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The Pushover Analysis

from basics
Presented by .
Rahul Leslie
Assistant Director,
Buildings Design,
DRIQ, Kerala PWD,
Trivandrum, India

1
Introduction
Performance Based Design --- an emerging field
To provide engineers with a capability to design buildings that have
predictable and reliable performance in earthquakes

It employs concept of performance objectives, which is the


specification of an acceptable level of damage on experiencing a
earthquake of a given severity.
(FEMA 349)
Seismic design for the future
Presently a linear elastic analysis alone is sufficient for both its elastic
and ductile design

In course of time, for large critical structures, a specially dedicated non-


linear procedure will have to be done, which finally influences the
seismic design as a whole.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction

Linear approach (IS:1893-2002)


is based on the Response
Reduction factor R.
For example, R = 5, means that
1/5th of the seismic force is taken
by the Limit State capacity of the
structure.
Further deflection is taken by the
ductile capacity of the structure.
Reinforced Concrete (RC)
members are detailed (as per
IS:13920) to confirm its ductile
capacity.
We never analyse for the ductile
part, but only follow the
reinforcement detailing guidelines
for the same.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction
The drawback is that the response
beyond the limit state is neither a
simple extrapolation,

nor a perfectly ductile behaviour


with pre-determinable deformation
capacity, due to various reasons:
Change in stiffness of members due
to cracking and yielding,
P-delta effects,
Change in the final seismic force
estimated (due to Change in
time period T and
effective damping ratio (also
represented by )
etc.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction

Although elastic analysis gives a good indication of elastic capacity


of structures and shows where yielding will first occur,
It cannot predict the redistribution of forces during the progressive
yielding that follows and predict its failure mechanisms.

A non-linear static analysis can predict these more accurately.


It can help identify members likely to reach critical states during an
earthquake for which attention should be given during design and
detailing.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction

The Pushover Analysis (PA):

PA is a non-linear analysis procedure to estimate the strength


capacity of a structure beyond its Limit State up to its ultimate
strength.

It can help demonstrate how progressive failure in buildings most


probably occurs, and identify the mode of final failure.

The method also predicts potential weak areas in the structure, by


keeping track of the sequence of damages of each and every
member in the structure.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction

PA can be useful under two situations:


When an existing structure has deficiencies in seismic resisting
capacity,
due to either omission of seismic design when built, or
the structure becoming seismically inadequate due to a later
upgradation of the seismic codes,
is to be retrofitted to meet the (present) seismic demands,
PA can show where the retrofitting is required and how much.

For a building in its design phase, PA results help scrutinise and


fine tune the seismic design based on SA.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Introduction
For a new building, PA is meant to be a second stage analysis (The
first stage being a conventional Seismic analysis - SA).
This is because the details of reinforcement provided are required to
calculate exact hinge properties (to be covered later)
But one has to design the structure based on SA in order to obtain
the reinforcement details.
This means that PA is meant to be a second stage analysis (The first
stage being a conventional SA).
Thus the emerging methodology to an accurate seismic design is:
1. First a conventional linear seismic analysis based on which a primary
structural design is done;
2. Insertion of hinges determined based on the design/detail and then
3. A pushover analysis is done, followed by
4. Modification of the design and detailing, wherever necessary, based
on the latter analysis.
5. The above steps may have to be iterated, if required.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

There are certain features common to all PA approaches:


1. An analysis model of the building, is generated using a common
analysis-design software package (having facility for PA), like
STAAD.Pro,
SAP2000, ETABS,
MIDAS/Gen, etc.
The model, which is a Multi-degree of freedom (MDoF) model, is
used for the analysis

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges
Pushover analysis uses a non-linear computer model
for the analysis:
This is done by incorporated in the form of non-linear hinges
inserted into an otherwise linear elastic model which one
generates using a common analysis-design software package
(STAAD.Pro, SAP2000, ETABS, MIDAS/Gen, etc.)
Hinges are points on a structure where one expects cracking
and yielding to occur in relatively higher intensity so that they
show higher flexural/shear displacement, under a cyclic
loading

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges
- These are locations where one expects to see cross
diagonal cracks in an actual building structure after a
seismic mayhem
they would be at either ends of beams and columns, the cross
being at a small distance from the joint
this is where one inserts hinges in the corresponding computer
model.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges
Basically a hinge represents localised force-displacement relation of
a member through its elastic and inelastic phases under seismic
loads.
A flexural hinge represents the moment-rotation relation of a beam.

Hinges are of various types namely,


(1) flexural hinges,
(2) shear hinges
(3) axial hinges.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

The flexural and shear hinges


are inserted into the ends of
beams and columns.

Since the presence of masonry


infills have significant influence
on the seismic behaviour of the
structure, modelling them using
equivalent diagonal struts (of
truss elements) is common in
PA

The axial hinges are inserted


at either ends of the diagonal
struts
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

Typical Moment Hinge property:


AB represents the linear range
from unloaded state (A) to its
effective yield (B),

Followed by an inelastic but


linear response of reduced
(ductile) stiffness from B to C.

CD shows a sudden reduction


in load resistance, followed by a Flexural Hinge
reduced resistance from D to E,
and

finally a total loss of resistance


from E to F.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Non-linear Building model & Non-linear Hinges

These hinges have non-linear


states defined within its ductile
range as
Immediate Occupancy (IO),
Life Safety (LS) and
Collapse Prevention (CP) Flexural Hinge

This is usually done by dividing


B-C into four parts and
denoting IO, LS and CP, which
are states of each individual
hinges

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach
There are certain features common to all PA approaches:
2. The model is pushed monotonically with an invariable distribution of lateral load with some predefined
distribution pattern such as:
Proportional to 1st mode (or SRSS combination of modes)
Inverted triangle / Uniform distribution
Power distribution (for example, parabolic)

Wi hik
Qi Vb n

W h
i
j
k
j

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach
There are certain features common to all PA approaches:
2. (Continuation )
Unlike conventional SA, in Pushover analysis, analysis for Gravity
loads is done first, continued by an analysis for Lateral loads.
Since PA is done to simulate the behaviour under actual loads, the
Gravity loads applied are not factored, but in accordance with Cl.7.3.3
and Table 8 of IS:1893-2002 :
[DL + 0.25 LL3kN/sq.m + 0.5 LL>3kN/sq.m]

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

3. A pushover curve is obtained, which is a Base shear (Vb) vs. Roof


top displacement (rt) curve
Base shear is sum of all horizontal support reactions in that
direction
Roof top displacement is the displacement at the centre of
mass of the general roof

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach
4. A single-degree of freedom (SDoF) model, corresponding to the
MDoF model, and the rules to convert the parameters of the MDoF
model (Vb & rt) to those of the SDoF model (Sa & Sd) are defined

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach
4. (Continuation) A single-degree of freedom (SDoF) model, corresponding
to the MDoF model, and the rules to convert the parameters of the MDoF
model (Vb & rt) to those of the SDoF model (Sa & Sd) are defined
In ATC-40 and FEMA440, the conversion is
(where ), and
Vb / W M
k 1 rt
Sa Sd
(where Sa and Sd areMdenoted by F* and P
In EC 8 k 1,@ rt
d*k 1respectively)
and

Vb rt
Sa Sd
Pk 1 Pk 1

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

5. The Sa-Sd curve has to be converted to an equivalent bi-linear curve


(equal energy) by a suitable method
Different codes follow different methods

ATC-40 and FEMA440 follows the


method of keeping the 1st line as initial
tangent stiffness and adjusts the 2nd
line (to the point under consideration)
such that to get the equal area.

ATC-40 and FEMA440

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

5. The Sa-Sd curve has to be converted to an equivalent bi-linear curve


(equal energy) by a suitable method
Different codes follow different methods

EC8 (EuroCode 8) follows the method of


keeping the 2nd line (to the point under
consideration) as perfectly plastic, ie.,
horizontal and adjusts the 1st line such
that to get the equal area.

EC 8

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Features of a Typical Pushover Approach

5. The Sa-Sd curve has to be converted to an equivalent bi-linear curve


(equal energy) by a suitable method
Different codes follow different methods

ATC-40 and FEMA440 EC8

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Different Pushover Approaches
PA procedures can generally be classified to two:
1. DCM (Displacement Coeff. Method): These procedures
estimates a Target displacement prior to the analysis, to which
the model has to be pushed, and on analysis, checked for the
intended (good) performance at that displacement. The method
is nevertheless, iterative. Ref:-
- FEMA356,
- FEMA440 (Ch.5),
- EC 8
2. CSM (Capacity Spectrum Method): The analysis is done, and
each pt. on the pushover curve (known as Capacity curve) is
consecutively checked to see whether the Sa-Sd at that pt.
meets (or intersects) the Response Spectrum curve (known as
Demand curve), reduced by a factor. (continued)
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Different Pushover Approaches
PA procedures can generally be classified to two:

2. CSM : For each point on the Capacity curve, the Demand


curve to be checked with, for intersection, is a Response
Spectrum curve reduced by a reduction factor calculated
corresponding to that point under consideration on the Capacity
curve. When the curves intersects (or meet), that meeting point
is known as the Performance Pt. Ref:-
- ATC-40,
- FEMA440 (Ch.6)
- EC8 (Optional method)

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
The steps for the CSM method are:
1. First, the Response Spectrum (RS) curve has to be modified: from its ordinates of Sa vs. Time
period T, to its Acceleration Displacement Response Spectrum (ADRS) form, which is an Sa vs.
Sd curve.
This to facilitate the super-imposing the pushover curve over the RS (which is in its ADRS form)

RS ADRS 26
The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
The steps for the CSM method are:
1. First, the Response Spectrum (RS) curve has to be modified:
from its ordinates of Sa vs. Time period, to its Acceleration
Displacement Response Spectrum (ADRS) form, which is an
Sa vs. Sd curve. 2
T
This is done by using the relation Sd Sa
4 2

RS ADRS 27
The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
2. Super-impose the converted Pushover curve on the ADRS curve:

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
3. With the Capacity curve (Pushover curve) superimposed on the Demand
curve (ADRS), each point on the former is consecutively checked to :
i. Get the yield point ordinates (Sa y & Sdy)
ii. Calculate the ductility and the 2 nd tangent stiffness coeff.

ATC-40, FEMA440 EC8

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
iii. Determine the reduced ADRS for the above parameters corresponding to that pt. on the Capacity
curve as:
ATC-40/FEMA440 : Calculate damping from ductility and 2 nd tangent stiffness coefficient . Reduce
ADRS corresponding to
EC 8 : Reduce ADRS corresponding to ductility

ATC-40, FEMA440 EC8

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

For example, in ATC-40, for the reduction of the Demand (ADRS)


curve, the effective damping ratio is determined from the
formula :
ay ap ay
K init K 2 nd
dy dp dy
dp K 2 nd

dy K init

2 11
eff 0.05
1

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

where the Damping Modification Factor is determined


from the building type

Table : Structural behaviour types Table : Values for Damping


Modification Factor

Shaking Essentially Average Poor Structure eq(%)


Duration New Existing Existing behaviou
Building Building Building r type
Short Type A Type B Type C 16.25 1.0
Long Type B Type C Type C Type A
>16.25 1.13 0.51 / 2 0

25 0.67
2 11
eff 0.05 Type B
0.845 0.446 / 2 0
1 >25

Any
Type C 0.33 32
value
The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis

From the effective damping ratio , the factors for reducing the
ADRS curve are determined from the formula :

3.21 0.681Log e eff (%) 2.31 0.41Log e eff (%)


SRa SRv
2.12 1.65
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Steps for CSM method of Pushover Analysis
4. Include the reduced ADRS Demand curve in the super-imposed
graph:

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method

1. The conventional SA procedure is explained to highlight the


difference in approaches between SA & PA

2. Trace the progress of a PA from beginning to end,

both demonstrates plots of Vb vs roof top and RS curve in its


separate and uncombined form and
also their transformed and super-positioned ADRS plot.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- SA Method

In SA, the maximum DBE force acting on the structure is Z/2.(Sa/g),


(assuming I = 1) with Sa/g corresponding to the estimated time
period.
Its envelop is the RS curve marked q
The RS curve for the Limit State design is plotted in terms of Z/2R.
(Sa/g), and is marked as curve p.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- SA Method
Fig. shows the Vb vs roof top displacement.
The point P represents the Vb and roof top for the design lateral load
(ie., of 1/R times full load)

The point Q represents the same for the full load, had the building
been fully elastic

Point Q' for a perfectly-elastic perfectly-ductile structure.


The slope of the line OP represents
the stiffness of the structure in a
global sense. Since the analysis is
linear, the stiffness remains same
throughout the analysis, with Q
being an extension of OP.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- SA Method

The same is represented in Fig.(left) where, for the time period Tp of


the structure,
the full load is represented by Q (Saq), and
the design load by P (Sap).

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- SA Method

The ADRS representation of SA is as in Fig.(left).


the full load is represented by Q (Saq),
the design load by P (Sap).

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

Now we shall see how differently the PA approaches the same scenario :-
The segment OA in Fig.(left) is equivalent to OP in Fig.(right), with the slope
representing the global stiffness in its elastic range.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

The RS curve : Segment OA has time period Ta, curve a representing


the RS curve and Saa is the lateral load demand, in its elastic range.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

ADRS representation:

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

As the analysis progresses, the lateral load is monotonically


increased beyond its elastic limit of A, and the first hinges are formed.
This decreases the overall stiffness of the structure. This is
represented by the segment AB.
The decrease in slope of OB from that of OA shows the change in
secant stiffness.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

The first hinges are formed, decreasing the overall stiffness of the
structure, which in turn increases T and , represented by point B in
the plots.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

The change in the x-axis value of point B from that of point A shows
the shift of time period from Ta to Tb.
The increase in of the structure calls for a corresponding decrease
in the RS curve, reduced by a factor calculated from , which has
thus come down from curve a to b.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

ADRS representation: Note the angular shift from Ta to Tb .


The increase in of the structure calls for a corresponding decrease
in the RS curve, reduced by a factor calculated from , which has
thus come down from curve a to b.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

As the lateral load is further increased monotonically, more hinges are


formed and the existing hinges have further yielded in its non-linear
phase represented by point C
This has further reduced the stiffness (the slope of OC),

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

(Here are the two graphs overlapped a possibility

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

This has further reduced the stiffness, and increased T (from Tb to


Tc).

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

More hinges are formed and the existing hinges have further yielded
in its non-linear phase, represented by point C

Note the angular shift from Tb to Tc.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method
Here the point C is where the capacity curve OABC extending
upwards meets the demand curve in, which was simultaneously
descending down to curve c.
Thus C is the point where the total lateral force expected Sa c is same
as the lateral force applied ~Vbc
This point is known as the performance point.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Step by step through each method
-- PA Method

It is also defined as the point where the locus of the performance


point, the line connecting Saa, Sab and Sac, intersects the capacity
curve

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
PA Method Reviewing results

Once the performance point is found, the overall performance of the


structure can be checked to see whether it matches the required
performance level, based on inter-storey drift limits specified in ATC-
40, which are
0.01h for IO,
0.02h for LS, and
0.33(Vb/W)h for CP, (h = height of the building).

The performance level is based on the importance and function of the


building. For example, hospitals and emergency services buildings
are expected to meet a performance level of IO.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
PA Method Reviewing results

The next step is to review the hinge formations at performance point.


One can see the individual stage of each hinge, at its location.
Tables are obtained showing the number of hinges in each state, at
each stage, based on which one decides which all beams and
columns to be redesigned.
The decision depends whether the most severely yielded hinges are
formed in beams or in columns, whether they are concentrated in a
particular storey denoting soft story, and so on.

OA AB BC
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Adaptation for the Indian Code
Adapting of Pushover Analysis (PA) for IS:1893-2002

The PA has not been introduced in the Indian Standard code yet. However the
procedure described in ATC-40 can be adapted for the seismic parameters of
IS:1893-2002.

The RS curve in ATC-40 is


described by parameters
Ca and
Cv,
where the curve just as in IS:1893,
is having a flat portion of intensity
2.5 Ca and a downward sloping
portion described by Cv/T.

Resp. Spec (ATC-40)

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Adaptation for the Indian Code

The seismic force in IS:1893- ZI Sa


2000 is represented by Ah
(ZI/2R).(Sa/g), where Sa/g is 2R g
obtained from the RS curve,
which in our code is
represented by
2.5 in the flat portion &
the downward sloping
portion by
1/T for hard soil,
1.36/T for medium
soil and
1.67/T for soft soil.
Resp. Spec (IS:1893-2002)

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Adaptation for the Indian Code

On comparison it can be inferred that


Ca = Z/2 and ZI Sa Z Sa

Ah
Cv = Z/2 for hard, 2R g 2 g
1.36Z/2 for medium and
1.67Z/2 for soft soil
Here I is not considered, since in PA, the criteria of importance of the
structure is taken care of by the performance levels (IO, LS & CP)
R is also not considered since PA is always done for the full lateral
load.

Resp. Spec (ATC-40) Resp. Spec (IS:1893-2002)

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Adaptation for the Indian Code

The Limit State inter-storey drift limit specified in IS:1893-2002, being


0.004, when accounted for
R = 5 for ductile design and
I = 1.5 for important structures (IO performance level)
= 1.0 for ordinary structures (LS performance level)
gives 0.004R/I = 0.02 and 0.0133 for IO and LS respectively

The drift limit can be compared with those specified in ATC-40 (0.01
and 0.02 for IO and LS respectively). The limit for IO in IS:1893-2002
is more relaxed than that in ATC-40.

This 0.004R/I can be taken as the IS:1893-2002 limits for pushover


drift, where I takes the values corresponding to Important and
Ordinary structures for limits of IO and LS respectively.
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

Presented in this section are the results of a pushover analysis done


on a 10 storey RCC building of a shopping complex using the
structural package of SAP2000.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

In the model, beams and columns were modelled using frame


elements, into which the hinges were inserted.

Diaphragm action was assigned to the floor slabs to ensure integral


lateral action of beams in each floor.

Although analysis was done in both transverse and longitudinal


directions, only the results of the former are discussed here.

The lateral load was applied in pattern of that of the 1st mode shape
in the transverse direction of the building, with an intensity for DBE as
per IS:1893-2002, corresponding to zone-III in hard soil.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

The ADRS plot shows the Sa and Sd at performance point as 0.085g


and 0.242m.
The corresponding Vb and roof top are 1857.046 kN and 0.287m.
The value of effective T is 3.368s.
The effective at that level of the demand curve which met the
performance point is 26%.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

Table shows the hinge state details at each step of the analysis.
Hinge States
roof top Vb A to B to IO to LS to CP to C to D to Total
Step (m) (kN) B IO LS CP C D E >E Hinges
0 0 0 1752 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
1 0.058318 1084.354 1748 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
2 0.074442 1348.412 1670 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

3 0.089645 1451.4 1594 158 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752

4 0.26199 1827.137 1448 168 136 0 0 0 0 0 1752

5 0.41105 2008.48 1384 144 136 88 0 0 0 0 1752

6 0.411066 1972.693 1384 146 136 86 0 0 0 0 1752

7 0.411082 1576.04 1376 148 136 39 0 0 53 0 1752

8 0.411098 1568.132 1376 148 136 37 0 0 55 0 1752

9 0.411114 1544.037 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752

10 0.40107 1470.133 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis
For the performance point, taken as step 5 (which actually lies
between steps 4 and 5),
95% of hinges are within LS and IO performance levels
88% within IO performance level.
Hinge States
roof top Vb A to B to IO to LS to CP C to D to Total
Step (m) (kN) B IO LS CP to C D E >E Hinges
0 0 0 1752 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
1 0.058318 1084.354 1748 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
2 0.074442 1348.412 1670 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
3 0.089645 1451.4 1594 158 0 0 0 0 0 0 1752
4 0.26199 1827.137 1448 168 136 0 0 0 0 0 1752
5 0.41105 2008.48 1384 144 136 88 0 0 0 0 1752
6 0.411066 1972.693 1384 146 136 86 0 0 0 0 1752
7 0.411082 1576.04 1376 148 136 39 0 0 53 0 1752
8 0.411098 1568.132 1376 148 136 37 0 0 55 0 1752
9 0.411114 1544.037 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752
10 0.40107 1470.133 1375 149 136 31 0 0 61 0 1752
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

Following figures shows the hinge states during various stages in


course of the analysis.

Fig: Hinge states in the structure model at (a) step 0 & (b) step 3
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

Following figures shows the hinge states during various stages in


course of the analysis.

Fig: Hinge states in the structure model at (c) step 5 & (d) step 8
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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Example of a building analysis

Following figures shows the hinge states during various stages in


course of the analysis.

Fig: Hinge states in the structure model at (e) step 10


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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Issues
Hinge properties
Determining hinge properties (beams, columns, diagonal struts)
Determining hinge properties for flat-slab and shear walls

Seismic analysis design/detailing hinge property


calculation insertion of hinges Pushover Analysis
Doing the above manually at a practically acceptable speed
Non-availability of a semi-automatic method in standard Analysis
Packages (STAAD, ETABS, etc.) :
Facility to quickly define details of provided
reinforcement bars for beams & columns and have the package
to automatically insert appropriately calculated hinges not
available.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Limitations
Inclusion of building torsion (no standardized guidelines
available)

Inclusion of higher modes in PA


PA with vectors that represent the effects of multiple modes (FEMA
356)
Explicit consideration of Multiple Modes
Modal Pushover Analysis (Chopra and Goel, (2001).
Incremental Response Spectrum Analysis (Aydinoglu, 2003)
Consecutive Modal Pushover (Poursha et al., 2009)
Progressive changes in the load vector pattern applied to the
structure.
Displacement Adaptive Pushover (Antoniou and Pinho, 2004)

IS:1893-2002 is yet to include the method

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
References:
IS 1893 (Part 1)2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant
Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provision and Buildings, Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi.

FEMA 356 (2000) Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation
of Buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

ATC-40 (1996) Seismic Analysis and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, vol. I,


Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, USA.

FEMA-440 (2005) Improvement of Nonlinear static seismic analysis


procedures, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, U.S.A.

prEN 1998-1 (2003) Eurocode 8 Part 1: Design of structures for earthquake


resistance, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

Jisha S. V. (2008), Mini Project Report Pushover Analysis, Department of Civil


Engineering, T. K. M. College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Note

A write up on this topic can be found at

http://rahulleslie.blogspot.in/p/blog-page.html

but covers only the ATC-40 method of pushover


analysis.

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The Pushover Analysis from basics Presented by Rahul Leslie
Conclusion
An effort has been made to present the topic as simple as
possible

presume, at least to some extend, the aim has been fulfilled.

Thank you

rahul.leslie@gmail.com

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