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ASHRAE Presentation: VRF Overview

Mitsubishi Electric
Presenter:
email
Phone number

2011 Mitsubishi Electric& Electronics USA, Inc.


Agenda
General overview of VRF Technology

Review of Design Considerations

Benefits of VRF
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)
Heat Pump
versus

Heat Pump with Heat Recovery


Heat Pump
Heat Pump

Outdoor Indoor Controls


Unit Units System
Heat Pump

Outdoor Indoor Controls


Unit Units System
Heat Pump Applications

Restaurants Lobbies Churches

Others?
Heat Pump with Heat Recovery
Simultaneous Cooling & Heating
Heat Pump with Heat Recovery
Simultaneous Cooling & Heating

Outdoor Branch Indoor Controls


Unit Circuit Units System
Controller
Heat Pump with Heat Recovery
Simultaneous Cooling & Heating

Outdoor Branch Indoor Controls


Unit Circuit Units System
Controller
Heat Pump with Heat Recovery Applications
Simultaneous Cooling & Heating

Schools Assisted Living Facility Offices

Others?
What is the purpose of each component?
Outdoor Unit
Controls compressor speed

Controls condenser fan speed

Controls pressure of refrigerant to maximize capacity and efficiency


Branch Circuit (BC) Controller
Separates refrigerant into gas and liquid

Ensures units in heating receive superheated gas

Ensures units in cooling receive sub-cooled liquid


Indoor Units
Sense the space temperature

Contain a Linear Expansion Valve (LEV) that


automatically modulates

Allow the precise amount of refrigerant through the


heat exchanger

Filter and distributes air


Controls System
Integrated sequence of operation

Takes input from the user and provides feedback to the system
Recall
What system type requires a Branch Circuit Controller?

Which system type cannot provide cooling and heating simultaneously to


connected units?

Is there any difference between the controls offered for Heat Pump Systems versus
those offered for Heat Pump with Heat Recovery?
VRF Design Considerations

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Equipment Layout

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Ceiling Space
20 Ton System

Rectangular Ductwork (DX System) 40 x 20

Round Ductwork (DX System) 30 Round

Piping (4-Pipe System) 3 CHWS&R, 3 HWS&R

Piping (VRF) 13/8 Gas 1 1/8 Liquid

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Rooftop Equipment Weight
80 Ton System
12,000

10,000

8,000
Equipment 6,000
Weight (lbs)

4,000

2,000

0
VAV RTU w/ SS VRF 4-Pipe Fan WSHP
Coil

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Vertical Stack WSHPs

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Water-source VRF

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Piping Lengths
There are piping considerations for:
Total System Piping Length
Intermediate Lengths
Elevation Differentials

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Condensation
Outdoor Units
Consider location of unit
Consider area drains and floor stands

BC Controller
Drain pipe connection

Indoor Units
Drain pipe connections
Some styles include standard condensate lift
mechanism
All styles include contact for condensate alarm/safety
switch

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Diversity

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Solar Diversity
5 Tons
Morning

3 Tons 3 Tons
Morning Afternoon

5 Tons
Afternoon
What is the
block load?

What is the sum of


the zone peak
loads?

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Occupant Diversity

WORK ROOM 103 OPEN OFFICE 101

CONFERENCE
105 COFFEE
105A

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Occupant Diversity

WORK ROOM 103 OPEN OFFICE 101

What is the
CONFERENCE sum of the
105 COFFEE peaks?
105A
What is the
block load?

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Building Diversity

HEATING

Waste Heat What


COOLING equipment is
running?

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Designing with Diversity
Connected Capacity:
Connect up to 150% of the outdoor unit capacity.

Actual Capacity:
The actual system capacity is the capacity of the
associated outdoor unit.

A system cannot provide more than 100% of the


outdoor units capacity.
Contact your local representative
when designing at greater than
110% connected capacity.

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Designing with Diversity
Example:
Indoor units totaling 14 tons can be connected
to a 12 ton outdoor unit
Connected Capacity = 14 Tons, 117%
Actual Capacity = 12 Tons, 100%

The maximum amount of cooling that can ever


be provided at a single instant is 12 tons
Contact your local representative
when designing at greater than
110% connected capacity.

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Ventilation

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Ventilation
Duct required Outside Air (OA) directly to space or indoor unit
Always calculate entering coil temperatures

Use Dedicated Outside Air System (DOAS),


Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV), or
both to temper the air

Adhere to local codes in designing ventilation

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Heating

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Special Considerations for Heating
Utilize manufacturers design software

Minimize connected capacity for colder


climates

Outside Air

Consider Building Warm-up

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Efficiency

Equipment Layout Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency


Efficiency
INVERTER-driven compressor matches compressor speed
exactly to load

Simultaneous cooling and heating allows heat recovery


between zones

All efficiency values now available via AHRI Directory


http://www.ahridirectory.org

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
Efficiency
20 Ton System

Roof Top Air-Cooled Air-source Water-source


System Type
Units Chiller VRF VRF

IEER 11.5 - 17.7 19.6

EER 9.7 10.3 10.9 10.5

IPLV - 14.2 - -

SCHE - - 18.6 N/A

Equipment
Diversity Ventilation Heating Efficiency
Layout
What are the benefits of VRF?
Two-pipe System

INVERTER Technology

Multiple Indoor Units

Variable Capacity System

Zoning System

Complete Control Offering