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THREE PHASE INDUCTION

MOTOR DRIVES

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017

UNIT III - THREE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR DRIVES
 Speed control of 3 phase Induction Motors
1. Stator control:
1. Stator voltage and frequency control
2. Inverter and cycloconverter fed Induction Motor drives
2. Rotor control:
1. Rotor resistance control and slip power recovery schemes
2. Static control of rotor resistance using DC chopper
3. Static Krammer and Scherbius drives
 Introduction to Vector Controlled Induction
Motor Drives
ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL -
6/24/2017 2
R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor

Induction Motor

•Why induction motor (IM)?
–Robust; No brushes. No contacts on rotor shaft
–High Power/Weight ratio compared to Dc motor
–Lower Cost/Power
–Easy to manufacture
–Almost maintenance-free, except for bearing and
other mechanical parts
•Disadvantages
–Essentially a “fixed-speed” machine
–Speed is determined by the supply frequency
–To vary its speed need a variable frequency supply

Motors  Based on its enclosure  Open type  Semi closed  Enclosed . Motors:  Based on the stator excitation  Single phase Ind.Classification of Ind. Motors (or) Wound Rotor Ind. Motors  Based on Rotor type  Squirrel Cage Ind. Motors  Slip Ring Ind. Motors  Three phase Ind.

Induction motor Construction Stator .

Induction Motor Construction Stator a 120o 120o c’ • Stator windings of practical b’ machines are distributed • Coil sides span can be less than 180o – short-pitch or fractional- pitch or chorded winding b c• If rotor is wound. its winding the same as stator a’ 120o Stator – 3-phase winding Rotor – squirrel cage / wound .

Rotor currents in Squirrel cage rotor .

Stator winding: Y (or) Star Configuration .

Stator winding: ∆ (or) Delta Configuration .

3φ Stator supply voltage .

Induction Motors – Construction Squirrel Cage Motor .

Construction Squirrel Cage rotor Skewing of rotor bars helps in reduction of noise and the locking tendency of rotor .

Squirrel Cage motor .

Notice the brushes and the slip rings Brushes .Construction Slip ring Induction motor Slip rings Wound Rotor Cutaway in a typical wound- rotor IM.

Slip rings of a wound rotor .

Additional Resistance to the Rotor • Slip rings will be shorted when the motor attains speed .

Slip Ring Induction Motor (SRIM) .

Star connected rotor .

externally resistance cannot be added . Rotor consists of three 1. Resistance can be added 3. As permanently shorted.Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor 1. Construction is simple complicated 3. Rotor consists of bars phase windings similar which are short to stator windings circuited at the ends with the help of end rings 2. Construction is 2.

Only 5% of Induction 7. Construction is robust and frequent maintenance is maintenance free necessary 6. Very common and almost motors in industry uses 95% of the induction wound rotor motors use this type of rotor . 5.Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor 4. Construction is delicate. Rotor is very costly 6. rotor is cheap 7. Slip rings and brushes are present absent 5. Slip rings and brushes are 4. Due to simple construction.

grinders. water pumps. elevators. cranes. blowers. High starting torque can 8. printing machines etc. Rotor copper losses are 10.. Speed control by rotor resistance is possible resistance is not possible 10. Rotor copper losses are high hence efficiency is low hence efficiency is high low 11. Speed control by rotor 9. Used for lifts. compressors etc. fans. hoists. drilling 11..Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor 8. machines. Used for lathes. . Rotor resistance starter be obtained by using cannot be used so starting rotor resistance starter torque is moderate and cannot be controlled 9.

Synchronous and Actual Speed .

Performance of Three-Phase Induction Motor The speed of the rotating field (Synchronous speed ) is : 120 f 2 *  120 f 4f ns  rpm ms   rad / sec . s is : s  ms ms m Is the rotor speed . P 60 P P Slip speed is sl  ms  m  sms sl ms  m Slip. m  1  s ms sl Rotor frequency in Rad/Sec. is : r  2f s  2sf s ms Rotor frequency in Hz is : f r  sf s .

Rs Xs I r Xr Rr n s nr Is Ir Im sE V EE Xm aT 1 Stator Ideal Rotor Transformer Per Phase Equivalent Circuit Rs Xs X r Rr / s Is Im I r V Xm E Per Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator .

Rs Xs X r Rr / s Is Im I r V Xm E Rt Xt X r Rr / s I r Vt  r E Per Phase Simplified Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator .

Vt 
V Xm  1  X s  Xm 
t 
 tan  
Rs   X s  X m 
2 2
2  Rs 
jX m Rs  jX s 
Rt  jX t 
Rs  j  X s  X m 
Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r
V Xm E

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator
Rr / s  j  X r  X m I r
Is 
jX m

Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt  r E

Per Phase Simplified Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator

Vt t 2 R  
I r  Pg  3I r  r 

 R  Rr   j  X  X    s 
 t  t r
 s 
2 
Pm  Pg  3I r Rr
2  Rr 
  3I r2 Rr  3I r2 Rr  1  s   1  s P
Pm  3I r     g
 s   s 

2  Rr
  3I r2 Rr  3I r2 Rr  1  s   1  s P
Pm  3I r     g
 s   s 
Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt  r E

Rt Xt X r Rr

I r
1 s  
Vt  r E   Rr
 s 

Pm Pm  1  s Pg Pg sPg 3I r2 Rr T T   m m  1  s ms ms sms sms Vt t  Rr  I r  T 3 I r  2   R  Rr   j  X  X   ms   s    t  t r  s      3  Vt2 Rr / s  T ms   Rr  2    j  X t  X r   2   Rt   s   .

  3  2  Vt Rr / s  T   ms   Rr 2 2   Rt  s   j  X t  X r         dT d 3  Vt2 Rr / s 0 0 ds ds ms   Rr  2    j  X t  X r   2   Rt   s   Rr sm   Rt 2   X t  X r 2 3  Vt2  Tmax    2ms  Rt  Rt   X t  X r   2 2 .

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P 6 For regenerative breaking Rr 1 sm     0.m. N s  120 f / P  120 * 60 / 6  1200 rpm 4f 4 *  * 60 ms    125.7 1  1  16   . 60 Hz induction motor has the following constants:Vt  231 V.A 3-phase. star connected. (i) Determine the range of load torque it can hold and the corresponding range of speed. (ii) Calculate the speed and current for a load torque of 150 N. 2. 6 pole.m Tmax  2ms   t R  R 2  t  X r  X t  2  2 * 125.7 rad / sec . determine the breaking torque and current for a speed of 1200 rpm.24  Rt2  X r  X t  2 1  16   3  Vt2  3  231 * 231   203.9 N . If the motor is used for plugging. the motor is used for regenerative braking. Rt  Rr  1 . X t  X r  2 1.

118 Since stable operation is usually obtained only up to sm which is -0. (ii)           3 2  Vt * Rr / s 3  231 * 231 * 1 / s  T     150 N .m  ms   2   1 2      125 . then x 2  10. Then motor speed N  1  s N s  1.m. The speed in rpm at the maximum torque: N  1  sm N s  1   0. the feasible value of s is -0. x  2 or  8.118 *1200  1342 rpm .49 x  17  0 s Then.(i) the range of active load torque the motor can hold: 0 to 203.24. 5 or  .118.9 N.7  Rr  2  1    16    Rt   X r  X t     s    s   1 Let  x .5 then s  .24  * 1200  1488 rpm Therefore the range of speed is 1200 to 1488 rpm.

2 A 2 2   Rt   Rr     X r  X t s  2  1  1   16     0. Vt 231 I r    27.1A 2 1  0.118   Ns  N 2. For the motor speed N rpm s Ns Then for plugging N s  1200 rpm N  1200rpm  1200  1200 s 2  1200 Vt 231 I r    54.52  16   Rt   Rr s      X r  X t  2    I r2 Rr * 54.m 3 3  T .1 *1 / 2  34.  ms s  125.9 N .7 .

Speed Control of Induction Motor Pole changing method Stator Voltage control Supply Frequency control Rotor Resistance control Slip power recovery schemes .

Pole changing method .

Stator Voltage Control AC Variable IM Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Voltage Adjusting The Stator Voltage Sources  Td Vs 3 Rr' Vs2 Td   ' 2 Rr    S  s  Rs    X s  X r'  2   S   Td Vs > Vs1 > Vs2 Ii Xs Rs Xr’ Is=Ir’ Tmax Im Ir’ Rr’/s Vs Po Tst TL Pi Tst1 Tst2 air Stator rotor gap 2 1  S=1 S=0 s Nm =0 Ns .

Frequency Voltage Control AC Variable Voltage Sources IM Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Vs  Td f 3 Rr' Vs2 Td    2  S s  Rs  Rr'    X s  X r'  2   S   Td fs2 < fs1 < fs Tmax Ii Xs Rs Xr ’ Is=Ir’ Tst2 Im Ir’ Tst1 Tst TL Vs Rr’/s f Po Pi Stator Air rotor 2 1 s gap S=1 S=0 S=0 S=0  m =0 fs2 fs1 fs .

If the frequency is increased above its rated value. the synchronous speed at any other frequency becomes: s   b b  m  And : S 1  m b b 3 Rr' Vs2 The motor torque : Td   ' 2 R    S  s  Rs  r   X s  X r'  2   S   3 Rr' Vs2 Td    2  S b  Rs  Rr'    X s  X r'  2   S   . the flux and torque would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated frequency is call the base speed b.

the maximum torque at the base speed as : 3 Vs2  Tmb  2S b X s  X r'  And the maximum torque at any other frequency is : 2 3 Vs Tm  2 S b X s  X r'   2 Rr ' Sm  At this maximum torque. slip S is :   X s  X r'  2 3 Vs Tm  2 S b X s  X r'   2 Tm 1  2 Normalizing : 3 Vs2 Tmb   Tmb  2S b X s  X r'  And Tm  2  Tmb .If Rs is negligible.

Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage.14 x 1750 Motor Torque : Tm  35 Nm a) the frequency of supply voltage : Tm 1 Tmb 61.1. 60 Hz.2. four pole.14.71. 1750 rpm. b) speed of motor at the maximum torque Solution : 460 Input voltage per-phase : Vs   265 volt 3 Base frequency : b  2  f  2 x 3.11 Nm 2  N m 2 x 3.2 kW.38.14 x 60  377 rad / s 60 Po 60 x 11200 Base Torque : Tmb    61. If the breakdown torque requiretment is 35 Nm. Xs = 1. Y-connected induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.11  2    1. 11. Rr’ = 0. and Xm = 33.Example : A three-phase . Xr’ = 1. 460 V.321 Tmb  Tm 35 .

the supply frequency is : f s   158. 0.65 rpm 2 x p NS 4 x 4755.14  1. Xr’ = 1.71 and   1.65 So. Xs = 1.101)  4275 rpm .01 N s   Nb   4755.71 N m  N S (1  S )  4755.3211.01rad / s or 60 x 498.101 or.14.38 Sm   0.52 Hz 120 b 120 b) speed of motor at the maximum torque : Rr ' Sm  At this maximum torque.31 So.65 (1  0. slip Sm is :   X s  X r'  Rr’ = 0.321 x 377  498.38.Synchronous speed at this frequency is : s   b s 1. 1.

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING ROTOR RESISTANCE (Rotor Voltage Control) .

Wound rotor induction motor applications cranes .

an external Td  three-phase resistor may be connected to its  s R 'r slip rings. CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING ROTOR RESISTANCE (Rotor Voltage Control) 3 Rr' Vs2 Equation of Speed-Torque : Td    2  S s  Rs  Rr'    X s  X r'  2   S   3Vs2 S In a wound rotor induction motor. RX Stator RX Rotor RX Three-phase supply .

These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to large motor applications such as materials handling. for starting and stopping. since torque is directly proportional to current. . mine hoists. cranes etc. The most common applications are: AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors – where the resistor is wired into the motor secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is removed in steps. DC Series Wound Motors – where the current limiting resistor is wired to the field to control motor current. AC Squirrel Cage Motors – where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft starting also known as reduced voltage starting.

The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx The torque-speed characteristic for variations in rotor resistance This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current. The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane. hoists. etc) .

The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC chopper varies the effective resistance: Re  R(1  k ) Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k.The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier and a DC chopper. (slip power) Id Ld D1 D3 D5 Stator Vd GTO Rotor R Vdc Three-phase supply D4 D6 D2 .

The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full converter (inverter) Three-phase supply Id Transformer Na:Nb Ld D1 D3 D5 T1 T3 T5 Stator Vd Vdc Rotor Slip Power D4 D6 D2 T2 T4 T6 Controlled rectifier/ Diode rectifier inverter .

Xr’=0. Xs and Xr’ for equivalent circuit can be considered negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The motor parameters are Rs=0.44  and Xm=6. (c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.044 . The value of Rs. The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0. The no-load of motor is negligible. which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm. (e) The efficiency.29 . The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible. wound rotor that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below.9. if the desired speed is 1050 rpm. 60Hz. . Rr’. determine the resistance R. (b) Calculate the inductor current Id. Y connected. Xs=0. The load torque.1 . six-pole. (a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm.Example: A three-phase induction motor. The inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple. 460. (d) The voltage Vd.041 . Rr’=0. (f) The power factor of input line of the motor.

66 rad / s The equivalent circuit : .58 volt 3 p 6   2 x 60  377 rad / s s  2 x 377 / 6  125. 460 Vs   265.

air gap power is : Pg  S Pr 3Pr (1  S ) Developed power is : Pd  3( Pg  Pr )  3(  S)  S S .3394 Er Nr Using : Er  S Vs  S Vs nm Ns Vd  2.3394 S Vs n m Pr If Pr is the slip power.The dc voltage at the rectifier output is : Vd  I d Re  I d R (1  k ) and Nr Er  S Vs  S Vs nm Ns For a three-phase rectifier.65 x 2 Er  2. relates Er and Vd as : Vd 1.

so : Solving for Id gives : TLs Id  2. From equation : Vd  I d Re  I d R (1  k ) and equation : Vd  2.3394 S Vs n m I d R(1  k ) Which gives : S 2. Pd   TLm  TLm (1  S ) S Substituting Vd from Vd  2.3394 S Vs n m In equation Pd above.3394Vs nm Which indicates that the inductor current is independent of the speed.3394 S Vs n m .3394 S Vs n m So. Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and Pd  TL m (1  S )Vd I d So. I d R(1  k )  2.

By varying k from 0 to 1.3394 V n s m )  Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle.3394 V s m n  TLs R(1  k )  m  s 1  2  ( 2.77 rad / s  Kvm 2 From torque equation : T L 2  800   750 x    347. the speed can be varied from minimum value to s m  180  / 30  83.67 Nm  1175  . the speed decrease with load torque.3394 S Vs n m  I d R(1  k )  m  s (1  S )  s 1    2. I d R(1  k ) The speed can be found from equation : S as : 2.

9 The speed is minimum when the duty-cycle k is zero and equation :  I d R(1  k )  m  s (1  S )  s 1    2.58 x 0.66(1  ) 2.3394 V s m n 78.67 x 125.58 x 0.13 R 83.9 And : R  2. TLs From equation : Id  The corresponding inductor current is : 2.3856  .77  125.3394Vs nm 347.3394 x 265.3394 x 265.66 Id   78.13 A 2.

1.Variable Terminal Voltage Control m TL ms V decreasing T variable terminal voltage control variable frequency control Low speed range Wide speed range Lower rated speed Lower & higher rated speed .

2. f aX m a * f rated 2 Lm Comparing of the above equations. .Variable Frequency Control a  f / f rated Per-Unit Frequency 1. I will m stay constant at a value equal to its rated value if f E E rated E  a Erated  Erated  f rated f f rated The above equation suggests that the flux will remain constant if the back emf changes in the same ratio as the frequency. when E/f ratio is maintained constant.Operation Below the Rated Frequency a <1 Erated Erated 1 Im   * f rated 2 Lm At rated frequency Xm E E 1 Im   * At any frequency. in other ward.

The rotor current at any frequency f can be obtained from the following equation: aErated Erated I r   2 2  Rr   aX  2   Rr    X  2   r   r  s   as  ams  m sl ms Synchronous Speed at rated frequency f rated s  ams ams m Angular Speed at frequency f ams  m sl sa   sl  ams  m ms ms    2  3  R   3 E  rated * R  / as  Torque at frequency f T I r2  r   r ams  s  ms   Rr   2      X r   2   as    Erated 32  Rr Tmax  sm     At a given f and E aX r 2ms  X r  .

   2  Rr 3  2 Rr   3  Erated * Rr / as  T  Ir      X r ams     2  as  s  ms  r       X r   R 2   as   2 3Erated T as   consta nt sl  (6-51) ms Rr .

m ms ams T Braking Motoring .

V/f Control Rs Xs X r Rr / s Is Im I r V Xm E Rs Xs X r Rr / s Im Is I r V Xm E .

V/f Control At rated frequency 3  R   3  V 2 * R  /s  T I r  2 r  rated r  s  ms  R  R / s 2   X  X  2  (6.54) ms  Rs / a  Rr / as    X s  X r   2 2 3  2 Vrated  Tmax    (6.52) ms    s r s r  3  2 Vrated  Tmax    (6. f.53) 2ms  R  R   X  X    2 2  s s s r  At any frequency. a 1 3  2 Vrated * Rr / as  T   (6.55) 2ms  R / a   R / a    X  X    2 2  s s s r  .

V/f Control m ms ams T .

57) Tmax    2ms a  Rs   Rs   a  X s  X r   2  2 . a 1 3  2 Vrated * Rr / as  T  2 ms  Rs  Rr / s   a  X s  X r   2 2 (6. Operation above the rated frequency a>1 The terminal voltage has o be constant = Rated Volatge= Vrated V  consta nt  Flux  when a  At any frequency. f.56) 3  2 Vrated  (6.

m Constant torque locus ms f rated ams Constant torque locus T .

Ex6-3 A 3-phase,Y-connected, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor has the following parameters:

Rs  Rr  0.024  and X s  X r  0.12
The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control with a constant V/f ratio. For
the operating frequency of 12 Hz, calculate:
1-The breakdown torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for both motoring
and breaking.
2- The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at rated frequency.
f 12
a   0.2
f rated 60
3  2
Vrated 
From (6.55) Tmax   
2ms  Rs / a  Rs / a    X s  X r  
2 2

Tmax a  0.2 0.024 / 1  0.024 / 12  0.24r 2
  0.68 Motoring
Tmax a  1.0 0.024 / 0.2  0.024 / 0.22  0.242

Tmax a  0.2 0.024 / 1  0.024 / 12  0.24r 2
  1.46 Breaking
Tmax a  1.0 0.024 / 0.2  0.024 / 0.2  0.24
2 2

At starting torque s=1

From (6.54) 3  2
Vrated * Rr / as 
T  
ms  Rs / a  Rr / as 2   X s  X r 2 

 0.024 / 0.2 
 2
Tstart a  0.2   0.048 / 0.2   0.24 
2
  2.6
Tstart a  1.0  0.024 / 1 
 2
 0.048 / 1  0.24 
2

Vrated
From Fig. 6.1(d) Ir 
Rs / a  Rr / as 2   X s  X r 2

I r , start a  0.2 0.024 / 1  0.024 / 12  0.24 2
  0.72
I r , start a  1 0.024 / 0.2  0.024 / 0.22  0.24 2

Ex6-4 If the rated slip of induction motor of EX6.3 is 0.04, Calculate the motor speed for rated
torque and f=30Hz. The motor is controlled with a constant V/f ratio

f 30
a   0.5
f rated 60
3  2
Vrated * Rr / s 
At rated frequency,f=60Hz, From (6.52) T  
ms  Rs  Rr / s 2   X s  X r 2 
3  2  3 *Vrated
2
Trated  
Vrated * 0.024 / 0.04
 1.34 
 m s  0.024  0.024 / 0.04 2  0.24 2  m s [1]

3  2
Vrated * Rr / as 
At f=30Hz, From (6.54) T  
ms  Rs / a  Rr / as 2   X s  X r 2 
 
3  Vrated 2
* 0.024 / 0.5 s  
Trated   
ms   0.024 0.024  2
2 [2]
  0.5  0.5s   0.24 
  

(iii) Calculate the frequency. X s  X r  1.5 rad / sec 120 f 120 * 60 Ns   P 4 60 N s  N 1800  1710 s   0.98s  1  0 s  0.3 .1 X m  40  The motor is controlled by variable frequency control at a constant flux of rated value. and voltage at rated breaking torque and 1400 rpm. Solution:  1800 rpm ms  2 * 1800  188. 60 Hz 4 pole 1710 rpm.43  N  ams 1  s   0.15 .05 Ns 1800 . (ii) Solve part (i) assuming the speed-torque curves to be parrallel stright lines for s  sm . Rr  0. Equating [1] and [2] s 2  0. Y-connected induction motor has the following parameters per phase: Rs  0. (i) Calculate the speed and stator current at half the rated torque and 20 Hz supply.089   820 rpm Ex 6-5 A 480V.089 and s  0.5 *1800 * 1  0. the stator current.

1  1.75   3.14o  s 0.1  3  j1. Rr 0.195320.1474.15 T .1  3.   224 .195320.14  4090 E  I r * Z r  0.75  o Z in  Zs  Z r  Z m 3.563  68.563A Z in 3.195320.57 A Z r  Z m 3.245o  3.3  j1.14 * 4090 Z in  1.05 Z r * Z m Z s  Rs  jX s  0.93V Rated torque= I r 2 Rr * 68 .m m s s 188 .1953  218.14  4090 V ph 480 / 3 Is    70.5 0.14 N .517  * 3 3  0.971* 3.195320.05 .9274 Zm 4090 I r  * Is  * 70.927437.1474.15 Z r   jX r   j1.

21s 2  3.26 rpm 3 .14 T     N .1 s  3.15 * 3 / s  224.567 rad / sec 3 1 or N  a * N s 1  s   * 1800 * 1  0.15     as   X          1.4635 It is not acceptable value. 20 1 (i) At 20 Hz a    60 3           3  Erated * Rr / as  2 2 3  218.m ms  R  2 188.5 * 1  0.063s  0.063 or 1. 1  m  a ms 1  s   * 188.0679   559.1    1s     3   0.0679 resonable value. s  0.2025  0 2 s s  2.152 * 9  1.5   2     2  r  r  2   0.0679  58.93 * 0.

95  72.23949.At 20 Hz 20 E  * 218.424o A Z r 2.23949.9167  18.9770 Im    5.9770 I r    32.584 A .473  90o A jaX m j 40 / 3 I s  I r  I m  33.1 Z r   jaX r    2.588  9.15 j1.0679 3 E 72.424 E 72.424o  s 0.977V 60 Rr 0.

n (ii) 1800 2x 60Hz 600 3y x 20Hz y T TFL TFL 2 .

9770 Im    5.977V 60 Rr 0.03310.473  90o A jaX m j 40 / 3 I s  I r  I m  37.075 3 E 72.39o  s 0.93  72.075  Sn   0.39 o A Z r 2.05    0.896  10.05 x  S FL   0.1 Z r   jaX r    2.274  18.694 A . the  cons tan t f 20 At 20 Hz E  * 218.075 3y y 2 y  n  600 * 1  s   555 rpm E For constant flux.39 E 72. 2x x 3 * 0.03310.15 j1.9770 I r    35.

66 Hz 43 .3  j 0.1 I m  remais the same  5.52   155 .6 I r     Rr / s  ja X r 0.93  158 .1* 70 .069 )  j 0.52 155 .73 *1.46 159 .6V 60  68 .78   5.069 1310 120 * f 120 * f Ns    1310 P 4  f  43 .73 *1.78  aErated 158 .66 E  aErated  * 218 .473  90o A I s  I r  I m  68.15 /(0.N s  1400  90  1310 rpm 90 s  0.474   90  70.46  159 .60  0.62   20 .55  A V  E  Z s I s  158 .3V .55  173 .

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