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KATSUHITO SAITO

ENGINEERING SCHOOL
IN THAILAND

Basic Program-1

DUCTING
Presented by :
Mr. David M Sirait
DUCT DESIGN
Purpose of ductwork is to deliver air from the fan to
the diffusers which distribute the air to the room
Air moves through ductwork in response to a
pressure difference created by Fan
The necessary pressure difference will be a function
of the way the ductwork is laid out & sized
The objective of duct design is to size the duct so as
to minimize the pressure drop through the duct,
while keeping the size (and cost) of the ductwork to
a minimum
FAN TYPE
AXIAL CENTRIFUGAL
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
Forward Curve Fan Backward Curve Fan
(Multi Blade Fan) (Limit Load Fan)
FORWARD CURVE FAN
(Multi Blade Fan)

Low speed & low noise


Require small area for installation
Simple structure & operation
Easy Maintenance
BACKWARD CURVE FAN
(Limit Load Fan)

No overload (Limit Load).


Backward blade, produce little air turbulence
and noise. Efficient, economical & saving
power consumption.
Suitable for high Static Pressure
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
CHARACTERISTIC
Forward Curve Fan Backward Curve Fan
FAN CHARACTERISTIC
B A = Design Condition
B = Actual Condition

A Actual duct construction


Static Pressure

that differ from design.

Re-lay out for new duct


construction.

Change capacity range


because of increase
pressure loss.

Air Volume Cap.


DUCT SYSTEM PRESSURE
Total Pressure, TP, is related to the energy in
the Air Stream, and is equal to:
TP = Velocity Pressure + Static Pressure
Velocity pressure is caused by air flow
through the duct.
Static pressure is caused by friction loss &
dynamic loss (flow disturbance caused by
fittings).
PRESSURE CHANGES
PRESSURE CHANGES
Duct Practice
Fan Characteristic
Duct Practice
Fan Characteristic
Duct Practice
Fan Characteristic

Static pressure loss increase by reducing


damper opening, because flow is forced to
hold.
But, velocity pressure is reduced.
Total pressure loss is increase due to high
increase of static pressure loss compare to
the decreasing of velocity pressure.
Duct Practice
Elbows
Duct Practice
Elbows

7 5 1 6

2 3 4
Duct Practice
Elbows

Square type inside radius produce high static


pressure loss compare to round type inside
radius, because back flow occur.
Guide bend produce friction along bend,
resulted in increase static pressure.
Duct Practice
Fan Arrangement

1 2 3 4

Fan arrangement no. 1 is best recommended,


because it produce low pressure loss.
Duct Practice
Uniform Flow

1) It is best to make measurement at point far


enough from discharge fan or fitting, because
flow is more uniform.
2) Uniform flow is predicted to form at length of 6~8
times duct size from fan discharge.
Duct Practice
Transition

A It is best recommended to use


arrangement A that produce less
pressure loss.