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y Higit na nakikilala si Rizal bilang pambansang bayani. y Natutukoy ang kahulugan at kasaysayan ng nobelang
Noli Me Tangere.
Noli Me Tangere Published in Berlin (1887)
y His reading of Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin, which portrays the brutalities of American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro slaves, inspired Dr. Rizal to prepare a novel that would depict the miseries of his people under the lash of Spanish tyrants. He was then a student in the Central University of Madrid.
y January 2, 1884-Rizal proposed the writing a novel
about the Philippine by a group of Filipinos and it was approved by: Pedro, Maximino, and Antonio Paterno, Graciano Lopez-Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente, Melecio Figueroa, and Valentin Ventura.
y Rizal s project did not materialize because nobody
writes anything. Since the novel was designed to cover all phrases, however almost everybody wanted to write on women. He was disgusted to see that his companions, instead of working seriously on the novel, wasted their time gambling or flirting with Spanish señoritas. So he decided to write the novel alone.
The Writing of the Novel:
y Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and
finished about one-half of it. He went to Paris, In 1885 after completing his studies in the Central University of Madrid, he continued writing the novel, finishing one-half of the second half. He finished the last fourth of the novel in Germany. He wrote the last few chapters of the Noli in Wilhelmsfeld in April-June 1886. y In Berlin, February 1886, he made final revisions on the manuscript of Noli. Sick and penniless, he saw no hope of publishing and almost hurled it into flames.
Viola, Savior of the Noli
y In the midst of Rizal s misery, he received a telegram from Dr. Maximo Viola
who was coming to Berlin, a scion of a rich family in San Miguel Bulacan. y Viola with ample fund gladly to finance the printing cost of the Noli. And loaned Rizal some cash money for living expenses. Thus Rizal and Viola happily celebrated Christmas of 1886 in Berlin with a sumptuous feast. y After Christmas, Rizal put the finishing touches on his novel, to save printing, he deleted certain passages in his manuscript including the whole chapterElias and Salome.
y February 21,1887- Noli was finally ready for printing. Viola and Rizal went to
different printing shops in Berlin.
y Berliner Buhdruckrei-Action-Gesselschaft- which charged the lowest rate, that
is, 300 pesos for 2,000 copies of the novel.
y March 21, 1887- the Noli came off to press. y Rizal sent the first copies to his intimate friends:
Blumentritt Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor G. Lopez Jaena Mariano Ponce Felix R. Hidalgo. y March 29,1887- as a token of appreciation and gratitude , he gave Viola the galley proofs of the Noli carefully rolled around the pen that he used in writing it and a complimentary copy with the inscription: y To my friend Maximo Viola , the first to read and appreciate my work Jose Rizal
Title of the Novel
y Noli Me Tangere- is a Latin phrase which means Touch
Me Not-taken from the Bible. y In his letter to Hidalgo, he said that the words were taken from the Gospel of Saint Luke which he made a mistake. It should be the Gospel of St. John (Chapter 20,Verses 13-17).
The Noli Based on Truth:
y y y y y y y y
Maria Clara- was Leonor Rivera(married to Englishman) Eias and Ibarra-Rizal Tasio the Philoposher-Paciano Padri Salve- Padre Antonio Piernavieja, the hated Augustian friar in Cavite who was killed by the patriots during the Revolution Capitan Tiago- Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicolas. Doña Victoria- Doña Agustina Medel Basilio, Crispin- were the Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy. Padre Damaso- was a typical of a domineering friar during the days of Rizal, who was arrogant, immoral and anti-Filipino
Missing Chapter of the Noli
y Elias and Salome- the missing chapter which follows
Chapter 24 In the Woods was deleted due to : reduce cost of printing
Rizal s friends hailed the novel, praising it in glowing colors. As to be expected , Rizal s enemies condemned it.
Attackers of the Noli
y The battle over the Noli took in the form of virulent words. y Fr. Font printed his report and distributed copies in order to discredit
the controversial novel. y Fr. Jose Rodriguez, prior of Guadalupe published a series of 8 pamphlets ender the heading Custiones de Sumo Interes (Questions of Supreme Interest) which was sold in church after the mass. y Repercussion of the storm over Noli reached Spain. y Vicente Barrantes, who formerly occupied a high position in the government bitterly, criticized the Noli.
Defenders of the Noli
y y y y y y y y y y y
M.H.D. Pilar G.L. Jaena Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor Mariano Ponce And other reformists in Spain Fr. Sanchez- Rizal s favorite teacher in Ateneo-defended and praised it in public Don Segismundo Moret, former minister of the Crown Dr. Miguel Morayta, historian and statesman Professor Blumentritt-scholar and educator read and liked the novel. From unexpected source- Rev. Vicente Garcia- a Filipino Catholic priestscholar, a theologian of the Manila cathedral and Translator of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis. Fr. Garcia, writing under the penname Justo Desiderion Magalang-wrote a defense of the Noli which was published in Singapore as an appendix to a pamphlet dated July 18, 1888.
y Rizal himself defended Barrantes attack of
which he exposed Barrantes ignorance of Philippine affairs and mental dishonesty that is unworthy of an academian.
IN THE MIDST OF THE CONTROVERSY ALL COPIES WERE SOLD OUT. BOTH FRIENDS AND ENEMIES OF THE NOLI FOUND IT EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO SECURE A COPY.