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INFORMATION AND

COMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGY TODAY
Information and Communications
Technology (ICT)
Collectively refers to the
technologies, both hardware and
software, that enable humans to
communicate with one another.
Basically, it is any form of
technology that enables you to
communicate.
Did you know
that ICT began
along with the
rise of humans?
Evolution of ICT
The beginning of ICT can be traced back when
humans started to use objects to
communicate with one another.
There are 4 main periods that divide the era of
ICT:
1.premechanical
2.mechanical
3.electromechanical
4. electronic
Pre-Mechanical Age
(3000B.C.E - 1450 C.E.)
PREMECHANICAL
During this time, humans started communicating with one
another using words and pictograms curved in rocks.

Then they started to write symbols as substitutes for pictures to


depict ideas, objects, and animals.
PREMECHANICAL PERIOD
Time passed and early humans soon
realized that stone tablets are too
heavy and bulky and information to
be stored was growing.
When paper was finally produced
from the papyrus plant, storing of
information was revolutionized.
PREMECHANICAL PERIOD
In the late stages of this period, humans
started to optimize and invent devices
and techniques in counting.
The most popular device created in this
period is said to have come from China
the Abacus, a manually operated device
similar to the modern calculator.
The Abacus, considered to be the first counting device, was introduced in the
2nd century BCE.
Mechanical Age
(1450 1840)
MECHANICAL PERIOD
This period, the interest in
automating and speeding up
numerical calculations grew.
During this time, concentrated
primarily on development of
machines that will enhance
calculation speed.
Wilhelm Schickard 1623 - (Professor at University of
Tubingen, Germany) invented the first mechanical
calculator that can work with six digits and can carries
digits across columns.
The Highlight of this period:

Blaise Pascal (1642) invented the Pascaline. (made


of clock gears and levers) that could solve
mathematical problems like addition and subtraction.
Charles Babbage invented the difference engine
(1821) and analytical engine (1832).
- Father of computer.

-The First Programmable


mechanical computer
-Contained features such
as the arithmetic logic
unit, control flow and
integrated memory.
-
Electromechanical
Age - (1840 1940)
Electromechanical Age
In this period, the use of electricity
for information handling and transfer
bloomed.
The need and the urgency to share
information with one another in a
faster yet reliable manner over long
distances aroused.
Telegraph- considered the first electrical
communications device.
-First device to use electricity to transmit information over
an electrical media.
- First invented by William Cooke and Sir Charles Wheatstone
in 1837.
-In 1844, it was developed by Samuel Morse which gave rise
to the Morse code.
Video about morse code
Electromechanical Age

Humans were not satisfied


with simply transmitting
symbols or letters over long
distances; they became
fascinated with the idea of
voice transmission.
Alexander Graham Bell 1879 -
developed the first working telephone

The telephone
converts sounds
into electricity and
enables the
telephone network
to transmit it over
copperwires.
Electromechanical Age

Computing devices also started to


revolutionize information
handling and processing.
Machines were mechanical in
nature but were run by
electricity.
ELECTRONIC PERIOD
1941-PRESENT
ELECTRONIC PERIOD
The four main events found in this period
are:
1. the late vacuum tubes
2. the transistors
3. integrated circuits
4. computer processors
Electronic Numerical
Integrator and
Computer (ENIAC)
the first electronic
and general purpose
computer
-A big machine that
occupied an area of
167 square meters.
-- its processing
speed was slower
than those of
machines today
Transistor
-Was invented in 1947
- an electronic device with properties and functions
similar to vacuum tubes but it is lightweight and faster.
- the transistor is the foundation of every electronic
device today because you can find it in every electronic
device today.
Integrated Circuit
-Is a device that is
composed of a group
of transistors and
circuit elements
compressed in a
single package.
- revolutionized the
use of computers
because circuits are
integrated in a chip
limiting the distance
between
components, resulting
in a faster operating
speed.
ICT TODAY
ICT Today
The fusion of hardware
equipment, precise software,
and effective communication
network is the present
composition of ICT network
Did you know that World
Wide Web is one of the
widely used information
systems today?

Almost everyday, people go to the World Wide Web for directions,


instructions, information, and even entertainment
World Wide
Web
Is the system that
enables you to
access hypertxt
documents and
other files over the
internet.
This was proposed
by Tim Berners-Lee
in 1989 in which a
database and
interface will be
implemented to
associate links in
readable
documents.
World Wide Web
Web 1.0 Web 2.0
Read-only Web Read-and-write Web
Wherein the information Because of the need to
or file is accessed by the interact with web pages
user. and wanted to e-mail web
There were no facilities to sites and interact on
interact with it other to social networking sites.
read or view the content It enabled users or
only. viewers to edit the
Underwent multiple content of the files they
innovations because of were accessing.
some disadvantages.
The Social Media
These application started together with
the Web 2.0
Used in communicating and socializing
with other application users in virtual
communities and networks
These application allow users to create
and exchange user-generated
information.
The social media platform contains different formats:
The social media platform contains different formats:
The social media platform contains different formats:
One of the ideal applications laid down for
ICT and the World Wide Web is for research
and education.
RESEARCH AND
INFORMATION SEEKING
These are some of the information
sources over the Internet, today:
1. Web Search Engines
- these are programs designed to search
the World Wide Web based on the keywords
provided by the user.
These are some of the information
sources over the Internet, today:
2. Research Indexing sites
- these are Web sites dedicated to compile
and index researches done by academic
researches, engineers, social scientist and
many more.
These are some of the information
sources over the Internet, today:
3. Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) sites
or tutorial sites
- these are Web sites dedicated to teach
and inform users focused on different areas.
-the delivery of information is similar to
classroom lecture setup.
These are some of the information
sources over the Internet, today:
4. Employment Web sites
-these are Web sites that enable
companies to post job vacancies and also
accommodate job seekers by providing a
resume-submission facility.
These are some of the information
sources over the Internet, today:
5. Electronic commerce (e-commerce)
- this is a technology that uses
electronic means to trade products and
currencies.
- it also includes any technology that
introduces ease in business management
and customer convenience.
There are no standards governing content
publishing on the World Wide Web to ensure
correctness of information, but there are ways on
how to verify if the information is trustworthy or
legitimate

AUTHENTICITY VERIFICATION OF
INFORMATION FROM THE WEB
Ways on how to verify if the information
is trustworthy or legitimate
1. Published authors name
Publishing the name of the one who wrote the
article or information is one sign that the
information is valid and credible.(to avoid
responsibility)
2. Credible Web sites
- error-free articles are more likely published by
credible Web sites.
Ways on how to verify if the information
is trustworthy or legitimate
3.Rating, number of viewers, and number of
shares
- this is the collective rating of past viewers of
the site.
- low rating if contains false information
4. Referenced and related articles
- Most of the credible articles include a list of
references or articles related to the published
ones.
Online Safety and
Security
Each individual when accessing the World
Wide Web is concerned with safety of his
or her computer and the information that
will be transmitted or received.
Online 1.Spam
Safety and This refers to the transmission
of unsolicited messages from
Security various origins using
electronic messaging system
Here are a such as e-mail and chat
number of messengers.
threats that can 2. Phishing
- This is defined as a software or
be acquired a program used by an attacker
from connecting to obtain personal
to the World information. Attackers
Wide Web commonly target user
passwords to hack and take
control of a user account.
Online 3. Malware
Safety and This is the short term for
malicious software, which is a
Security computer software sent by an
attackers to inflict chaos on a
Here are a
computers operation and
number of processes.
threats that can Disguised as enticing Web
be acquired sites
from connecting This are used to spy upon the
to the World activity of the computer and
Wide Web steal information.
Assignment: Write a 2
paragraph with 5 sentences
each about a social media
applications that affect your
day-to-day activities and how
did it improve your life.