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Module 1

Introduction to Business Research


Prelude
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Outline
What is Research?
Journalism & Research
Business Research
The Research Cycle
Research is
A systematic process
To enhance our knowledge of what we already
know
To extend our knowledge about aspects of the
world of which we know either very little or
nothing at all &
To enable us to better understand the world
we live in
Research Philosophy
Positivism
Research Approaches
Deductive

Experiment Research
Strategies
Survey
Cross-sectional
Cross Sectional
Sampling Case Study
Secondary data Realism
Observations
Interviews Grounded
Questionnaires Theory

Longitudinal Ethnography

Action Research Time Horizons

Inductive
Data Collection
Interpretivism Methods
Research Philosophy

Positivism
Realism
Interpretivism
Positivism

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that


information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and
reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all
authoritative knowledge,and that there is valid knowledge (truth) only
in scientific knowledge.Verified data received from the senses are
known as empirical evidence.view holds that society, like the
physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and
intuitive knowledge is rejected.
Realism

Sayer (1992) provides the following characteristics of realism which


capture the nature of the realists philosophy of science:
The world exists independently of our knowledge of it.
Our knowledge of the world is fallible and theory-laden.

Concepts of truth and falsity fail to provide a coherent view of the


relationship between knowledge and its object. Nevertheless knowledge is
not immune to the empirical check and its effectiveness in informing and
explaining successful material practices is not mere accident.

The process of developing knowledge is not continuous or discontinuous.


It is a simultaneous and universal change in concepts.
There is necessity in the world; objects, natural or social, necessarily have
particular causal power or ways of acting and particular susceptibilities.
Interpretivism

They take the view that since human beings think and reflect,
scientific methods are inappropriate for the study of society.
Unlike objects in nature, human beings can change their
behaviour if they know they are being observed. So
interpretivists argue that if we want to understand social action,
we have to delve into the reasons and meanings which that
action has for people. Take the example of crime. A positivist
would argue that researchers can simply measure crime using
quantitative methods and identify patterns and correlations. An
interpretivist would argue that sociologists need to understand
what people mean by crime, how they come to categorize
certain actions as criminal and then investigate who comes to
be seen as criminal in a particular society.
Types of research:
Basic Research or pure fundamental research.

Research conducted to extend the horizons in knowledge having no


identified problem for solving. Finding the effect of globaisation on
rural markets etc.
Applied research.

Applying the various marketing techniques that have been


established due to basic research in order to solve business
problems.
Designated fact gathering.

This is an exercise for gathering predetermined data which is


important for business decisions. Eg checking brand recall or market
share.
Path to finding a research problem

Academic
Experts
Opinion

Research Trade
channel Pilot Research Research
Idea
Experts Study. problem Objective
Opinion Identification s.

Review of
literature
Steps in research process:

1.Problem Definition.

2.Research Design

3.Field work

4.Data Analysis and interpretation.

5.Report presentation.
Research Design

An activity - & time based plan


A plan always based on the research question
A guidefor selecting sources & types of
information
A frameworkfor specifying the relationships
among the studys variables
A procedural outline for every research activity
Problem Definition:
This first step is critical for the success of
the research process.
A problem well designed is half solved.

Problem should be described and defined

clearly.
The right problem should be sought out.

The type of research to be used must

be compatible for solving the problem.


Visible symptoms.
Eg: falling sales,low
profits

Real hidden
problems.
eg
Inefficient sales
force,falling
quality,lack of
adaptation.
Ice-berg principle
Key questions to be asked in problem identification

Can the problem and /or opportunity be


resolved using only subjective information?
Does the problem/opportunity situation
have strategic or tactical importance?
Does adequate information for addressing
the defined problem already exist within the
companys internal record systems?
Key questions to be asked in problem identification

Is there enough time to conduct the research before


the final management decision must be made?
Is money budgeted for doing the formalised research ?
Do the benefits of having the additional information
outweigh the costs of gathering the information?
THANK YOU