KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA

AGUS HARYANTO FEBRUARI 2010

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER
‡ Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power or motion), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today thermodynamics is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter. ‡ Heat transfers the science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfer.

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER (cont)
‡ Thermodynamics membicarakan sistem keseimbangan (equilibrium), bisa digunakan untuk menaksir besarnya energi yang diperlukan untuk mengubah suatu sistem keseimbangan, tetapi tidak dapat dipakai untuk menaksir seberapa cepat (laju) perubahan itu terjadi karena selama proses sistem tidak berada dalam keseimbangan. ‡ Heat Transfer tidak hanya menerangkan bagaimana energi itu dihantarkan, tetapi juga menaksir laju penghantaran energi. Inilah yang membedakan Heat Transfer dengan thermodinamika.

radiator) Pembangkit listrik (turbin. boiler) Industri (penyulingan. heat sink) Refrigerator (AC. . pengeringan. Kulkas) Mobil (siklus engine. pendinginan.APLIKASI ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tubuh manusia Meniup kopi panas Perkakas elektronik (sirip. dll). sirip.

Tidak paham 2. ) p homogen ‡ Satuan : SI Units (m.T. Tidak terampil melakukan konversi satuan ‡ Trik: perhitungan harus menyertakan satuan .DIMENSI dan SATUAN ‡ Dimensi (M. Usaha minimal.L. K) ‡ Kesalahan umum: 1. s. kg. kurang latihan 3.

a ‡ P = F/A m N ! kg 2 s N Pa ! 2 m kg a! 2 m.SECONDARY UNITS ‡ Secondary units can be formed by combinations of primary units. Example: ‡ F = m.m / s a! 2 m 2 .s kg.

‡ The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary . LINGKUNGAN ‡ A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study.SISTEM vs. ‡ The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.

OPEN vs. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Closed system (= control mass): Mass can t cross the boundary. ‡ Special case. that system is called an isolated system. but energy can. . ‡ Volume of a closed system may change. if no energy cross the boundary.

.CLOSSED SYSTEM A closed system with a moving boundary.

It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor. and they can be real or imaginary.OPEN vs. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Open system (= control volume) is a properly selected region in space. or nozzle. . turbine. ‡ Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume. ‡ The boundaries of a control volume are called a control surface.

OPEN SYSTEM .

OPEN SYSTEM Open system (= control volume) with one inlet and one outlet (exit) and a real boundary. .

and even velocity and elevation. The list can be extended to include less familiar ones such as viscosity. such as temperature. volume V. temperature T. . modulus of elasticity. specific energy (e = E/m).SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM ‡ Any characteristic of a system is called a property. ‡ Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties (specific volume (v = V/m). electric resistivity. thermal expansion coefficient. ‡ Some familiar properties are pressure P. ‡ Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system. pressure. and density. thermal conductivity. ‡ Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system. and mass m.

.SIFAT INTENSIF vs. Buatlah daftar sifat intensif dan ekstensifnya Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties. EKSTENSIF TUGAS (dikumpul Senin) : Sebuah apel dibelah dua.

kebalikan dari densitas: volume per satuan masa (m3/kg) ‡ Densitas relatif atau specific gravity: nisbah densitas suatu substansi dengan densitas substansi standar pada suhu tertentu (biasanya air pada 4oC di mana V = 1000 kg/m3) .SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM PENTING ‡ Densitas atau massa jenis: masa per satuan volume ‡ Volume spesifik.

Energi Kinetik (KE) 1 2 KE ! mV 2 2.ENERGY SISTEM TERMODINAMIKA ‡ BENTUK ENERGI: 1. Energi dakhil atau Internal Energy (U) ‡ ENERGI TOTAL: E = U + KE + PE e = u + ke + pe (per satuan massa) . Energi Potensial (PE) PE = mgh 3.

If the value of even one property changes. At a given state. of the system. all the properties of a system have fixed values. the state will change to a different one. intensive properties.POSTULAT KEADAAN ‡ All properties (can be measured or calculated) completely describes the condition. ‡ The number of properties required to fix the state of a system is given by the state postulate: The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent. . or the state.

PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process ‡ The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path (lintasan) of the process. .

‡ Proses isokhoris (isometris): proses pada volume spesifik R konstan.MACAM-MACAM PROSES ‡ Proses isotermal: proses pada suhu T konstan. ‡ Proses isobaris: proses pada tekanan P konstan. . ‡ Proses isentropik: proses pada entropi S konstan. ‡ Proses adiabatik: proses di mana tidak terjadi pertukaran kalor dengan lingkungan.

implies no change with location over a specified region. ‡ The opposite of steady is unsteady. however. ‡ The term uniform. ‡ The term steady implies no change with time. . and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings. or transient.STEADY-FLOW PROCESS ‡ The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering.

Siklus dengan 2 lintasan Siklus dengan 4 lintasan .PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ A system undergoes a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the process.

‡ Satuan tekanan adalah pascal (Pa) = N/m2. ‡ Untuk fluida diam. tekanan adalah sama ke segala arah. ‡ Untuk benda padat gaya per luas satuan tidak disebut tekanan. ‡ Tekanan gas di dalam tangki dapat dianggap seragam karena berat gas terlalu kecil dan tidak mengakibatkan pengaruh yang berarti. ‡ Tetapi tekanan tidak bervariasi pada arah horisontal.TEKANAN ‡ Tekanan (P) : gaya (F) per satuan luas (A). tetapi tegangan (stress). . ‡ Tekanan di dalam fluida meningkat sesuai dengan kedalamannya akibat berat fluida (pengaruh gravitasi) sehingga fluida pada bagian bawah menanggung beban yang lebih besar daripada fluida di bagian atas.

TEKANAN: UKUR. ‡ Perbedaan tekanan absolut dan tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan ukur (pressure gage). ATM. ‡ Pgage = Pabs Patm (untuk P > Patm) ‡ Pvac = Patm Pabs (untuk P < Patm) . ‡ Kebanyakan pengukur tekanan dikalibrasi untuk membaca nol di atmosfer (tekanan atmosfer lokal). VAKUM ‡ Tekanan aktual pada posisi tertentu disebut tekanan absolut dan diukur secara relatif terhadap tekanan vakum. ‡ Tekanan di bawah tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan vakum (vacuum pressure) dan diukur dengan pengukur vakum yang menunjukkan perbedaan antara tekanan atmosfer dan tekanan absolut. yaitu tekanan nol mutlak.

TEKANAN VAKUM .TEKANAN UKUR. TEKANAN ATMOSFER.

PENGUKUR TEKANAN MANOMETER BAROMETER PRESSURE GAGE .

PRINSIP MANOMETER Perhatikan gambar: ‡ Seimbang 7F = 0 ‡ P1 = P2 ‡ A P1 = A Patm + W di mana W = m g = VVg=VAhg ‡ P1 = Patm + V h g ‡ (P = P1 .Patm = V h g = Tekanan ukur di dalam tangki .

The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0. determine the absolute pressure within the tank. If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa.85. and the manometer column height is 55 cm. . as shown in Figure.EXAMPLE : Manometer A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank.

EXAMPLE: SOLUTION .

. and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer (see Figure). oil.2 m. h2 = 0. respectively.6 kPa. and h3 = 0. Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.1 m. and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3. The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.600 kg/m3. Take the densities of water.35 m.EXAMPLE: MULTIFLUID MANOMETER Water in a tank is pressurized by air. and 13. 850 kg/m3.

SOLUTION .

APLIKASI MANOMETER Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer: P1 + V1g(a + h) .P2 V2 g h .V1)gh Untuk V2 >> V1 : P1 .V2gh .V1ga = P2 P1 .P2 = (V2 .

BAROMETER Torricelli Patm = V g h .

81 m/s2. Assume the temperature of mercury to be 10oC. at which its density is 13.EXAMPLE3: BAROMETER ‡ Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740 mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g 9. .570 kg/m3.

EXAMPLE3: SOLUTION .

TEKANAN ATMOSFER ELEVASI (m) 0 (sea level) 1000 2000 5000 10.77 41.5 5.48 Rule of thumb: naik 10 m.41 198. tekanan atmosfer turun 1 mmHg .325 89.30 405.00 674.05 26.15 596.000 20.000 TEKANAN (kPa) 101.88 79.50 54.53 TEKANAN (mmHg) 760.

EFEK KETINGGIAN .

67 T(oC) = 1.8T(oC) + 32 T(R) = 1.8 T(K) CAUTION: (T(K) = (T(oC) (T(R) = (T(oF) .15 T(R) = T(oF) + 456.TEMPERATURE ‡ Thermodinamika SUHU MUTLAK ‡ Satuan kelvin (K) untuk SI ‡ Satuan renkine (R) untuk USCS Konversi: T(K) = T(oC) + 273.

EXAMPLE4: TEMPERATURE ‡ During a heating process. and R. . Express this rise in temperature in K. the temperature of a system rises by 10°C. °F.

1-23C. 1-29. 1-61. 1-48. 1-40. 1-21C. 1-22C. 1-55. 1-35C. 1-45. 1-88. 1-123. 1-16C. 1-125. 1-39C. 1-53. 1-42. 1-7C. 1-108. 1-63. 134C. 1-51. 1-65. 1-122. 1-59. 1-103. ‡ Kelompok THERMO ‡ Kelompok DYNAMICS . 1-15C. 1-43. 1-17C. 120C. 1-105. 1-44.PR: ‡ Soal No: 1-6C. 1-101. 1-120. 1-31. 1-57. 1-62. 1-106. 1-121. 1-24C. 1-66. 1-85. 1-36C. 1-73.

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