 < fs1 < fs

Tmax

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tst2

Im Ir Tst1

Tst TL

Vs Rr/s

f

Po

Pi

gap

S=1 S=0 S=0 S=0

m =0 fs2 fs1 fs

If the frequency is increased above its rated value, the flux and torque

would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated

frequency is call the base speed b, the synchronous speed at any other

frequency becomes:

s b

b m

And : S 1 m

b b

3 Rr' Vs2

The motor torque : Td

' 2

R

S s Rs r X s X r'

2

S

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

2

S b Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S

If Rs is negligible, the maximum torque at the base speed as :

3 Vs2

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

2

3 Vs

Tm

2 S b X s X r' 2

Rr '

Sm

At this maximum torque, slip S is :

X s X r'

2

3 Vs

Tm

2 S b X s X r' 2 Tm 1

2

Normalizing :

3 Vs2 Tmb

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

And Tm 2 Tmb

Example :

A three-phase , 11.2 kW, 1750 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, four pole, Y-connected

induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.1, Rr = 0.38, Xs =

1.14, Xr = 1.71, and Xm = 33.2. If the breakdown torque requiretment is

35 Nm, Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage, b) speed of motor at

the maximum torque

Solution :

460

Input voltage per-phase : Vs 265 volt

3

Base frequency : b 2 f 2 x 3.14 x 60 377 rad / s

60 Po 60 x 11200

Base Torque : Tmb 61.11 Nm

2 N m 2 x 3.14 x 1750

Motor Torque : Tm 35 Nm

Tm 1 Tmb 61.11

2 1.321

Tmb Tm 35

Synchronous speed at this frequency is :

s b

s 1.321 x 377 498.01rad / s or

60 x 498.01

N s Nb 4755.65 rpm

2 x

p NS 4 x 4755.65

So, the supply frequency is : f s 158.52 Hz

120 b 120

Rr '

Sm

At this maximum torque, slip Sm is :

X s X r'

Rr = 0.38, Xs = 1.14, Xr = 1.71 and 1.31

So, 0.38

Sm 0.101 or,

1.3211.14 1.71

N m N S (1 S ) 4755.65 (1 0.101) 4275 rpm

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

Wound rotor induction motor applications

cranes

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

3 Rr' Vs2

Equation of Speed-Torque : Td

2

S s Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S

3Vs2 S

In a wound rotor induction motor, an external Td

three-phase resistor may be connected to its s R 'r

slip rings,

RX

Stator

RX

Rotor

RX

Three-phase

supply

These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping

anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to large

motor applications such as materials handling, mine hoists, cranes etc.

AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors where the resistor is wired into the motor

secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is removed in steps.

AC Squirrel Cage Motors where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft starting

also known as reduced voltage starting.

DC Series Wound Motors where the current limiting resistor is wired to the

field to control motor current, since torque is directly proportional to current,

for starting and stopping.

The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx

This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current.

The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring

frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane, hoists, etc)

The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier

and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC

chopper varies the effective resistance:

Re R(1 k )

Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper

The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k, (slip power)

Id

Ld

D1 D3 D5

Stator

Vd GTO

Rotor R Vdc

Three-phase

supply D4 D6 D2

The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by

replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full

converter (inverter)

Three-phase

supply

Id Transformer Na:Nb

Ld

D1 D3 D5 T1 T3 T5

Stator

Vd Vdc

Rotor

Slip Power D4 D6 D2 T2 T4 T6

Controlled rectifier/

Diode rectifier

inverter

Example:

A three-phase induction motor, 460, 60Hz, six-pole, Y connected, wound rotor

that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below. The

motor parameters are Rs=0.041 , Rr=0.044 , Xs=0.29 , Xr=0.44 and

Xm=6.1 . The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0.9. The

inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple.

The value of Rs, Rr, Xs and Xr for equivalent circuit can be considered

negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The no-load of motor is

negligible. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible.

The load torque, which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm.

(a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm, determine

the resistance R, if the desired speed is 1050 rpm,

(b) Calculate the inductor current Id.

(c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.

(d) The voltage Vd.

(e) The efficiency.

(f) The power factor of input line of the motor.

460

Vs 265.58 volt

3

p 6

2 x 60 377 rad / s

s 2 x 377 / 6 125.66 rad / s

The equivalent circuit :

The dc voltage at the rectifier output is :

Vd I d Re I d R (1 k )

and

Nr

Er S Vs S Vs nm

Ns

Vd 1.65 x 2 Er 2.3394 Er

Nr

Using : Er S Vs S Vs nm

Ns

Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m

Pr

If Pr is the slip power, air gap power is : Pg

S

Pr 3Pr (1 S )

Developed power is : Pd 3( Pg Pr ) 3( S)

S S

Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and Pd TL m

(1 S )Vd I d

So,

Pd TLm TLm (1 S )

S

:

Solving for Id gives : TLs

Id

2.3394Vs nm

So, I d R(1 k ) 2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

Which gives : S

2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

The speed can be found from equation : S as :

2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

m s (1 S ) s 1

2.3394 V s m

n

TLs R(1 k )

m s 1 2

( 2.3394 V n

s m )

Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle, the speed decrease with load

torque. By varying k from 0 to 1, the speed can be varied from minimum

value to s

Kvm

2

From torque equation : T

L

2

800

750 x 347.67 Nm

1175

TLs

From equation : Id The corresponding inductor current is :

2.3394Vs nm

347.67 x 125.66

Id 78.13 A

2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

I d R(1 k )

m s (1 S ) s 1

2.3394 V s m

n

78.13 R

83.77 125.66(1 )

2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

And : R 2.3856

1- Variable Terminal Voltage Control

m

TL

ms V decreasing

T

variable terminal voltage control variable frequency control

Low speed range Wide speed range

Lower rated speed Lower & higher rated speed

2- Variable Frequency Control

a f / f rated Per-Unit Frequency

Erated Erated 1

Im *

f rated 2 Lm

At rated frequency

Xm

E E 1

Im * At any frequency, f

aX m a * f rated 2 Lm

m stay constant at a value equal to its rated value if

f E E rated

E a Erated Erated

f rated f f rated

The above equation suggests that the flux will remain constant if the

back emf changes in the same ratio as the frequency, in other ward,

when E/f ratio is maintained constant.

The rotor current at any frequency f can be obtained from the following equation:

aErated Erated

I r

2 2

Rr aX 2

Rr X 2

r r

s as

ams m sl ms Synchronous Speed at rated frequency f rated

s

ams ams m Angular Speed at frequency f

ams m sl

sa sl ams m

ms ms

2

3 R 3 E

rated * R / as Torque at frequency f

T I r2 r r

ams s ms Rr

2

X r

2

as

Erated

32

Rr Tmax

sm

At a given f and E

aX r 2ms X r

2 Rr

3

2 Rr

3 Erated * Rr / as

T

Ir X r

ams

2

as

s ms r

X r

R 2

as

2

3Erated

T as consta nt sl (6-51)

ms Rr

m

ms

ams

T

Braking Motoring

V/f Control

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r

V Xm E

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Im Is I r

V Xm E

V/f Control

At rated frequency

3 R 3 V 2

* R /s

T I r

2 r rated r

s ms R R / s 2 X X 2

(6.52)

ms s r s r

3 2

Vrated

Tmax (6.53)

2ms R R X X

2 2

s s s r

At any frequency, f, a 1

3 2

Vrated * Rr / as

T (6.54)

ms Rs / a Rr / as X s X r

2 2

3 2

Vrated

Tmax (6.55)

2ms R / a R / a X X

2 2

s s s r

V/f Control

m

ms

ams

T

Operation above the rated frequency a>1

The terminal voltage has o be constant = Rated Volatge= Vrated

At any frequency, f, a 1

3 2

Vrated * Rr / as

T 2

ms Rs Rr / s a X s X r

2 2 (6.56)

3 2

Vrated (6.57)

Tmax

2ms a Rs Rs a X s X r

2 2

m

Constant torque

locus

ms f rated

locus

T

Ex6-3 A 3-phase,Y-connected, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor has the following parameters:

The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control with a constant V/f ratio. For

the operating frequency of 12 Hz, calculate:

1-The breakdown torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for both motoring

and breaking.

2- The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at rated frequency.

f 12

a 0.2

f rated 60

3 2

Vrated

From (6.55) Tmax

2ms Rs / a Rs / a X s X r

2 2

Tmax a 0.2 0.024 / 1 0.024 / 12 0.24r 2

0.68 Motoring

Tmax a 1.0 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.22 0.242

1.46 Breaking

Tmax a 1.0 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.2 0.24

2 2

At starting torque s=1

From (6.54) 3 2

Vrated * Rr / as

T

ms Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

0.024 / 0.2

2

Tstart a 0.2 0.048 / 0.2 0.24

2

2.6

Tstart a 1.0 0.024 / 1

2

0.048 / 1 0.24

2

Vrated

From Fig. 6.1(d) Ir

Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

0.72

I r , start a 1 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.22 0.24 2

Ex6-4 If the rated slip of induction motor of EX6.3 is 0.04, Calculate the motor speed for rated

torque and f=30Hz. The motor is controlled with a constant V/f ratio

f 30

a 0.5

f rated 60

3 2

Vrated * Rr / s

At rated frequency,f=60Hz, From (6.52) T

ms Rs Rr / s 2 X s X r 2

3 2 3 *Vrated

2

Trated

Vrated * 0.024 / 0.04

1.34

m s 0.024 0.024 / 0.04 2 0.24 2 m s [1]

3 2

Vrated * Rr / as

At f=30Hz, From (6.54) T

ms Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

3 Vrated 2

* 0.024 / 0.5 s

Trated

ms 0.024 0.024 2

2 [2]

0.5 0.5s 0.24

Equating [1] and [2] s 2 0.98s 1 0

Ex 6-5

A 480V, 60 Hz 4 pole 1710 rpm, Y-connected induction motor has the following parameters

per phase: Rs 0.3 , Rr 0.15 , X s X r 1.1 X m 40

The motor is controlled by variable frequency control at a constant flux of rated value.

(i) Calculate the speed and stator current at half the rated torque and 20 Hz supply.

(ii) Solve part (i) assuming the speed-torque curves to be parrallel stright lines for s sm .

(iii) Calculate the frequency, the stator current, and voltage at rated breaking torque and

1400 rpm.

Solution:

120 f 120 * 60

Ns

P 4 60

N s N 1800 1710

s 0.05

Ns 1800

Rr 0.15

Z r jX r j1.1 3 j1.1 3.195320.14o

s 0.05

Z r * Z m

Z s Rs jX s 0.3 j1.1 1.1474.75 o

Z in Zs

Z r Z m

3.195320.14 * 4090

Z in 1.1474.75 3.927437.245o

3.195320.14 4090

V ph 480 / 3

Is 70.563A

Z in 3.9274

Zm 4090

I r * Is * 70.563 68.57 A

Z r Z m 3.195320.14 4090

E I r * Z r 0.971* 3.1953 218.93V

Rated torque=

I r 2 Rr

* 68 .517 *

3 3 0.15

T . 224 .14 N .m

m s s 188 .5 0.05

20 1

(i) At 20 Hz a

60 3

3 Erated * Rr / as

2 2

3 218.93 * 0.15 * 3 / s 224.14

T N .m

ms R 2 188.5 2

2

r r

2

0.15

as X

1.1

1s

3

0.152 * 9

1.1 s 3.063 or 1.21s 2 3.063s 0.2025 0

2

s

s 2.4635 It is not acceptable value, s 0.0679 resonable value.

1

m a ms 1 s * 188.5 * 1 0.0679 58.567 rad / sec

3

1

or N a * N s 1 s * 1800 * 1 0.0679 559.26 rpm

3

At 20 Hz

20

E * 218.95 72.977V

60

Rr 0.15 j1.1

Z r jaX r 2.23949.424o

s 0.0679 3

E 72.9770

I r 32.588 9.424o A

Z r 2.23949.424

E 72.9770

Im 5.473 90o A

jaX m j 40 / 3

I s I r I m 33.9167 18.584 A

n

(ii)

1800

2x

60Hz

600

3y x

20Hz

y

TFL TFL

2

2x x 3 * 0.05 x

S FL 0.05 0.075 Sn 0.075

3y y 2 y

n 600 * 1 s 555 rpm

E

For constant flux, the cons tan t

f

20

At 20 Hz E * 218.93 72.977V

60

Rr 0.15 j1.1

Z r jaX r 2.03310.39o

s 0.075 3

E 72.9770

I r 35.896 10.39 o A

Z r 2.03310.39

E 72.9770

Im 5.473 90o A

jaX m j 40 / 3

I s I r I m 37.274 18.694 A

N s 1400 90 1310 rpm

90

s 0.069

1310

120 * f 120 * f

Ns 1310

P 4

f 43 .66 Hz

43 .66

E aErated * 218 .93 158 .6V

60

68 .46 159 .78

aErated 158 .6

I r

Rr / s ja X r 0.15 /(0.069 ) j 0.73 *1.1

I s I r I m 68.46 159 .78 5.474 90 70.52 155 .55 A

173 .62 20 .3V

VARIABLE VOLTAGE AND VARIABLE

FREQUENCY(V/F)

BY,

CYCLOCONVERTER CONTROL

VSI

VSI

.

DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF VSI

CONVERTER

DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF VSI

VARIABLE CURRENT AND VARIABLE

FREQUENCY (CSI) (CONT.)

CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER(CSI)

(CONT.)

NATURE

11UEE757 OFDRIVES

ELECTRIC LOADAND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017

DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF CSI(CONT.)

DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF CSI(CONT.)

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CSI FED IM

ROTOR RESISTANCE

T CONTROL(CONT.)

R1< R2< R3

nr1< nr2< nr3

R1

R2

R3

ns~nNL

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017

STATIC ROTOR RESISTANCE

CONTROL(CONT.)

AN ELECTRONIC CHOPPER IMPLEMENTATION IS ALSO POSSIBLE AS

SHOWN BELOW BUT IS EQUALLY INEFFICIENT.

6/24/2017

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL STATIC

ROTOR RESISTANCE(CONTN.)

SLIP POWER RECOVERY

A BETTER APPROACH IS TO CONVERT IT TO AC LINE POWER AND RETURN IT

BACK TO THE LINE. TWO TYPES OF CONVERTER PROVIDE THIS APPROACH:

OPERATION AT SUB-SYNCHRONOUS SPEED.

2) STATIC SCHERBIUS DRIVE - ALLOWS

OPERATION ABOVE AND BELOW

SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

CONVENTIONAL KRAMER

SYSYTEM(CONTN.)

IMPROVED VERSION OF KRAMER

SYSTEM(NS TO HALF OF NS)

(CONTN.)

IMPROVED VERSION OF KRAMER

SYSTEM(ZERO TO NS) (CONTN.)

STATIC KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

APPLIACTION(CONTN.)

LARGE PUMPS

FAN TYPE LOADS

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF STATIC

KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

(CONTN.)

MODIFIED KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

SCHERBIUS SYSTEM(CONVENTIONAL

SCHERBIUS SYSTEM) (CONTN.)

STATIC SCHERBIUS SYSTEM(CONTN.)

TRANSFORMER-SUPPLY

SUPPLY-TRANSFORMER-RECTIFIER-

INVERTER-ROTOR CIRCUIT(CONTN.)

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF

SCHERBIUS SYTEM(CONTN.)

CYCLOCONVERTER STATIC

SCHERBIUS(CONTN.)

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