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Distance Learning Via

Television
Objectives
After the lecture, the learners will be able to:
To determine the importance of Distance
Learning via Interactive Television
To identify the advantages and disadvantages of
Distance Learning via Interactive Television
To exhibit positive response regarding the topic
given.
What is an Interactive Television?

It is an effective method of delivering


information to remote distance
educational settings. Interactive
television supports visual and audio
communication between multiple
locations.
The I-TV format allows full interactivity among
students and instructor at multiple sites, and
seems to be ideally suited for business
education where point/counterpoint
discussion of business issues is a necessary
requirement in the education process.
With I-TV, most of the limitations that arepresent with
educational television, videotaped or satellite
programming are overcome by the ability of teachers
and students to interact spontaneously, as well as use
a multitude of additional instructional technologies
(Hobbs and Christianson 1997). A television signal is
broadcast from the instructors location to the
students remote location (or locations), and each
location is equipped with I-TV equipment.
Advantages of I-TV
Interactive Television is attractive to
administrators for several reasons.
I-TV provides access to education to
those who live in remote locations
and cannot travel to the university;
It can provide access to at-risk or
special needs students (Woodruff
and Mosby, 1996)
It enables large numbers of
students to be taught
simultaneously by one instructor.
Advantages Of I-TV

Outside speakers can be involved who


would not otherwise be available, and
students can become linked with others
from different communities,
backgrounds and cultures (Willis, 1992.)
Disadvantages of I-TV
There can be audio and visual
difficulties, which cannot be resolved
by the professor (Galbreth, 1995.)

While compressed video holds great


promise for expanding the
classroom, it also amplifies poor
teaching styles and strategies.
Disadvantages of I-Tv
Instructors must devote greater than normal
effort toward preparation and development
of instructional strategies that actively
encourage learning.
Instructors typically spend more time initially
preparing for the interactive class, paying
special attention to the development and
production of visual material (Woodruff &
Mosby, 1996.)
Disadvantages of I-Tv

Instructors typically spend more time initially


preparing for the interactive class, paying special
attention to the development and production of
visual material (Woodruff & Mosby, 1996.)

The instructor must be vigilant in making sure the


students remain involved in the course, a task more
difficult when classes are taught at a distance.
Instructional Strategies

Since distance education via interactive


video is a relatively new phenomenon,
instructors have been forced to adapt
quickly to the technology and instructional
changes.
A secondary concern for many has been considering
personal-instructional strategies for effective teaching
and presentation. Although relatively sparse,
literature is now appearing which address this issue
for instructors. Following are suggestions from several
distance educators which can guide and provide
assistance to the novice distance instructor.
Planning

When creating a lesson, it's


important to plan using the
strategies listed below.
Learner Outcomes
What do you expect your learners to
accomplish?
Methods and Activities
How will you convey the topic (lecture,
discussion, hands-on activity?)
Materials
What audio/visual aids, handouts, etc.
will you use to support your instruction?
Time
About how much time will it take?
Equipment Cues
Do you need to prepare a visual or
get handouts to remote learners?
Interaction and Variety

Motivate peer learning, support, and collaboration by


having students' work together both in and out of
class (Georgia State Academic and Medical System,
1996.) Students can interact with you and their
classmates using electronic mail. Maintaining and
sharing electronic mail entries can address this issue.
On-site facilitators can stimulate interaction
when distance students are hesitant to ask
questions and participate. In addition, the onsite
facilitator can act as your eyes and ears. (Willis,
1994.)
Call on individual students to ensure that all participants
have ample opportunity to participate. At the same time
politely and firmly discourage students from monopolizing
class time (Laurillard, 1995) (Willis, 1994.)

Use pre-class study questions and advance organizers


to encourage critical thinking and informed
participation on the part of the learners (Willis, 1994.)
A secondary concern for many has been considering
personal-instructional strategies for effective teaching
and presentation. Although relatively sparse,
literature is now appearing which address this issue
for instructors. Following are suggestions from several
distance educators which can guide and provide
assistance to the novice distance instructor.
Use names when calling on people at remote
sites , use seating charts to facilitate this
(Laurillard, 1995) (Willis, 1994.)

Begin question/answer segments with questions


at the recall or understanding level that can be
answered easily (Willis, 1994.)
Don't wait for volunteers. Call on specific sites'
and/or people to answer questions (Laurillard,
1995) (Willis, 1994.)

Ask other students to answer peer questions before


hurrying to answer yourself (Georgia State Academic
and Medical System, 1996.)
Instructor/Student Dialogue and Interaction

Integrate a variety of systems for feedback


, including one-on-one calls, fax, electronic
E-mail and computer conferencing. Have
telephone and electronic mail office hours
(Willis, 1994.)
Contact each site or student every week if possible ,
especially early in the course. Take note of students
who don't participate during the first session, and
contact them individually after class (Laurillard, 1995)
(Willis, 1994.)

Make detailed comments on written assignments , referring


to additional sources for supplementary information.
Return assignments without a delay, using fax or electronic
mail, when practical (Laurillard, 1995) (Willis, 1994.)
As we consider some of the key differences between I-
TV distance teaching and other teachingformats, it is
important to recognize that ITV can be as effective as
traditional formats where:
The methods match instructional objectives;
Student-to-student interaction is fostered;
There is ongoing teacher-to-student feedback (Charp
1999).
Distance education in any form is not likely to replace
social integration, rite of passage and networking, which
require long-term on-campus group interactions.
References
www.mmaglobal.org/publications/JAME/JAME-Issues/JAME-Summer-
2001/JAMESummer2001v.1p.13.18.pdf
www.itdl.org/journal/jan_08/article02.htm