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Research Design

2 .RESEARCH DESIGN Framework or plan for a study Used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data A blueprint. followed in completing a study It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to solve the business problems.

Develop a plan of data analysis. Specify the sampling process and size. Specify the measurement and scaling procedures Construct and pretest a questionnaire or an appropriate form of data collection. 3 . descriptive and/or causal phase of research.RESEARCH DESIGN 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Define the information needed Design the exploratory.

TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory Descriptive Causal Note: The distinctions are not absolute ² a study may serve several purposes The design of the investigation should stem from the problem 4 .

CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH DESIGNS Research Design Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design Descriptive Research Causal Research Cross Sectional Design Longitudinal Design 5 .

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Purpose of exploratory research: Formulating a problem for more precise investigation and for developing hypotheses Establishing priorities for further research Gathering information about the practical problems of carrying out research on particular conjectural statements Increasing the analyst·s familiarity with the problem Clarifying concepts 6 .

not demonstrating the viability of a given explanation is characterized by flexibility in methodology use is particularly indicated for: ‡ Literature search ‡ Experience surveys ‡ Focus groups ‡ Analysis of selected cases 7 .EXPLORATORY RESEARCH is appropriate to any problem about which little is known is to develop tentative explanations.

trade literature and / or published statistics Serves for the discovery of ideas and tentative explanations of a phenomenon Demonstrating the explanation is better left to descriptive and causal research 8 .LITERATURE SEARCH IN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Easy way to discover hypotheses in the work of others May involve conceptual literature.

Provocative ideas and useful insights are more valuable than statistics of the profession 9 . because the nature of the experience survey is on gaining insight into the relationship between variables and not to get an accurate picture of current or best practices.EXPERIENCE SURVEY IN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Taps the knowledge and experience of those familiar with the subject being investigated Careful selection of respondents needed.

FOCUS GROUPS IN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Consist of 8-12 members knowledgeable in the subject under investigation Goal is to: Generate hypotheses for quantitative test Generate information to structure questionnaires Provide overall background information Secure impressions on new product concepts Interact through various possible means. email group.g. meeting. e. 0 .

11 .DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Purpose of descriptive research is to: describe the characteristics of certain groups / samples / populations Estimate proportions in specified populations Make specific predictions Descriptive research often follows exploratory research to describe the particularities of the properties identified during in the exploratory step.

CAUSAL RESEARCH A change in one variable brings about a change in another variable Four conditions for causal relationships: Time sequence ² cause occurs before effect Covariance ² two variables are related Non-spurious association ² relationship is not caused by another variable Theoretical support ² logical explanation exists for the cause.effect relationship 12 .

Lab experiments All variables are controlled Influence of external variables minimized Internal validity maximized 2.CAUSAL RESEARCH Causality tested through 1. Field tests Most credible results Influence of ¶real world· settings taken into account External validity maximized 13 .

MAIN RESEARCH DESIGNS 14 .

or extent of variable relations: use descriptive design Statements on cause and effect: use causal design Other factors that influence the design decision: Accessibly and quality of required data Ethical questions Time. amounts. cost. and researchers experience 15 .CHOOSING THE RIGHT RESEARCH DESIGN Design type depends on research question: If research question asks for: discovery or clarification: use exploratory design description of quantities.

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