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 Group counseling can be used to help motivate low-
performing students.
 Learning groups geared toward cooperative sharing can
help participants achieve their goals more easily.
 Support groups can help older women cope with divorce
and its aftermaths.
 Group counseling and psychoeducational programs can
help persons who have sustained heart attacks deal
better with stressors in their lives.


 These groups are preventive and educational. Their
purpose is to teach group participants how to deal with a
potential threat (such as AIDS), a developmental life
event (such as growing older), or immediate life crisis
(such as the death of a loved one).
 These types of groups are often found in educational
 In school settings, instructional materials such as
unfinished stories, puppet plays, films, audio interviews,
and guest speakers are employed in
guidance/psychoeducational groups.

Problem-solving Groups
 that “seek” help to group participants to resolve the
usual, yet often difficult, problems of living through
interpersonal support and problem solving.
 Help participants to develop their existing interpersonal
problem solving competencies so they may be better
able to handle future problems.

Gazda (1989) distinguishes group counseling from group guidance in the following ways: .

whereas group guidance is more applicable to classroom-size environments. .  Group counseling is conducted in a small. whereas group guidance is recommended on a regular basis as a personal educational measure.  Group counseling is more direct than group guidance in attempting to modify attitudes and behaviors. Group counseling is recommended for individuals who are having temporary or continuing problems. intimate setting.

.Psychotherapy/Personality Reconstruction Groups  Set up to help individual group members remediate in depth psychological problems.  Often takes place in inpatient facilities. (hospitals or mental health facilities because greater control may be necessary for the people involved.

.Task/ Work groups  Help members apply the principles and processes of group dynamics to improve practices and accomplish indentified work goals.

Traditional and Historical Groups T-GROUPS ENCOUNTER GROUPS Group Marathon Psychodrama .

.  The “T” stands for Training.  Similar to forms of family counseling in which the emphasis is on both how the system operates and how an individual within the system functions.T-GROUPS  These groups appeared at a time when neither group counseling nor group psychotherapy was popular.  Kurt Lewin’s ideas about a group dynamics formed the basis for the original groups.  Members of such groups are likely to learn from the experience how one’s behavior in a group influences others behavior and vice versa.

. and develop”. change.  Intended for “normally functioning’’ people who want to “grow.Encounter Groups  Emerged from T-groups in an attempt to focus on the growth of individual group members rather than itself.

. Group experience that breaks down defensive barrier that individual may other otherwise use. one-session.  Have been used successfully in working with substances abusers in rehabilitation programs and normally functioning individuals in group counseling settings.  It usually lasts for a mininum of 24 hours.  Pioneered by Frederick Stoller and George Bach in the 1960s.Group Marathon  Is an extended marathon is an extended.

Moreno. or do both.Psychodrama  J.  Members enact unrehearsed role plays. originator of psychodrama. a Viennese psychiatrist. give feedback to the protagonist as members of the audience.L. with the group leader serving as the director. . Other group members are actors in the protagonist’s play.

 Is similar to a self help group in its focus on a particular concern or problem. .  Self-help and support groups partly fill the needs of populations that can be serve in group formats and that might otherwise not receive services. but it is organized by an established professional helping organization or individual.Self –help/Support groups.


person-centered. Genetic. In many cases. within group work there are there are approaches based on psychoanalytic. . transactional analysis. and behavioral theories. For instance. the theories are the same. rational- emotive.

are useful for group leader to consider when deciding on what approach to take:  Do I need a theoretical base for conducting the group?  What uses will the theory best serve?  What criteria will be employed in the selection process? . Three factors. in addition to the ones already mentioned.

Stages in Groups  Stages according to Tuckman (1965) first theorist to design a stage group process for group counseling. .

.Forming  1st stage: members express anxiety and dependency and talk about non problematic issues. This process assures that the clients are relaxed.

power.Storming  2nd stage: there is usually considerable turmoil and conflict.  Sometimes the group leader is attacked. and future expectations. Group members seek to establish hierarchy of the group and deal successfully with issues concerning anxiety. . as in adolescence.

the group members become involved with each other and with their individual and collective goals. . Goals and ways of working together are decided on”  At this stage.Norming  3rd stage: “having survived the storm the group often generates enthusiasm and cohesion.

ISSUES IN GROUPS .There are number of issues involved in conducting successful group.

Selection and Preparation of Group Member  Some individuals who wish to be members of groups are not appropriate candidates for them. .

 Corey (1995). In joining groups. These following are among the among the most important: . lists 12 issues that potential participants should clarify before they enroll in a group. it is important to check first with the group organizer and become clear about the outcome of the experiment.

and basic procedures  A statement about the educational and training qualification of the group leader(s)  A pregroup interview to determine whether the potential group leader and members are suited for one’s needs at the time  A disclosure about the risk involved in being in a group and the rights and responsibilities of group members  A discussion about the limitation of confidentiality and the roles group leaders and participation are expected to play within the group setting. ground rules. . A clear state of groups purpose  A description of the group format.


Large group are less likely to spotlight the needs of individual members. the group should have enough people to afford ample interaction so it doesn’t drag and yet be small enough to give everyone a chance to participate frequently without… losing the sense of a “group” Corey (1995) .  In general. The size of a group is determined by its purpose and preference.


. Closed-ended groups. Open-ended groups admit new members while Close-ended groups doesn’t  Many long-term outpatient groups are open- ended. promote more cohesiveness among group members and may be very productive in helping member achieve started goals. although not as flexible in size.


 It helps build trust in the group. what has been said to the group setting will not be revealed outside of the group.  Whenever there is any questions about the betrayal of confidentiality within the group. Otherwise. it should be dealt with immediately. . Groups function best when members feel a sense of confidentiality that is. the problem grows and the cohesiveness of the groups breaks down.


 Where a group is conducted is either an asset or a liability.  Groups within schools and community agencies need to be conducted in places that promote the well-being of the group. .


 Co-leader arrange may also be beneficial when an inexperienced leader can learn from the experienced one . over 10 members. one leader can work with the group while other monitors the group process  We use co-leader if the group is large. With co-leaders.


 Dependent on the trust that group members have for one another  If there is high trust there will be greater self disclosure .


. Is a multidimensional process that consists of groups members’ responding to the verbal messages and non-verbal behavior of one another.

 Feedback is of greater benefit when the receiver is open and trusts the giver . To promote helpful feedback. Here are some important recommendations:  Feedback should be beneficial to the receiver and not serve the needs of the giver  Feedback is more effective when it is based on describable behavior  In the early stages of group development. positive feedback is more beneficial and more readily accepted than negative feedback  Feedback is most effective when it immediately follows a stimulus behavior and is validated by others. Pietrofesa and associates (1984) list criteria for feedback evaluation.


. Is used in a group to keep in touch with member after the group has terminated to determine how well they are progressing on personal or group goals.

QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE LEADERS .There are distinguishing qualities of effective and ineffective group leaders.

 Four leadership qualities have a positive effect on the outcome of groups if they are not used excessively: .

and suggesting procedures. explaining. . structuring.  Executive function: Includes developing norms.  Meaning attribution: Includes clarifying.  Emotional stimulation: Includes activity. Caring: the more. challenging. risk taking. self disclosure. and providing a cognitive framework for change. the better.

take steps to better manage the group with the assistance if its members. It is vital that group leaders find a position between the two extremes of emotional stimulation and executive function. and if they are not. recognize whether these forces are therapeutic. Effective leaders understand the forces operating within a group. Ohlsen (1977) .