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Journey into the depth of sucrose crystal

Video 1

Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the lesson the students should be able to: 1. identify and describe the matter, classification of matter, proton, electrons and neutrons as sub-atomic particles. 2. define proton number, nucleon number, relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass 3. define and describe isotopes.

Matter
Anything that occupies space and possesses mass is called matter. • Example: air, earth, animals, trees, atoms,… • The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas

Three States of Matter

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures : has one or more visible boundaries between the components. Homogeneous mixtures : has no visible boundaries because the components are mixed as individual atoms, ions, and molecules. Solutions : A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution. Solutions in water are called aqueous solutions, and are very important in chemistry. Although we normally think of solutions as liquids, they can exist in all three physical states.

Definitions for Components of Matter Compound - a substance composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined.

Mixture - a group of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically intermingled.

Mixtures and Compounds

S

Fe

Physically mixed therefore can be separated by physical means.

Allowed to react chemically therefore cannot be separated by physical means.

Definitions for Components of Matter
Element - the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means. Molecule - a structure that consists of two or more atoms which are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit.

Ernerst Rutherford (1871 – 1937) New Zealander-English physicist who was born in Nelson, New Zealand. Rutherford is best known for devising the names alpha, beta and gamma rays to classify various forms of "rays" which were poorly understood at his time.

ATOM
• An atom is composed of three kinds of elementary subatomic particle: electrons, protons and neutrons. • Protons and neutrons form the atomic nucleus. • Electrons can be thought of as forming negatively charged clouds around the nucleus.

Modern Model of the Atom

DEFINITION
• Proton number : A number of protons in the atomic nucleus • Nucleon number : The number of nucleon (protons and neutrons) in the atomic nucleus.

The Modern Reassessment of the Atomic Theory
1. All matter is composed of atoms. The atom is the smallest body that retains the unique identity of the element. 2. Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element in a chemical reaction. Elements can only be converted into other elements in nuclear reactions. 3. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons, which determines the chemical behavior of the element. Isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons, and thus in mass number. A sample of the element is treated as though its atoms have an average mass. 4. Compounds are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in specific ratios.
Video 2

Proton number and nucleon number • A: nucleon (mass) number (Z+n) • Z: proton (atomic) number • X: chemical element symbol

Video 3

Video 4

Example 1.1.2
Give the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the 200 following species: (a) 80 Hg (b) 63 Cu 29 59 3+ 17 2− (c) (d) 27 Co O
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Symbol proton
200 80 63 29 17 8 59 27

Number of neutron 120 34 9 32 electron 80 29 10 24

Charge

Hg Cu O 2−

80 29 8 27

0 0 -2 +3

Co 3+

Note: The proton number, Z, is the nuclear charge and also the number of electrons in a neutral atom of the element. no. p = no. e ⇒ atom (neutral) no. p > no. e ⇒ positively charged – cation (atom lost electrons) no. p < no. e ⇒ negatively charged – anion (atom gained electrons)

Isotopes
Isotope = atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
Notes: Isotopes of an element have the same, - number of protons (proton number) - charge of nucleus of the atoms (ionization energy; electron affinity; size of the atom; electronegativity are the same) - number of electrons in a neutral atom - electronic configuration (the number of valence electrons) Video chemical properties Isotopes of an element have different, - number of neutrons (nucleon number) in the nucleus of the atoms - relative isotopic mass - physical properties (e.g boiling point / melting point, density, effusion rate,…)

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Relative atomic and molecular mass
Relative Atomic Mass, Ar of an element Ar = average mass of one atom of the element 1/12 x mass of one atom of 12C • The average relative isotopic mass of the atoms must be used for calculation because most elements consist of a mixture of isotopes.
Video 6

Notes: Ar and Mr – dimensionless Molecular mass, atomic mass – atomic mass unit (amu)

Relative Molecular Mass, Mr of a molecular substance Mr = average mass of one molecule of the substance 1/12 x mass of one atom of 12C or = sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms shown in the molecular formula. Example: Mr of H2O = 2 (Ar of H) + Ar of O = 2(1.008) + 15.999 = 18.15 relative molecular mass of CaCl2 = 40 + 2(35.5) = 111 relative molecular mass of SO42− = 32 + 4(16) = 96

Determining the number of atomic constituents

Video 7 Atom

Video 8 Ion

Exercise 1.1
Complete the symbols for the following elements and fill in the blanks in the table.

Radioisotopes
• Radioisotopes have a number of important applications beyond the production of energy or weapons of mass destruction. - neutron activation analysis - geological dating Video 9 - tracers - oncology - radiation detection

Conclusion
At the end of the lesson the students should be able to: 1. identify and describe the matter, classification of matter, proton, electrons and neutrons as sub-atomic particles. 2. define proton number, nucleon number, relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass 3. define and describe isotopes.