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THREE PHASE INDUCTION

MOTOR DRIVES

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


UNIT III - THREE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR DRIVES
Speed control of 3 phase Induction Motors
1. Stator control:
1. Stator voltage and frequency control
2. Inverter and cycloconverter fed Induction Motor drives
2. Rotor control:
1. Rotor resistance control and slip power recovery schemes
2. Static control of rotor resistance using DC chopper
3. Static Krammer and Scherbius drives
Introduction to Vector Controlled Induction
Motor Drives
ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL -
6/24/2017 2
R. Emmanuel, Assistant Professor
Induction Motor

Why induction motor (IM)?


Robust; No brushes. No contacts on rotor shaft
High Power/Weight ratio compared to Dc motor
Lower Cost/Power
Easy to manufacture
Almost maintenance-free, except for bearing and
other mechanical parts
Disadvantages
Essentially a fixed-speed machine
Speed is determined by the supply frequency
To vary its speed need a variable frequency supply
Classification of Ind. Motors:
Based on the stator excitation
Single phase Ind. Motors
Three phase Ind. Motors
Based on Rotor type
Squirrel Cage Ind. Motors
Slip Ring Ind. Motors (or) Wound Rotor Ind. Motors
Based on its enclosure
Open type
Semi closed
Enclosed
Induction motor
Construction

Stator
Induction Motor Construction
Stator

a 120o
120o
c
Stator windings of practical
b
machines are distributed
Coil sides span can be less than
180o short-pitch or fractional-
pitch or chorded winding
b c If rotor is wound, its winding the
same as stator
a

120o
Stator 3-phase winding
Rotor squirrel cage / wound
Rotor currents in Squirrel cage rotor
Stator winding:
Y (or) Star Configuration
Stator winding:
(or) Delta Configuration
3 Stator supply voltage
Induction Motors Construction
Squirrel Cage Motor
Construction
Squirrel Cage rotor
Skewing of rotor bars helps in
reduction of noise and the
locking tendency of rotor
Squirrel Cage motor
Construction
Slip ring Induction motor
Slip rings Wound Rotor

Cutaway in a
typical wound-
rotor IM.
Notice the
brushes and the
slip rings

Brushes
Slip rings of a wound rotor
Additional Resistance to the Rotor

Slip rings will be shorted when the motor attains speed


Slip Ring Induction Motor (SRIM)
Star connected rotor
Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

1. Rotor consists of three 1. Rotor consists of bars


phase windings similar which are short
to stator windings circuited at the ends
with the help of end
rings
2. Construction is 2. Construction is simple
complicated
3. Resistance can be added 3. As permanently shorted,
externally resistance cannot be
added
Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

4. Slip rings and brushes are 4. Slip rings and brushes are
present absent
5. Construction is delicate, 5. Construction is robust and
frequent maintenance is maintenance free
necessary
6. Rotor is very costly 6. Due to simple
construction, rotor is
cheap

7. Only 5% of Induction 7. Very common and almost


motors in industry uses 95% of the induction
wound rotor motors use this type of
rotor
Slip ring (or) Wound Rotor Squirrel Cage Rotor

8. High starting torque can 8. Rotor resistance starter


be obtained by using cannot be used so starting
rotor resistance starter torque is moderate and
cannot be controlled
9. Speed control by rotor 9. Speed control by rotor
resistance is possible resistance is not possible
10. Rotor copper losses are 10. Rotor copper losses are
high hence efficiency is low hence efficiency is high
low 11. Used for lathes, drilling
11. Used for lifts, hoists, machines, fans, blowers,
cranes, elevators, water pumps, grinders,
compressors etc., printing machines etc.,
Synchronous and Actual Speed
Performance of Three-Phase Induction Motor
The speed of the rotating field (Synchronous speed ) is :

120 f 2 * 120 f 4f
ns rpm ms rad / sec .
P 60 P P
Slip speed is sl ms m sms
sl ms m
Slip, s is : s
ms ms
m Is the rotor speed , m 1 s ms
sl
Rotor frequency in Rad/Sec. is : r 2f s 2sf s
ms
Rotor frequency in Hz is : f r sf s
Rs Xs I r Xr Rr
n s nr
Is Ir
Im sE
V EE
Xm aT 1

Stator Ideal Rotor


Transformer
Per Phase Equivalent Circuit

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r
V Xm E

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator


Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r
V Xm E

Rt Xt X r Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Per Phase Simplified Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator


Vt
V Xm 1 X s Xm
t
tan
Rs X s X m
2 2
2 Rs
jX m Rs jX s
Rt jX t
Rs j X s X m
Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r
V Xm E

Per Phase Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator


Rr / s j X r X m I r
Is
jX m
Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Per Phase Simplified Equivalent Circuit Referred to Stator

Vt t 2 R
I r Pg 3I r r

R Rr j X X s
t t r
s
2
Pm Pg 3I r Rr
2 Rr
3I r2 Rr 3I r2 Rr 1 s 1 s P
Pm 3I r g
s s
2 Rr
3I r2 Rr 3I r2 Rr 1 s 1 s P
Pm 3I r g
s s
Rt Xt Xr Rr / s

I r

Vt r E

Rt Xt X r Rr

I r
1 s
Vt r E Rr
s
Pm Pm 1 s Pg Pg sPg 3I r2 Rr
T T
m m 1 s ms ms sms sms

Vt t Rr
I r T
3
I r
2
R Rr j X X ms
s

t t r
s



3 Vt2 Rr / s
T
ms Rr 2
j X t X r
2
Rt
s

3 2

Vt Rr / s
T
ms Rr 2 2
Rt s j X t X r



dT d 3 Vt2 Rr / s 0
0
ds ds ms Rr 2
j X t X r
2
Rt
s

Rr
sm
Rt 2 X t X r 2
3 Vt2
Tmax
2ms Rt Rt X t X r
2 2
A 3-phase, star connected, 6 pole, 60 Hz induction motor has the following
constants:Vt 231 V, Rt Rr 1 , X t X r 2
1. the motor is used for regenerative braking,
(i) Determine the range of load torque it can hold and the corresponding
range of speed.
(ii) Calculate the speed and current for a load torque of 150 N.m.
2. If the motor is used for plugging, determine the breaking torque and current
for a speed of 1200 rpm.
N s 120 f / P 120 * 60 / 6 1200 rpm
4f 4 * * 60
ms 125.7 rad / sec .
P 6
For regenerative breaking
Rr 1
sm 0.24

Rt2 X r X t
2 1 16

3 Vt2 3 231 * 231 203.9 N .m
Tmax
2ms
t
R R 2

t X r X t
2 2 * 125.7 1 1 16

(i) the range of active load torque the motor can hold: 0 to 203.9 N.m. The
speed in rpm at the maximum torque:
N 1 sm N s 1 0.24 * 1200 1488 rpm
Therefore the range of speed is 1200 to 1488 rpm.
(ii)



3 2

Vt * Rr / s 3 231 * 231 * 1 / s
T 150 N .m
ms 2 1 2

125 .7
Rr 2
1 16
Rt X r X t
s
s
1
Let x , then x 2 10.49 x 17 0
s
Then, x 2 or 8.5 then s . 5 or .118
Since stable operation is usually obtained only up to sm which is -0.24,
the feasible value of s is -0.118.

Then motor speed N 1 s N s 1.118 *1200 1342 rpm


Vt 231
I r 27.2 A
2 2

Rt

Rr

X r X t
s
2
1 1 16

0.118

Ns N
2. For the motor speed N rpm s
Ns
Then for plugging N s 1200 rpm N 1200rpm
1200 1200
s 2
1200
Vt 231
I r 54.1A
2
1 0.52 16

Rt

Rr
s


X r X t

2


I r2 Rr
* 54.1 *1 / 2 34.9 N .m
3 3
T .
ms s 125.7
Speed Control of Induction Motor

Pole changing method


Stator Voltage control
Supply Frequency control
Rotor Resistance control
Slip power recovery schemes
Pole changing method
Stator Voltage Control
AC
Variable
IM
Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Voltage

Adjusting The Stator Voltage


Sources Td
Vs

3 Rr' Vs2
Td
' 2
Rr

S s Rs X s X r'
2

S
Td
Vs > Vs1 > Vs2
Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tmax

Im Ir

Rr/s
Vs
Po Tst TL
Pi
Tst1
Tst2
air
Stator rotor
gap

2 1
S=1 S=0
s
Nm =0 Ns
Frequency Voltage Control AC
Variable
Voltage
Sources IM
Controlling Induction Motor Speed by
Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Vs Td
f

3 Rr' Vs2
Td

2

S s Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S Td
fs2 < fs1 < fs
Tmax

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tst2

Im Ir Tst1
Tst TL
Vs Rr/s
f
Po
Pi

Stator Air rotor 2 1 s


gap
S=1 S=0 S=0 S=0
m =0 fs2 fs1 fs
If the frequency is increased above its rated value, the flux and torque
would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated
frequency is call the base speed b, the synchronous speed at any other
frequency becomes:
s b

b m
And : S 1 m
b b

3 Rr' Vs2
The motor torque : Td
' 2
R

S s Rs r X s X r'
2

S

3 Rr' Vs2
Td

2

S b Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S
If Rs is negligible, the maximum torque at the base speed as :

3 Vs2

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

And the maximum torque at any other frequency is :


2
3 Vs
Tm
2 S b X s X r' 2
Rr '
Sm
At this maximum torque, slip S is :
X s X r'
2
3 Vs
Tm
2 S b X s X r' 2 Tm 1
2
Normalizing :
3 Vs2 Tmb

Tmb

2S b X s X r'
And Tm 2 Tmb
Example :
A three-phase , 11.2 kW, 1750 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, four pole, Y-connected
induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.1, Rr = 0.38, Xs =
1.14, Xr = 1.71, and Xm = 33.2. If the breakdown torque requiretment is
35 Nm, Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage, b) speed of motor at
the maximum torque

Solution :
460
Input voltage per-phase : Vs 265 volt
3
Base frequency : b 2 f 2 x 3.14 x 60 377 rad / s
60 Po 60 x 11200
Base Torque : Tmb 61.11 Nm
2 N m 2 x 3.14 x 1750
Motor Torque : Tm 35 Nm

a) the frequency of supply voltage :

Tm 1 Tmb 61.11
2 1.321
Tmb Tm 35
Synchronous speed at this frequency is :

s b
s 1.321 x 377 498.01rad / s or

60 x 498.01
N s Nb 4755.65 rpm
2 x
p NS 4 x 4755.65
So, the supply frequency is : f s 158.52 Hz
120 b 120

b) speed of motor at the maximum torque :


Rr '
Sm
At this maximum torque, slip Sm is :

X s X r'
Rr = 0.38, Xs = 1.14, Xr = 1.71 and 1.31
So, 0.38
Sm 0.101 or,
1.3211.14 1.71
N m N S (1 S ) 4755.65 (1 0.101) 4275 rpm
CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING
ROTOR RESISTANCE
(Rotor Voltage Control)
Wound rotor induction motor applications

cranes
CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING
ROTOR RESISTANCE
(Rotor Voltage Control)

3 Rr' Vs2
Equation of Speed-Torque : Td

2

S s Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S

3Vs2 S
In a wound rotor induction motor, an external Td
three-phase resistor may be connected to its s R 'r
slip rings,
RX
Stator

RX
Rotor

RX
Three-phase
supply
These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping
anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to large
motor applications such as materials handling, mine hoists, cranes etc.

The most common applications are:

AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors where the resistor is wired into the motor
secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is removed in steps.

AC Squirrel Cage Motors where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft starting
also known as reduced voltage starting.

DC Series Wound Motors where the current limiting resistor is wired to the
field to control motor current, since torque is directly proportional to current,
for starting and stopping.
The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx

The torque-speed characteristic for variations in rotor resistance

This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current.
The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring
frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane, hoists, etc)
The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier
and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC
chopper varies the effective resistance:
Re R(1 k )
Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper

The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k, (slip power)

Id

Ld
D1 D3 D5
Stator

Vd GTO
Rotor R Vdc

Three-phase
supply D4 D6 D2
The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by
replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full
converter (inverter)

Three-phase
supply

Id Transformer Na:Nb

Ld
D1 D3 D5 T1 T3 T5
Stator

Vd Vdc
Rotor

Slip Power D4 D6 D2 T2 T4 T6

Controlled rectifier/
Diode rectifier
inverter
Example:
A three-phase induction motor, 460, 60Hz, six-pole, Y connected, wound rotor
that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below. The
motor parameters are Rs=0.041 , Rr=0.044 , Xs=0.29 , Xr=0.44 and
Xm=6.1 . The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0.9. The
inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple.

The value of Rs, Rr, Xs and Xr for equivalent circuit can be considered
negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The no-load of motor is
negligible. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible.
The load torque, which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm.
(a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm, determine
the resistance R, if the desired speed is 1050 rpm,
(b) Calculate the inductor current Id.
(c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.
(d) The voltage Vd.
(e) The efficiency.
(f) The power factor of input line of the motor.
460
Vs 265.58 volt
3
p 6

2 x 60 377 rad / s
s 2 x 377 / 6 125.66 rad / s
The equivalent circuit :
The dc voltage at the rectifier output is :

Vd I d Re I d R (1 k )
and
Nr
Er S Vs S Vs nm
Ns

For a three-phase rectifier, relates Er and Vd as :

Vd 1.65 x 2 Er 2.3394 Er
Nr
Using : Er S Vs S Vs nm
Ns
Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m
Pr
If Pr is the slip power, air gap power is : Pg
S
Pr 3Pr (1 S )
Developed power is : Pd 3( Pg Pr ) 3( S)
S S
Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and Pd TL m
(1 S )Vd I d
So,
Pd TLm TLm (1 S )
S

Substituting Vd from Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m In equation Pd above, so


:
Solving for Id gives : TLs
Id
2.3394Vs nm

Which indicates that the inductor current is independent of the speed.

From equation : Vd I d Re I d R (1 k ) and equation : Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m


So, I d R(1 k ) 2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
Which gives : S
2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
The speed can be found from equation : S as :
2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
m s (1 S ) s 1
2.3394 V s m
n

TLs R(1 k )
m s 1 2
( 2.3394 V n
s m )

Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle, the speed decrease with load
torque. By varying k from 0 to 1, the speed can be varied from minimum
value to s

m 180 / 30 83.77 rad / s


Kvm
2
From torque equation : T
L
2
800
750 x 347.67 Nm
1175
TLs
From equation : Id The corresponding inductor current is :
2.3394Vs nm
347.67 x 125.66
Id 78.13 A
2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

The speed is minimum when the duty-cycle k is zero and equation :


I d R(1 k )
m s (1 S ) s 1
2.3394 V s m
n
78.13 R
83.77 125.66(1 )
2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

And : R 2.3856
1- Variable Terminal Voltage Control
m
TL
ms V decreasing

T
variable terminal voltage control variable frequency control
Low speed range Wide speed range
Lower rated speed Lower & higher rated speed
2- Variable Frequency Control
a f / f rated Per-Unit Frequency

1- Operation Below the Rated Frequency a <1


Erated Erated 1
Im *
f rated 2 Lm
At rated frequency
Xm
E E 1
Im * At any frequency, f
aX m a * f rated 2 Lm

Comparing of the above equations, I will


m stay constant at a value equal to its rated value if
f E E rated
E a Erated Erated
f rated f f rated

The above equation suggests that the flux will remain constant if the
back emf changes in the same ratio as the frequency, in other ward,
when E/f ratio is maintained constant.
The rotor current at any frequency f can be obtained from the following equation:

aErated Erated
I r
2 2
Rr aX 2
Rr X 2
r r
s as
ams m sl ms Synchronous Speed at rated frequency f rated
s
ams ams m Angular Speed at frequency f
ams m sl
sa sl ams m
ms ms

2
3 R 3 E
rated * R / as Torque at frequency f
T I r2 r r
ams s ms Rr
2

X r
2

as
Erated
32
Rr Tmax
sm
At a given f and E
aX r 2ms X r

2 Rr
3
2 Rr
3 Erated * Rr / as
T
Ir X r
ams
2
as
s ms r
X r
R 2

as

2
3Erated
T as consta nt sl (6-51)
ms Rr
m

ms

ams

T
Braking Motoring
V/f Control
Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Is Im I r
V Xm E

Rs Xs X r Rr / s

Im Is I r
V Xm E
V/f Control
At rated frequency

3 R 3 V 2
* R /s
T I r
2 r rated r
s ms R R / s 2 X X 2
(6.52)
ms s r s r
3 2
Vrated
Tmax (6.53)
2ms R R X X
2 2
s s s r

At any frequency, f, a 1

3 2
Vrated * Rr / as
T (6.54)
ms Rs / a Rr / as X s X r
2 2

3 2
Vrated
Tmax (6.55)
2ms R / a R / a X X
2 2
s s s r
V/f Control
m

ms

ams

T
Operation above the rated frequency a>1
The terminal voltage has o be constant = Rated Volatge= Vrated

V consta nt Flux when a


At any frequency, f, a 1
3 2
Vrated * Rr / as
T 2
ms Rs Rr / s a X s X r
2 2 (6.56)

3 2
Vrated (6.57)
Tmax
2ms a Rs Rs a X s X r
2 2
m

Constant torque
locus

ms f rated

ams Constant torque


locus

T
Ex6-3 A 3-phase,Y-connected, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor has the following parameters:

Rs Rr 0.024 and X s X r 0.12


The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control with a constant V/f ratio. For
the operating frequency of 12 Hz, calculate:
1-The breakdown torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for both motoring
and breaking.
2- The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at rated frequency.
f 12
a 0.2
f rated 60
3 2
Vrated
From (6.55) Tmax
2ms Rs / a Rs / a X s X r
2 2

Tmax a 0.2 0.024 / 1 0.024 / 12 0.24r 2
0.68 Motoring
Tmax a 1.0 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.22 0.242

Tmax a 0.2 0.024 / 1 0.024 / 12 0.24r 2


1.46 Breaking
Tmax a 1.0 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.2 0.24
2 2
At starting torque s=1

From (6.54) 3 2
Vrated * Rr / as
T
ms Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

0.024 / 0.2
2
Tstart a 0.2 0.048 / 0.2 0.24
2
2.6
Tstart a 1.0 0.024 / 1
2
0.048 / 1 0.24
2

Vrated
From Fig. 6.1(d) Ir
Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

I r , start a 0.2 0.024 / 1 0.024 / 12 0.24 2


0.72
I r , start a 1 0.024 / 0.2 0.024 / 0.22 0.24 2
Ex6-4 If the rated slip of induction motor of EX6.3 is 0.04, Calculate the motor speed for rated
torque and f=30Hz. The motor is controlled with a constant V/f ratio

f 30
a 0.5
f rated 60
3 2
Vrated * Rr / s
At rated frequency,f=60Hz, From (6.52) T
ms Rs Rr / s 2 X s X r 2
3 2 3 *Vrated
2
Trated
Vrated * 0.024 / 0.04
1.34
m s 0.024 0.024 / 0.04 2 0.24 2 m s [1]

3 2
Vrated * Rr / as
At f=30Hz, From (6.54) T
ms Rs / a Rr / as 2 X s X r 2

3 Vrated 2
* 0.024 / 0.5 s
Trated
ms 0.024 0.024 2
2 [2]
0.5 0.5s 0.24

Equating [1] and [2] s 2 0.98s 1 0

s 0.089 and s 0.43

N ams 1 s 0.5 *1800 * 1 0.089 820 rpm


Ex 6-5
A 480V, 60 Hz 4 pole 1710 rpm, Y-connected induction motor has the following parameters
per phase: Rs 0.3 , Rr 0.15 , X s X r 1.1 X m 40
The motor is controlled by variable frequency control at a constant flux of rated value.
(i) Calculate the speed and stator current at half the rated torque and 20 Hz supply.
(ii) Solve part (i) assuming the speed-torque curves to be parrallel stright lines for s sm .
(iii) Calculate the frequency, the stator current, and voltage at rated breaking torque and
1400 rpm.
Solution:

1800 rpm ms 2 * 1800 188.5 rad / sec


120 f 120 * 60
Ns
P 4 60
N s N 1800 1710
s 0.05
Ns 1800
Rr 0.15
Z r jX r j1.1 3 j1.1 3.195320.14o
s 0.05
Z r * Z m
Z s Rs jX s 0.3 j1.1 1.1474.75 o
Z in Zs
Z r Z m
3.195320.14 * 4090
Z in 1.1474.75 3.927437.245o
3.195320.14 4090
V ph 480 / 3
Is 70.563A
Z in 3.9274
Zm 4090
I r * Is * 70.563 68.57 A
Z r Z m 3.195320.14 4090
E I r * Z r 0.971* 3.1953 218.93V
Rated torque=

I r 2 Rr
* 68 .517 *
3 3 0.15
T . 224 .14 N .m
m s s 188 .5 0.05
20 1
(i) At 20 Hz a
60 3



3 Erated * Rr / as
2 2
3 218.93 * 0.15 * 3 / s 224.14
T N .m
ms R 2 188.5 2
2
r r
2
0.15
as X
1.1
1s
3
0.152 * 9
1.1 s 3.063 or 1.21s 2 3.063s 0.2025 0
2
s
s 2.4635 It is not acceptable value, s 0.0679 resonable value.
1
m a ms 1 s * 188.5 * 1 0.0679 58.567 rad / sec
3
1
or N a * N s 1 s * 1800 * 1 0.0679 559.26 rpm
3
At 20 Hz
20
E * 218.95 72.977V
60
Rr 0.15 j1.1
Z r jaX r 2.23949.424o
s 0.0679 3
E 72.9770
I r 32.588 9.424o A
Z r 2.23949.424
E 72.9770
Im 5.473 90o A
jaX m j 40 / 3
I s I r I m 33.9167 18.584 A
n
(ii)

1800

2x

60Hz

600
3y x

20Hz
y

TFL TFL
2
2x x 3 * 0.05 x
S FL 0.05 0.075 Sn 0.075
3y y 2 y
n 600 * 1 s 555 rpm
E
For constant flux, the cons tan t
f
20
At 20 Hz E * 218.93 72.977V
60
Rr 0.15 j1.1
Z r jaX r 2.03310.39o
s 0.075 3
E 72.9770
I r 35.896 10.39 o A
Z r 2.03310.39
E 72.9770
Im 5.473 90o A
jaX m j 40 / 3
I s I r I m 37.274 18.694 A
N s 1400 90 1310 rpm
90
s 0.069
1310
120 * f 120 * f
Ns 1310
P 4
f 43 .66 Hz
43 .66
E aErated * 218 .93 158 .6V
60
68 .46 159 .78
aErated 158 .6
I r

Rr / s ja X r 0.15 /(0.069 ) j 0.73 *1.1

I m remais the same 5.473 90o A


I s I r I m 68.46 159 .78 5.474 90 70.52 155 .55 A

V E Z s I s 158 .60 0.3 j 0.73 *1.1* 70 .52 155 .55


173 .62 20 .3V
VARIABLE VOLTAGE AND VARIABLE
FREQUENCY(V/F)

THE VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND VARIABLE VOLTAGE CAN BE OBTAINED


BY,

VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER(VSI)


CYCLOCONVERTER CONTROL

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


VSI

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


VSI
.

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF VSI

IF REGENERATION IS NECESSARY, THE PHASE CONTROLLED BRIDGE RECTIFIER IS REPLACED BY DUAL


CONVERTER

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF VSI

DUE TO CHOPPER ,THE HARMONIC INJECTION INTO THE AC SUPPLY IS REDUCED

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


VARIABLE CURRENT AND VARIABLE
FREQUENCY (CSI) (CONT.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER(CSI)
(CONT.)

INPUT VOLTAGE KEPT CONSTANT OUTPUT CURRENT DEPENDS UPON THE


NATURE
11UEE757 OFDRIVES
ELECTRIC LOADAND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017
DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF CSI(CONT.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF CSI(CONT.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CSI FED IM

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


ROTOR RESISTANCE
T CONTROL(CONT.)

R1< R2< R3
nr1< nr2< nr3
R1
R2
R3

nr3 nr2 nr1 n


ns~nNL
11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017
STATIC ROTOR RESISTANCE
CONTROL(CONT.)
AN ELECTRONIC CHOPPER IMPLEMENTATION IS ALSO POSSIBLE AS
SHOWN BELOW BUT IS EQUALLY INEFFICIENT.

6/24/2017
11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017
CLOSED LOOP CONTROL STATIC
ROTOR RESISTANCE(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


SLIP POWER RECOVERY

INSTEAD OF WASTING THE SLIP POWER IN THE ROTOR CIRCUIT RESISTANCE,


A BETTER APPROACH IS TO CONVERT IT TO AC LINE POWER AND RETURN IT
BACK TO THE LINE. TWO TYPES OF CONVERTER PROVIDE THIS APPROACH:

1) STATIC KRAMER DRIVE - ONLY ALLOWS


OPERATION AT SUB-SYNCHRONOUS SPEED.
2) STATIC SCHERBIUS DRIVE - ALLOWS
OPERATION ABOVE AND BELOW
SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CONVENTIONAL KRAMER
SYSYTEM(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


IMPROVED VERSION OF KRAMER
SYSTEM(NS TO HALF OF NS)
(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


IMPROVED VERSION OF KRAMER
SYSTEM(ZERO TO NS) (CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


STATIC KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


APPLIACTION(CONTN.)

LARGE PUMPS
FAN TYPE LOADS

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF STATIC
KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


MODIFIED KRAMER SYSTEM(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


SCHERBIUS SYSTEM(CONVENTIONAL
SCHERBIUS SYSTEM) (CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


STATIC SCHERBIUS SYSTEM(CONTN.)

SLIP POWER RECTIFIER-INVETER-


TRANSFORMER-SUPPLY

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


SUPPLY-TRANSFORMER-RECTIFIER-
INVERTER-ROTOR CIRCUIT(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF
SCHERBIUS SYTEM(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017


CYCLOCONVERTER STATIC
SCHERBIUS(CONTN.)

11UEE757 ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL EMMANUEL GOSPEL RAJ R. 6/24/2017