KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA

AGUS HARYANTO FEBRUARI 2010

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER
‡ Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power or motion), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today thermodynamics is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter. ‡ Heat transfers the science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfer.

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER (cont)
‡ Thermodynamics membicarakan sistem keseimbangan (equilibrium), bisa digunakan untuk menaksir besarnya energi yang diperlukan untuk mengubah suatu sistem keseimbangan, tetapi tidak dapat dipakai untuk menaksir seberapa cepat (laju) perubahan itu terjadi karena selama proses sistem tidak berada dalam keseimbangan. ‡ Heat Transfer tidak hanya menerangkan bagaimana energi itu dihantarkan, tetapi juga menaksir laju penghantaran energi. Inilah yang membedakan Heat Transfer dengan thermodinamika.

pengeringan. sirip. Kulkas) Mobil (siklus engine. pendinginan. . heat sink) Refrigerator (AC.APLIKASI ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tubuh manusia Meniup kopi panas Perkakas elektronik (sirip. dll). boiler) Industri (penyulingan. radiator) Pembangkit listrik (turbin.

Tidak paham 2.L.T.DIMENSI dan SATUAN ‡ Dimensi (M. Usaha minimal. Tidak terampil melakukan konversi satuan ‡ Trik: perhitungan harus menyertakan satuan . ) p homogen ‡ Satuan : SI Units (m. kurang latihan 3. K) ‡ Kesalahan umum: 1. s. kg.

s kg.SECONDARY UNITS ‡ Secondary units can be formed by combinations of primary units.a ‡ P = F/A m N ! kg 2 s N Pa ! 2 m kg a! 2 m.m / s a! 2 m 2 . Example: ‡ F = m.

‡ The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.SISTEM vs. LINGKUNGAN ‡ A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. ‡ The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary .

OPEN vs. ‡ Special case. if no energy cross the boundary. but energy can. ‡ Volume of a closed system may change. that system is called an isolated system. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Closed system (= control mass): Mass can t cross the boundary. .

.CLOSSED SYSTEM A closed system with a moving boundary.

turbine. and they can be real or imaginary. It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor. ‡ The boundaries of a control volume are called a control surface.OPEN vs. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Open system (= control volume) is a properly selected region in space. or nozzle. . ‡ Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume.

OPEN SYSTEM .

OPEN SYSTEM Open system (= control volume) with one inlet and one outlet (exit) and a real boundary. .

‡ Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system. The list can be extended to include less familiar ones such as viscosity. ‡ Some familiar properties are pressure P. ‡ Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties (specific volume (v = V/m).SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM ‡ Any characteristic of a system is called a property. ‡ Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system. and density. modulus of elasticity. specific energy (e = E/m). thermal expansion coefficient. pressure. . temperature T. electric resistivity. and even velocity and elevation. such as temperature. and mass m. volume V. thermal conductivity.

Buatlah daftar sifat intensif dan ekstensifnya Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties. EKSTENSIF TUGAS (dikumpul Senin) : Sebuah apel dibelah dua.SIFAT INTENSIF vs. .

kebalikan dari densitas: volume per satuan masa (m3/kg) ‡ Densitas relatif atau specific gravity: nisbah densitas suatu substansi dengan densitas substansi standar pada suhu tertentu (biasanya air pada 4oC di mana V = 1000 kg/m3) .SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM PENTING ‡ Densitas atau massa jenis: masa per satuan volume ‡ Volume spesifik.

Energi Potensial (PE) PE = mgh 3. Energi dakhil atau Internal Energy (U) ‡ ENERGI TOTAL: E = U + KE + PE e = u + ke + pe (per satuan massa) .ENERGY SISTEM TERMODINAMIKA ‡ BENTUK ENERGI: 1. Energi Kinetik (KE) 1 2 KE ! mV 2 2.

the state will change to a different one. of the system. . all the properties of a system have fixed values. If the value of even one property changes. intensive properties.POSTULAT KEADAAN ‡ All properties (can be measured or calculated) completely describes the condition. ‡ The number of properties required to fix the state of a system is given by the state postulate: The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent. or the state. At a given state.

.PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process ‡ The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path (lintasan) of the process.

MACAM-MACAM PROSES ‡ Proses isotermal: proses pada suhu T konstan. ‡ Proses adiabatik: proses di mana tidak terjadi pertukaran kalor dengan lingkungan. ‡ Proses isokhoris (isometris): proses pada volume spesifik R konstan. . ‡ Proses isentropik: proses pada entropi S konstan. ‡ Proses isobaris: proses pada tekanan P konstan.

‡ The term uniform. ‡ The term steady implies no change with time. ‡ The opposite of steady is unsteady. implies no change with location over a specified region. and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings.STEADY-FLOW PROCESS ‡ The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering. however. . or transient.

PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ A system undergoes a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the process. Siklus dengan 2 lintasan Siklus dengan 4 lintasan .

‡ Tekanan gas di dalam tangki dapat dianggap seragam karena berat gas terlalu kecil dan tidak mengakibatkan pengaruh yang berarti. . ‡ Tetapi tekanan tidak bervariasi pada arah horisontal. ‡ Tekanan di dalam fluida meningkat sesuai dengan kedalamannya akibat berat fluida (pengaruh gravitasi) sehingga fluida pada bagian bawah menanggung beban yang lebih besar daripada fluida di bagian atas. tekanan adalah sama ke segala arah. ‡ Untuk benda padat gaya per luas satuan tidak disebut tekanan. ‡ Satuan tekanan adalah pascal (Pa) = N/m2. tetapi tegangan (stress).TEKANAN ‡ Tekanan (P) : gaya (F) per satuan luas (A). ‡ Untuk fluida diam.

‡ Perbedaan tekanan absolut dan tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan ukur (pressure gage). ‡ Tekanan di bawah tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan vakum (vacuum pressure) dan diukur dengan pengukur vakum yang menunjukkan perbedaan antara tekanan atmosfer dan tekanan absolut. yaitu tekanan nol mutlak.TEKANAN: UKUR. ‡ Kebanyakan pengukur tekanan dikalibrasi untuk membaca nol di atmosfer (tekanan atmosfer lokal). ATM. VAKUM ‡ Tekanan aktual pada posisi tertentu disebut tekanan absolut dan diukur secara relatif terhadap tekanan vakum. ‡ Pgage = Pabs Patm (untuk P > Patm) ‡ Pvac = Patm Pabs (untuk P < Patm) .

TEKANAN VAKUM .TEKANAN UKUR. TEKANAN ATMOSFER.

PENGUKUR TEKANAN MANOMETER BAROMETER PRESSURE GAGE .

Patm = V h g = Tekanan ukur di dalam tangki .PRINSIP MANOMETER Perhatikan gambar: ‡ Seimbang 7F = 0 ‡ P1 = P2 ‡ A P1 = A Patm + W di mana W = m g = VVg=VAhg ‡ P1 = Patm + V h g ‡ (P = P1 .

EXAMPLE : Manometer A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. and the manometer column height is 55 cm. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0. determine the absolute pressure within the tank.85. . If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa. as shown in Figure.

EXAMPLE: SOLUTION .

oil. respectively.6 kPa. and h3 = 0.1 m. and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3.2 m. h2 = 0. Take the densities of water. and 13. 850 kg/m3. Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.600 kg/m3. and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer (see Figure). The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.EXAMPLE: MULTIFLUID MANOMETER Water in a tank is pressurized by air. .35 m.

SOLUTION .

V1ga = P2 P1 .APLIKASI MANOMETER Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer: P1 + V1g(a + h) .V2gh .P2 V2 g h .V1)gh Untuk V2 >> V1 : P1 .P2 = (V2 .

BAROMETER Torricelli Patm = V g h .

570 kg/m3. at which its density is 13. .81 m/s2. Assume the temperature of mercury to be 10oC.EXAMPLE3: BAROMETER ‡ Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740 mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g 9.

EXAMPLE3: SOLUTION .

50 54.325 89.48 Rule of thumb: naik 10 m.53 TEKANAN (mmHg) 760.41 198.88 79.000 20.5 5.00 674.05 26.000 TEKANAN (kPa) 101. tekanan atmosfer turun 1 mmHg .30 405.15 596.77 41.TEKANAN ATMOSFER ELEVASI (m) 0 (sea level) 1000 2000 5000 10.

EFEK KETINGGIAN .

67 T(oC) = 1.8T(oC) + 32 T(R) = 1.15 T(R) = T(oF) + 456.8 T(K) CAUTION: (T(K) = (T(oC) (T(R) = (T(oF) .TEMPERATURE ‡ Thermodinamika SUHU MUTLAK ‡ Satuan kelvin (K) untuk SI ‡ Satuan renkine (R) untuk USCS Konversi: T(K) = T(oC) + 273.

°F. and R. the temperature of a system rises by 10°C. Express this rise in temperature in K. .EXAMPLE4: TEMPERATURE ‡ During a heating process.

1-73. 1-40. 1-101. 1-29. 1-45. 1-57. 1-103. 1-66. 1-21C. 1-120. 1-53. 1-24C. 134C. 1-17C. 1-39C. 1-88. 1-59. 1-15C. 1-108. 1-7C.PR: ‡ Soal No: 1-6C. 1-125. 1-42. 1-85. 1-48. 1-106. 1-65. 1-105. 1-62. 1-122. 1-121. 1-123. 1-51. 120C. 1-22C. 1-61. ‡ Kelompok THERMO ‡ Kelompok DYNAMICS . 1-36C. 1-23C. 1-55. 1-31. 1-44. 1-43. 1-16C. 1-35C. 1-63.

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