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Kinetic Molecular Theory

kinetic
1. pertaining to motion.
2. caused by motion.
characterized by movement: Running
3.
and dancing are kinetic activities.
Origin:
185055; < Gk kntiks moving, equiv. to kn-
(verbid s. of knen to move) + -tikos

Source: Websters Dictionary


What you should know

Students know the random motion of


molecules and their collisions with a surface
create the observable pressure on that
surface.

Students know the random motion of


molecules explains the diffusion of gases.
The Nature of Gases

Gases
Gases expand
expand toto fill
fill their
their containers
containers

Gases
Gases are
are fluid
fluid they
they flow
flow

Gases
Gases have
have low
low density
density
1/1000
1/1000 the
the density
density of of the
the equivalent
equivalent
liquid
liquid or
or solid
solid
Gases
Gases are
are compressible
compressible
Gases
Gases effuse
effuse and
and diffuse
diffuse
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Particles of matter are
ALWAYS in motion
Volume of individual
particles is zero.
Collisions of particles with
container walls cause the
pressure exerted by gas.
Particles exert no forces
on each other.
Average kinetic energy is
proportional to Kelvin
temperature of a gas.
Kinetic Energy of Gas Particles
At the same conditions of temperature, all
gases have the same average kinetic energy.

1 2 m = mass
KE mv
2 v = velocity

At
the same
At the same temperature
temperature,, small
small
molecules move FASTER
molecules move FASTER than
than large
large
molecules
molecules
Diffusion
Diffusion describes the mixing
of gases. The rate of diffusion
is the rate of gas mixing.
Diffusion is the result of
random movement of gas
molecules
The rate of diffusion
increases with temperature
Small molecules diffuse faster
than large molecules
Grahams Law of Diffusion

Distance traveled by gas1 M2



Distance traveled by gas 2 M1
M1 = Molar Mass of gas 1
M2 = Molar Mass of gas 2
Purification of Uranium-235
Using Gaseous Diffusion