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MM4APS Aircraft Propulsion

Systems
Lecture 2
Definitions, Commonly Used Units
and
Revision of Brayton Cycle
Aircraft pitot tube system

http://www.pilotscareer.com/uploads/lessonsimages/pitotstatic_1.png
EAS Equivalent Airspeed Measure of dynamic pressure
q, q = 0.5 o (EAS)2, where o = density at sea level

TAS True Airspeed, TAS = EAS/, where = relative


density (TAS corrected for wind component gives ground
speed and hence flight time)
Standard Definitions & Commonly used abbreviations

ETOPS Extended-range twin operations: For example, if an aircraft


is certified for 180 minutes, it is permitted to fly any route, as long as it is
always within 180 minutes flying time to the nearest suitable airport.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETOPS
Aircraft weights

http://i.stack.imgur.com/6C6ry.png
The Atmosphere

65617 ft
Stratosphere (20km)
Temperature Constant
at -56.5 oC

Tropopause

36089 ft
(11km)
Troposphere

Temperature decreases
linearly
T=To-L.h
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Compariso
n_International_Standard_Atmosphere_space_divin
International Standard
Atmosphere
Altitude Pressure Temperature Altitude Pressure Temperature Altitude Pressure Temperature Altitude Pressure Temperature
km kPa oK km kPa oK km kPa oK km kPa oK

0.00 101.33 288.2 3.35 67.02 266.4 6.71 42.79 244.6 10.06 26.20 222.8
0.15 99.51 287.2 3.51 65.72 265.4 6.86 41.89 243.6 10.21 25.59 221.8
0.30 97.72 286.2 3.66 64.44 264.4 7.01 41.00 242.6 10.36 25.00 220.8
0.46 95.95 285.2 3.81 63.18 263.4 7.16 40.13 241.6 10.52 24.41 219.8
0.61 94.21 284.2 3.96 61.94 262.4 7.32 39.27 240.6 10.67 23.84 218.8
0.76 92.50 283.2 4.11 60.72 261.4 7.47 38.43 239.6 10.82 23.28 217.8
0.91 90.81 282.2 4.27 59.52 260.4 7.62 37.60 238.6 10.97 22.73 216.8
1.07 89.15 281.2 4.42 58.34 259.4 7.77 36.79 237.6 11.13 22.19 216.7
1.22 87.51 280.2 4.57 57.18 258.4 7.92 35.99 236.6 11.28 21.66 216.7
1.37 85.90 279.2 4.72 56.04 257.4 8.08 35.20 235.6 11.43 21.15 216.7
1.52 84.31 278.2 4.88 54.92 256.5 8.23 34.43 234.7 11.58 20.65 216.7
1.68 82.74 277.3 5.03 53.81 255.5 8.38 33.68 233.7 11.73 20.16 216.7
1.83 81.20 276.3 5.18 52.72 254.5 8.53 32.93 232.7 11.89 19.68 216.7
1.98 79.68 275.3 5.33 51.65 253.5 8.69 32.20 231.7 12.04 19.21 216.7
2.13 78.19 274.3 5.49 50.60 252.5 8.84 31.48 230.7 12.19 18.75 216.7
2.29 76.71 273.3 5.64 49.56 251.5 8.99 30.78 229.7
2.44 75.26 272.3 5.79 48.55 250.5 9.14 30.09 228.7
2.59 73.83 271.3 5.94 47.55 249.5 9.30 29.41 227.7
2.74 72.43 270.3 6.10 46.56 248.5 9.45 28.74 226.7
2.90 71.04 269.3 6.25 45.60 247.5 9.60 28.09 225.7
3.05 69.68 268.3 6.40 44.64 246.5 9.75 27.45 224.8
3.20 68.34 267.3 6.55 43.71 245.6 9.91 26.82 223.8
Commonly Used Units

1 lb mass = 0.4536Kg
1 lb force = 4.448N
1 foot = 0.3048m
1 nautical mile = 1.829km
1 knot = 1 nm/hour = 0.508m/s
Useful conversion website
http://www.onlineconversion.com/
Revision of Brayton Cycle
Open Cycle Gas Turbine
qin
Fuel
Combustion
Chamber
3
2

Compressor Turbine Wnet

1 Fresh Air 4 Exhaust


Gases
A closed cycle qin
gas turbine Heat
Exchanger
2 3

Wnet
Compressor Turbine

1 4
Heat
Exchanger

qout

The ideal (Brayton) cycle can be described as


1 2 Isentropic compression (in the compressor)
2 3 Heat addition at constant pressure
3 4 Isentropic expansion (in the turbine)
4 1 Heat rejection at constant pressure
T-S Diagram
Point 1 Point 2
Isentropic
compression (in the
compressor)

Point 2 Point 3
Heat addition at
constant pressure

Point 3 Point 4
Isentropic expansion
(in the turbine)

Point 4 Point 1
Heat rejection at
constant pressure
P-v Diagram
Point 1 Point 2
Isentropic
compression (in the
compressor)

Point 2 Point 3
Heat addition at
constant pressure

Point 3 Point 4
Isentropic expansion
(in the turbine)

Point 4 Point 1
Heat rejection at
constant pressure
Ideal Cycle
The ideal cycle can be analysed since the
four processes are steady-flow.
Neglecting changes in kinetic and potential
energy, the steady flow conservation of
energy equation can be written for a unit-
mass basis as

q w hexit hinlet
Ideal Cycle
Assuming constant specific heats at room
temperature, heat transfer to and from the
working fluid becomes

qin q23 h3 h2 C p (T3 T2 )


and
qout q41 h4 h1 C p (T4 T1 )
Ideal Cycle
The thermal efficiency of an ideal Brayton
cycle is give by
wnet 1
th,Brayton 1 ( k 1) / k
qin rp

Where rp is the pressure ratio P2/P1 and k is


the specific heat ratio = Cp/Cv
Real Gas Turbine Cycle
The differences between an ideal cycle and
a real gas-turbine cycle are:
pressure drops are seen during heat
addition and rejection
actual work required to compressor is
more than an ideal cycle due to losses
(irreversibilities)
the actual work produced by the turbine
are less than an ideal cycle due to losses
The deviation of an actual gas-turbine cycle from the ideal
Brayton cycle as a result of irreversibilities
Adiabatic Efficiencies
Deviation from actual compressor and
turbine performance are accounted for by
adiabatic efficiencies which are defined as

wideal h1 h2 s
c
wactual h1 h2 a
Where c is compressor adiabatic efficiency
Adiabatic Efficiencies
Where T is the turbine adiabatic efficiency.

wactual h3 h4 a
T
wideal h3 h4 s
Further readings
For further description of the Joule or
Brayton Cycle see Cengel and Boles,
Thermodynamics, An Engineering
Approach (TJ265 CEN in George Green
library) Chapter 8.