You are on page 1of 41

APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICALS

Topic 1 - Everyday Life

Topic 2 - Topic 3 -
Energy Industry
1-Everyday Life
Chemicals @ First Look
Chemical Biochemical Medical
Phenol Glucose Paracetamol
Aggressive Soft acting (kg) Small dose (mg)
Aspartame,
Cyclamates
Saccharin,
Sucralose
Sweetener
200X as sweet as sugar
Aspartic acid + phenylalanine >
Aspartame
4 Calories / gram
Aspartame NO cooking / Baking > or decomposes
Ice creams / Desserts, Gelatins,
Beverages/Cool drinks, Gewing gum
300-500X as sweet as sugar
It is a toluene derivative
Diet sweetner, toothpaste, beverages
Saccharin No food value, Bitter taste in concentrated solution
Diabetes patients / psychological taste

600X as sweet as sugar


It is made from sugar
15% sucralose is absorbed by body
Sucralose Beverages, Frozen desserts, chewing gum, baked foods, etc

30X as sweet as sugar


Mix -Sodium cyclamate, calcium cyclamate & cyclamic acid
More stable than Saccharin & Aspartame
Cyclamtes Some dose is excreted unchanged
Less sweet than sugar, used in food products
Polyols weight loss, dental care, diabetes patient, cheap,
Non-sugar avoid processed food
sweetner Fructose is suggested for diabetes patients

Non-reactive with food, ingredients, container


Non-toxic
Soluble in any medium
Food presevatives Benzoates, Nitrites, Sorbets

Sodium benzoates, benzoic acid


Antimicrobial found in Plums, ripe cloves, apples
180X soluble in water, pH 4.5 > Jams, Beverages, Salad, Ice,
Benzoates vinegar, fruit juice, soft drinks, soya juice, duck juice
Sorbic acid ( Na / K salts)
Antimicrobial (fungi, yeast, bacteria), pH 6.5
Sorbates Wine, food preservation

Prevents bacterial growth


Prevents Clostridium botulium
Nitrites used in meat, smoked fish

Found in dried fruits, wines and fruit juices


Used in fats, oils, shortening and similar
Sulphates products
BHT Butylated hydroxy toluene, sulfites, Vitamin C & E
BHT wine, beer, meat, dried potato, dried fruits
Sulfites fats, oils, etc
Vitamin C slows oxidation of cut fruits, vegetables used to
Anti- fortify foods and cereals
oxidants Vitamin E prevents browning of cut apples, peaches,
other fruits

Anti-cracking agents prevents liquid from boiling or


froth in beverages
Thickdning and stabilising agents eg pectin in jam, locust
beam gum in ice cream to prevent ice crystal formation,
Emulsifier Food containing fats and water lecithin in
Other food chocalates, mono- and di-glycerides in bakery products
additives Colouring agents caramel in soft drinks
Chelating agents Citric acid, EDTA
Soaps Na / K salt of long-chain fatty acids. Made from
plant oils and NaOH. RCOONa. Used for bathing, washing
cloth, shaving cream
Detergents - Sodium alky sulfate / Sodium alkybenzene
sulfonate. Used for washing cloth.
Toothpaste calcium carbonate, sodium fluoride and
hydrogen peroxide in glycerine.
Cleaner Bleaching powder NaOCl Used for bleaching and
cleaning
Caustic Soda NaOH. Cleaning & Floor washing. Unblocking
sinks, drains and toilets

Baking soda NaHCO3. Used in cooking, baking and in soda


drinks
Vinegar Acetic acid. As preservative, used in pickles, used
Cooking in household cleaning also
Common salt NaCl. Taste maker, preservative
Sugar sucrose. Used in cooking and sweetening.
CaCo3
Uses including blackboard chalk, pavement (or, in USA, sidewalk)
chalk, gymnastics and rock-climbing, and sometimes in toothpaste.
Chalk

Naphthalene, or 1,4-dichlorobenzene
Have strong pungent smell and is used for keeping cockroaches away
from kitchen and home
Moth balls

H2O2
Perosnal hygiene, present in toothpaste (it removes yellow colour in
teeth)
Mouth wash
2-Energy
Non-Renewable
Coal Burning > Thermal Power Station
Renewable
Water from Dam > Hydro Electric Project
Non-renewable
Uranium 235 > Nuclear Power Plant
Disadvantages
What is it? The dam is expensive to build.
Flowing By building a dam, the nearby
water is area has to be flooded and
used to turn this could affect nearby
a turbine habitats.
which If it does not rain much we
generates may not have enough water
electricity. to turn the turbines.

Advantages
When the electricity is
generated, no greenhouse
gases are made.
The water used is free.
It is a renewable energy
source.
Disadvantages
What is it? Harmful radioactive
Radiation is waste is created.
released from Uranium supplies may
the nuclei of only last for another 50
metal atoms. years.
The radiation can Non-renewable
be used to Radiation may cause
generate cancer
electricity.

Advantages
Green House gases are
not made.
Only a small amount of
fuel is needed to create
a lot of energy.
Disadvantages
What is it? Inefficient (only 30%
Biomass, is a efficiency).
renewable Releases harmful solid
energy source carbon particles into
made of the atmosphere.
biological
material from
living, or recently
living organisms.
Energy is
released by Advantages
combustion Produces less pollution
(burning). than fossil fuels.
Does not cause acid
rain.
Can be found locally.
It is renewable.
Disadvantages
What is it? Lots of wind turbines
Wind turbines are needed to produce
are used to enough power.
generate Turbines can only be put
electricity from in windy areas.
the wind. It is not always windy.
The wind turns Some people dont like
the large blades the look of the turbines.
and the blades
turn a generator.

Advantages
Wind is renewable.
Wind is free.
No greenhouse gases are
made.
There are few safety risks.
Disadvantages
What is it? Solar panels are
Solar power expensive.
uses energy When it is cloudy or at
from the night there is not enough
Sun. light.
Solar panels Some people dont like
transfer the the look of solar panels.
Suns energy
to heat
water.
Advantages
The energy from the Sun
is free.
The sun does not produce
greenhouse gases.
The sun will always be
there during our lifetime.
Disadvantages
What is it? Solar cells are
Solar cells expensive.
use energy They take up lots of
from the Sun. space.
Solar panels They only work in Sun
transfer the light
Suns energy
directly into
electricity.

Advantages
The energy from the Sun
is free.
The sun does not produce
greenhouse gases.
The sun will always be
there during our lifetime.
Disadvantages
What is it? There are not many places
Rocks under where we can build
the ground geothermal power stations.
are hot. Harmful gases and minerals
Water can may occasionally come up
be pumped from the ground below.
through These can be
these hot difficult to control.
rocks and
warmed up.
Advantages
Geothermal energy does
not produce greenhouse
gases.
The energy source is free
and will not run out.
Disadvantages
What is it? Small waves generate
Waves force small amounts of
air in and electricity.
out of a Electricity needs to be
chamber. transported from the sea
The air onto the land.
causes a The equipment is
turbine to expensive
generate
electricity.
Advantages
Waves are free and will not
run out.
Wave power does not
produce greenhouse gases.
There are very few safety
risks.
Disadvantages
What is it? A dam to make the water flow
Solar power through the generators might
uses energy be needed.
from the Plants and animals that live
Sun. nearby might get harmed
Solar panels The tides only happen twice a
transfer the day, so can only produce
Suns energy electricity at that time.
to heat
water.
Advantages
Tides are free and will not
run out.
No greenhouse gases are
produced.
It is reliable because we
know exactly when the
tides happen.
3-Industry
Steel Automobile Medical
Ore>Metal Fuel+Tyre Extraction
Corrosion Paint / Glass Reaction
A - World Iron & Steel Industry
Chemistry Blast Furnace Steel Making
B - Indian Automobile Industry
Tyre on Road Compounding Latex

Synthetic Rubber, Textile


Fibre, Carbon Black, Synthetic
Fibre, Steel Rod, etc
Painting White
Painting - Blue
Epoxy < Paint
C Pharmaceutical / Medical Industry
Life Saving Prescription Free Medicines
Pain killer paracetamol
Analgesics Volini > Salicilin, Analgin

Antibiotic - Germicides
Antiseptics Alcohol, Boric acid, Tincture

Sterilisation Surgical / Floor


Disinfectants Air spray, Phenol, Alcohol