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pushoveranalysisfrombasicsrahulleslie080216-160213015605

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- Torsional Behaviour of Asymmetrical Buildings
- The Capacity Spectrum Method as a Tool for Seismic Design
- 20120424 Gen Advanced Webinar Pushover Analysis
- PUSHOVER Report Chopra[1]
- response spectrum.ppt
- Dynamic Analysis of RCC Chimney- a review
- Earthquake_EN.pdf
- Criteria - Structural - Seismic Design
- Changing CEs
- RSM-GP-S.doc
- Conceptual seismic design.pdf
- earthquake design
- GB_6.3
- Structural Dynamics
- EDI Brochure 2008
- DeRisi_MariaTeresa_27 Thesis.pdf
- Atwb Cooler.pdf
- Review on Fragility Analysis of Existing Mid-Rise RC Buildings
- Earthquake Engineering
- A Note on Selection of Time-Histories for Seismic

You are on page 1of 71

from basics

Presented by .

Rahul Leslie

Assistant Director,

Buildings Design,

DRIQ, Kerala PWD,

Trivandrum, India

1

Introduction

Performance Based Design --- an emerging field

To provide engineers with a capability to design buildings that have

predictable and reliable performance in earthquakes

specification of an acceptable level of damage on experiencing a

earthquake of a given severity.

(FEMA 349)

Seismic design for the future

Presently a linear elastic analysis alone is sufficient for both its elastic

and ductile design

linear procedure will have to be done, which finally influences the

seismic design as a whole.

2

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

is based on the Response

Reduction factor R.

For example, R = 5, means that

1/5th of the seismic force is taken

by the Limit State capacity of the

structure.

Further deflection is taken by the

ductile capacity of the structure.

Reinforced Concrete (RC)

members are detailed (as per

IS:13920) to confirm its ductile

capacity.

We never analyse for the ductile

part, but only follow the

reinforcement detailing guidelines

for the same.

3

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

The drawback is that the response

beyond the limit state is neither a

simple extrapolation,

with pre-determinable deformation

capacity, due to various reasons:

Change in stiffness of members due

to cracking and yielding,

P-delta effects,

Change in the final seismic force

estimated (due to Change in

time period T and

effective damping ratio (also

represented by )

etc.

4

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

of structures and shows where yielding will first occur,

It cannot predict the redistribution of forces during the progressive

yielding that follows and predict its failure mechanisms.

It can help identify members likely to reach critical states during an

earthquake for which attention should be given during design and

detailing.

5

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

capacity of a structure beyond its Limit State up to its ultimate

strength.

probably occurs, and identify the mode of final failure.

keeping track of the sequence of damages of each and every

member in the structure.

6

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

When an existing structure has deficiencies in seismic resisting

capacity,

due to either omission of seismic design when built, or

the structure becoming seismically inadequate due to a later

upgradation of the seismic codes,

is to be retrofitted to meet the (present) seismic demands,

PA can show where the retrofitting is required and how much.

fine tune the seismic design based on SA.

7

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Introduction

For a new building, PA is meant to be a second stage analysis (The

first stage being a conventional Seismic analysis - SA).

This is because the details of reinforcement provided are required to

calculate exact hinge properties (to be covered later)

But one has to design the structure based on SA in order to obtain

the reinforcement details.

This means that PA is meant to be a second stage analysis (The first

stage being a conventional SA).

Thus the emerging methodology to an accurate seismic design is:

1. First a conventional linear seismic analysis based on which a primary

structural design is done;

2. Insertion of hinges determined based on the design/detail and then

3. A pushover analysis is done, followed by

4. Modification of the design and detailing, wherever necessary, based

on the latter analysis.

5. The above steps may have to be iterated, if required.

8

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

1. An analysis model of the building, is generated using a common

analysis-design software package (having facility for PA), like

STAAD.Pro,

SAP2000, ETABS,

MIDAS/Gen, etc.

The model, which is a Multi-degree of freedom (MDoF) model, is

used for the analysis

9

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

Pushover analysis uses a non-linear computer model

for the analysis:

This is done by incorporated in the form of non-linear hinges

inserted into an otherwise linear elastic model which one

generates using a common analysis-design software package

(STAAD.Pro, SAP2000, ETABS, MIDAS/Gen, etc.)

Hinges are points on a structure where one expects cracking

and yielding to occur in relatively higher intensity so that they

show higher flexural/shear displacement, under a cyclic

loading

10

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

- These are locations where one expects to see cross

diagonal cracks in an actual building structure after a

seismic mayhem

they would be at either ends of beams and columns, the cross

being at a small distance from the joint

this is where one inserts hinges in the corresponding computer

model.

11

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

Basically a hinge represents localised force-displacement relation of

a member through its elastic and inelastic phases under seismic

loads.

A flexural hinge represents the moment-rotation relation of a beam.

(1) flexural hinges,

(2) shear hinges

(3) axial hinges.

12

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

are inserted into the ends of

beams and columns.

infills have significant influence

on the seismic behaviour of the

structure, modelling them using

equivalent diagonal struts (of

truss elements) is common in

PA

at either ends of the diagonal

struts

13

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

AB represents the linear range

from unloaded state (A) to its

effective yield (B),

linear response of reduced

(ductile) stiffness from B to C.

in load resistance, followed by a Flexural Hinge

reduced resistance from D to E,

and

from E to F.

14

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

states defined within its ductile

range as

Immediate Occupancy (IO),

Life Safety (LS) and

Collapse Prevention (CP) Flexural Hinge

B-C into four parts and

denoting IO, LS and CP, which

are states of each individual

hinges

15

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

There are certain features common to all PA approaches:

2. The model is pushed monotonically with an invariable distribution of lateral load with some predefined

distribution pattern such as:

Proportional to 1st mode (or SRSS combination of modes)

Inverted triangle / Uniform distribution

Power distribution (for example, parabolic)

Wi hik

Qi Vb n

W h

i

j

k

j

16

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

There are certain features common to all PA approaches:

2. (Continuation )

Unlike conventional SA, in Pushover analysis, analysis for Gravity

loads is done first, continued by an analysis for Lateral loads.

Since PA is done to simulate the behaviour under actual loads, the

Gravity loads applied are not factored, but in accordance with Cl.7.3.3

and Table 8 of IS:1893-2002 :

[DL + 0.25 LL3kN/sq.m + 0.5 LL>3kN/sq.m]

17

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

top displacement (rt) curve

Base shear is sum of all horizontal support reactions in that

direction

Roof top displacement is the displacement at the centre of

mass of the general roof

18

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

4. A single-degree of freedom (SDoF) model, corresponding to the

MDoF model, and the rules to convert the parameters of the MDoF

model (Vb & rt) to those of the SDoF model (Sa & Sd) are defined

19

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

4. (Continuation) A single-degree of freedom (SDoF) model, corresponding

to the MDoF model, and the rules to convert the parameters of the MDoF

model (Vb & rt) to those of the SDoF model (Sa & Sd) are defined

In ATC-40 and FEMA440, the conversion is

(where ), and

Vb / W M

k 1 rt

Sa Sd

(where Sa and Sd areMdenoted by F* and P

In EC 8 k 1,@ rt

d*k 1respectively)

and

Vb rt

Sa Sd

Pk 1 Pk 1

20

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

(equal energy) by a suitable method

Different codes follow different methods

method of keeping the 1st line as initial

tangent stiffness and adjusts the 2nd

line (to the point under consideration)

such that to get the equal area.

21

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

(equal energy) by a suitable method

Different codes follow different methods

keeping the 2nd line (to the point under

consideration) as perfectly plastic, ie.,

horizontal and adjusts the 1st line such

that to get the equal area.

EC 8

22

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

(equal energy) by a suitable method

Different codes follow different methods

23

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Different Pushover Approaches

PA procedures can generally be classified to two:

1. DCM (Displacement Coeff. Method): These procedures

estimates a Target displacement prior to the analysis, to which

the model has to be pushed, and on analysis, checked for the

intended (good) performance at that displacement. The method

is nevertheless, iterative. Ref:-

- FEMA356,

- FEMA440 (Ch.5),

- EC 8

2. CSM (Capacity Spectrum Method): The analysis is done, and

each pt. on the pushover curve (known as Capacity curve) is

consecutively checked to see whether the Sa-Sd at that pt.

meets (or intersects) the Response Spectrum curve (known as

Demand curve), reduced by a factor. (continued)

24

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Different Pushover Approaches

PA procedures can generally be classified to two:

curve to be checked with, for intersection, is a Response

Spectrum curve reduced by a reduction factor calculated

corresponding to that point under consideration on the Capacity

curve. When the curves intersects (or meet), that meeting point

is known as the Performance Pt. Ref:-

- ATC-40,

- FEMA440 (Ch.6)

- EC8 (Optional method)

25

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

The steps for the CSM method are:

1. First, the Response Spectrum (RS) curve has to be modified: from its ordinates of Sa vs. Time

period T, to its Acceleration Displacement Response Spectrum (ADRS) form, which is an Sa vs.

Sd curve.

This to facilitate the super-imposing the pushover curve over the RS (which is in its ADRS form)

RS ADRS 26

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

The steps for the CSM method are:

1. First, the Response Spectrum (RS) curve has to be modified:

from its ordinates of Sa vs. Time period, to its Acceleration

Displacement Response Spectrum (ADRS) form, which is an

Sa vs. Sd curve. 2

T

This is done by using the relation Sd Sa

4 2

RS ADRS 27

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

2. Super-impose the converted Pushover curve on the ADRS curve:

28

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

3. With the Capacity curve (Pushover curve) superimposed on the Demand

curve (ADRS), each point on the former is consecutively checked to :

i. Get the yield point ordinates (Sa y & Sdy)

ii. Calculate the ductility and the 2 nd tangent stiffness coeff.

29

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

iii. Determine the reduced ADRS for the above parameters corresponding to that pt. on the Capacity

curve as:

ATC-40/FEMA440 : Calculate damping from ductility and 2 nd tangent stiffness coefficient . Reduce

ADRS corresponding to

EC 8 : Reduce ADRS corresponding to ductility

30

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

curve, the effective damping ratio is determined from the

formula :

ay ap ay

K init K 2 nd

dy dp dy

dp K 2 nd

dy K init

2 11

eff 0.05

1

31

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

from the building type

Modification Factor

Duration New Existing Existing behaviou

Building Building Building r type

Short Type A Type B Type C 16.25 1.0

Long Type B Type C Type C Type A

>16.25 1.13 0.51 / 2 0

25 0.67

2 11

eff 0.05 Type B

0.845 0.446 / 2 0

1 >25

Any

Type C 0.33 32

value

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

From the effective damping ratio , the factors for reducing the

ADRS curve are determined from the formula :

SRa SRv

2.12 1.65

33

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

4. Include the reduced ADRS Demand curve in the super-imposed

graph:

34

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

difference in approaches between SA & PA

separate and uncombined form and

also their transformed and super-positioned ADRS plot.

35

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- SA Method

(assuming I = 1) with Sa/g corresponding to the estimated time

period.

Its envelop is the RS curve marked q

The RS curve for the Limit State design is plotted in terms of Z/2R.

(Sa/g), and is marked as curve p.

36

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- SA Method

Fig. shows the Vb vs roof top displacement.

The point P represents the Vb and roof top for the design lateral load

(ie., of 1/R times full load)

The point Q represents the same for the full load, had the building

been fully elastic

The slope of the line OP represents

the stiffness of the structure in a

global sense. Since the analysis is

linear, the stiffness remains same

throughout the analysis, with Q

being an extension of OP.

37

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- SA Method

the structure,

the full load is represented by Q (Saq), and

the design load by P (Sap).

38

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- SA Method

the full load is represented by Q (Saq),

the design load by P (Sap).

39

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

Now we shall see how differently the PA approaches the same scenario :-

The segment OA in Fig.(left) is equivalent to OP in Fig.(right), with the slope

representing the global stiffness in its elastic range.

40

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

the RS curve and Saa is the lateral load demand, in its elastic range.

41

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

ADRS representation:

42

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

increased beyond its elastic limit of A, and the first hinges are formed.

This decreases the overall stiffness of the structure. This is

represented by the segment AB.

The decrease in slope of OB from that of OA shows the change in

secant stiffness.

43

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

The first hinges are formed, decreasing the overall stiffness of the

structure, which in turn increases T and , represented by point B in

the plots.

44

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

The change in the x-axis value of point B from that of point A shows

the shift of time period from Ta to Tb.

The increase in of the structure calls for a corresponding decrease

in the RS curve, reduced by a factor calculated from , which has

thus come down from curve a to b.

45

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

The increase in of the structure calls for a corresponding decrease

in the RS curve, reduced by a factor calculated from , which has

thus come down from curve a to b.

46

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

formed and the existing hinges have further yielded in its non-linear

phase represented by point C

This has further reduced the stiffness (the slope of OC),

47

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

48

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

Tc).

49

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

More hinges are formed and the existing hinges have further yielded

in its non-linear phase, represented by point C

50

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

Here the point C is where the capacity curve OABC extending

upwards meets the demand curve in, which was simultaneously

descending down to curve c.

Thus C is the point where the total lateral force expected Sa c is same

as the lateral force applied ~Vbc

This point is known as the performance point.

51

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Step by step through each method

-- PA Method

point, the line connecting Saa, Sab and Sac, intersects the capacity

curve

52

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

PA Method Reviewing results

structure can be checked to see whether it matches the required

performance level, based on inter-storey drift limits specified in ATC-

40, which are

0.01h for IO,

0.02h for LS, and

0.33(Vb/W)h for CP, (h = height of the building).

building. For example, hospitals and emergency services buildings

are expected to meet a performance level of IO.

53

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

PA Method Reviewing results

One can see the individual stage of each hinge, at its location.

Tables are obtained showing the number of hinges in each state, at

each stage, based on which one decides which all beams and

columns to be redesigned.

The decision depends whether the most severely yielded hinges are

formed in beams or in columns, whether they are concentrated in a

particular storey denoting soft story, and so on.

OA AB BC

54

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Adaptation for the Indian Code

Adapting of Pushover Analysis (PA) for IS:1893-2002

The PA has not been introduced in the Indian Standard code yet. However the

procedure described in ATC-40 can be adapted for the seismic parameters of

IS:1893-2002.

described by parameters

Ca and

Cv,

where the curve just as in IS:1893,

is having a flat portion of intensity

2.5 Ca and a downward sloping

portion described by Cv/T.

55

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Adaptation for the Indian Code

2000 is represented by Ah

(ZI/2R).(Sa/g), where Sa/g is 2R g

obtained from the RS curve,

which in our code is

represented by

2.5 in the flat portion &

the downward sloping

portion by

1/T for hard soil,

1.36/T for medium

soil and

1.67/T for soft soil.

Resp. Spec (IS:1893-2002)

56

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Adaptation for the Indian Code

Ca = Z/2 and ZI Sa Z Sa

Ah

Cv = Z/2 for hard, 2R g 2 g

1.36Z/2 for medium and

1.67Z/2 for soft soil

Here I is not considered, since in PA, the criteria of importance of the

structure is taken care of by the performance levels (IO, LS & CP)

R is also not considered since PA is always done for the full lateral

load.

57

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Adaptation for the Indian Code

0.004, when accounted for

R = 5 for ductile design and

I = 1.5 for important structures (IO performance level)

= 1.0 for ordinary structures (LS performance level)

gives 0.004R/I = 0.02 and 0.0133 for IO and LS respectively

The drift limit can be compared with those specified in ATC-40 (0.01

and 0.02 for IO and LS respectively). The limit for IO in IS:1893-2002

is more relaxed than that in ATC-40.

drift, where I takes the values corresponding to Important and

Ordinary structures for limits of IO and LS respectively.

58

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

on a 10 storey RCC building of a shopping complex using the

structural package of SAP2000.

59

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

elements, into which the hinges were inserted.

lateral action of beams in each floor.

directions, only the results of the former are discussed here.

The lateral load was applied in pattern of that of the 1st mode shape

in the transverse direction of the building, with an intensity for DBE as

per IS:1893-2002, corresponding to zone-III in hard soil.

60

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

and 0.242m.

The corresponding Vb and roof top are 1857.046 kN and 0.287m.

The value of effective T is 3.368s.

The effective at that level of the demand curve which met the

performance point is 26%.

61

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

Table shows the hinge state details at each step of the analysis.

Hinge States

roof top Vb A to B to IO to LS to CP to C to D to Total

Step (m) (kN) B IO LS CP C D E >E Hinges

0 0 0 1752 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

1 0.058318 1084.354 1748 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

2 0.074442 1348.412 1670 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

62

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

For the performance point, taken as step 5 (which actually lies

between steps 4 and 5),

95% of hinges are within LS and IO performance levels

88% within IO performance level.

Hinge States

roof top Vb A to B to IO to LS to CP C to D to Total

Step (m) (kN) B IO LS CP to C D E >E Hinges

0 0 0 1752 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

1 0.058318 1084.354 1748 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

2 0.074442 1348.412 1670 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

3 0.089645 1451.4 1594 158 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

4 0.26199 1827.137 1448 168 136 0 0 0 0 0 1752

5 0.41105 2008.48 1384 144 136 88 0 0 0 0 1752

6 0.411066 1972.693 1384 146 136 86 0 0 0 0 1752

7 0.411082 1576.04 1376 148 136 39 0 0 53 0 1752

8 0.411098 1568.132 1376 148 136 37 0 0 55 0 1752

9 0.411114 1544.037 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752

10 0.40107 1470.133 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752

63

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

course of the analysis.

Fig: Hinge states in the structure model at (a) step 0 & (b) step 3

64

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

course of the analysis.

Fig: Hinge states in the structure model at (c) step 5 & (d) step 8

65

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Example of a building analysis

course of the analysis.

66

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Issues

Hinge properties

Determining hinge properties (beams, columns, diagonal struts)

Determining hinge properties for flat-slab and shear walls

calculation insertion of hinges Pushover Analysis

Doing the above manually at a practically acceptable speed

Non-availability of a semi-automatic method in standard Analysis

Packages (STAAD, ETABS, etc.) :

Facility to quickly define details of provided

reinforcement bars for beams & columns and have the package

to automatically insert appropriately calculated hinges not

available.

67

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Limitations

Inclusion of building torsion (no standardized guidelines

available)

PA with vectors that represent the effects of multiple modes (FEMA

356)

Explicit consideration of Multiple Modes

Modal Pushover Analysis (Chopra and Goel, (2001).

Incremental Response Spectrum Analysis (Aydinoglu, 2003)

Consecutive Modal Pushover (Poursha et al., 2009)

Progressive changes in the load vector pattern applied to the

structure.

Displacement Adaptive Pushover (Antoniou and Pinho, 2004)

68

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

References:

IS 1893 (Part 1)2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant

Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provision and Buildings, Bureau of

Indian Standards, New Delhi.

FEMA 356 (2000) Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation

of Buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, USA.

procedures, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, U.S.A.

resistance, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

Engineering, T. K. M. College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala.

69

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Note

http://rahulleslie.blogspot.in/p/blog-page.html

analysis.

70

The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie

Conclusion

An effort has been made to present the topic as simple as

possible

Thank you

rahul.leslie@gmail.com

71

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