PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

BY ANSHUL JAIN Management Trainee (Inst) 1

08/03/10

FLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT
 “Pressure”

or intensity of pressure may be defined as the force exerting on a unit area.If F is the total force uniformly distributed over an area A, the pressure at any point is p=F/A. •When the pressure varies from point to point on an area, the magnitude of pressure at any point can be obtained by the following expression
p=δ F/ δ A
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VARIATION OF PRESSURE IN A FLUID
 `If

we consider a small fluid element at any point in a static mass of fluid as shown in the figure. The element is under equilibrium under the various forces acting on it.The various forces acting on the element are the pressure forces on its faces and the self-weight of the element.
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∂ p/ ∂ x* δ x/2) δ z δ y δ X • (p.∂ p/ ∂ y* δ y/2) δ (p+ ∂ p / ∂ x* δ x/2) δ z δ z (w δ x δ y δ z) (p+ ∂ p/ ∂ y * δ y/2) δ x δ 08/03/10 z (p.∂ p/ ∂ z* δ z/2) δ4 x .FORCES ACTING ON A STATIC MASS OF LIQUID (p+∂ p/ ∂ z* δ z/2) δ x δ y xδ z δ y (p.

the algebraic sum of the forces acting on it in any direction must be zero.since the element is under equilibrium.Further if “w” is the specific weight of the fluid then the weight of the element acting vertically downwards is w δ x δ y δ z. 08/03/10 5 .FORCES ACTING ON AN STATIC MASS OF LIQUID  Let “p” be the pressure intensity at the mid point “O” of the element.

(p-∂ p/∂ x* δ x/2)δ zδ y Or ∂ p/∂ x = 0. (1) Similarly ∂ p/∂ y = 0.FORCES ACTING ON AN STATIC MASS OF LIQUID  If Fx be the force acting on the element along X axes then. Or  (p+∂ p/∂ x*δ x/2)δ zδ y. (3) 08/03/10 6 . (2) And ∂ p/∂ z = -w.  Σ Fx = 0 .

08/03/10 7 .and it remains constant over any horizontal plane in a fluid.FORCES ACTING ON AN STATIC MASS OF LIQUID  From the above equations it is clear that within a body of fluid at rest the pressure increases in the downward direction at the rate equivalent to the specific weight of the liquid.

PRESSURE AT A POINT IN LIQUID • H Free liquid surface h Liquid of specific weight w •h Z = H +Z 0- z0 08/03/10 Datum 8 .

PRESSURE AT A POINT IN A LIQUID  The pressure at any point in the static mass of the liquid depends only on the vertical depth of the point below the free surface and the specific weight of the liquid. And it does not depends on the shape and size of the bounding container 08/03/10 9 .

INTRECONNECTED CONTAINERS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES h A 08/03/10 • • B •C •D 10 .

PRESSURE HEAD  The vertical height of the free surface above any point in liquid at rest is known as the pressure head.The pressure head may be expressed as h = p/w If h1and h2 are the heights of columns of liquids of specific weight w1&w2 required to develop the same pressure p at any point then p = w12h1 = w2h2 (4) 08/03/10 11 .

PRESSURE HEAD  If S1 & S2 are the specific gravities of two liquid and w is the specific weight of water then since w1 = S1w and w2 = S2w the equation (4) may be written as S1h1 = S2h2 In the similar manner the difference in pressure at any two points in static mass of liquid varies directly as difference in depth (or elevation) of two points p1-p2 = w(h1-h2) 12 08/03/10 .

13 08/03/10 . GAUGE AND VACCUM PRESSURE  The atmospheric air exerts a normal pressure on all surfaces with which it is in contact and it is known as the ATMOSPHERIC pressure.ABSOLUTE. The atmospheric pressure varies with the altitude and it can be measured by means of barometer.

ABSOLUTE.  When the pressure is measured above absolute zero. GAUGE AND VACCUM PRESSURE  Fluid pressure may be measured with respect to any arbitrary datum.The two most common datum used are (i)absolute zero pressure and (ii) local atmospheric pressure. it is called absolute pressure  When it is measured either above or below atm pressure as datum is GAUGE pressure 08/03/10 14 .

and negative if they are vacuum pressure 08/03/10 15 . and its gauge value is the amount by which it is below the atmospheric pressure.ABSOLUTE. GAUGE AND VACCUM PRESSURE  If the pressure of a fluid is below atmospheric pressure it is VACCUM pressure (or negative gauge pressure ). However .  All values of absolute pressure are positive. GAUGE pressure are positive if they are above that of the atmosphere.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AESOLUTE. GAGE & VACCUM PRESSURE A PRESSURE GAGE PRESSURE AT A VACCUM OR NEGATIVE GAGE PRESSURE AT B LOCAL ATMOSPHERIC OR GAGE PRESSURE ABSOLUTE PRESSURE AT A B ABSOLUTE PRESSURE AT B 08/03/10 LOCAL BAROMETRIC PRESSURE ABSOTUTE ZERO 16 .

Units of pressure  In metric gravitational units it is expressed in Kg(f)/cm² or Kg(f)/m².  In SI units pressure is expressed in N/m² or (Pascal) 08/03/10 17 .

3 m of water. 08/03/10 18 .  Or 76 cm of mercury.03Kg/cm².  Or 10.Units of pressure  At sea level under normal conditions the equivalent values of the atmospheric pressure are:  10.1043 x 10^4 N/m².  Or 1.

968 736 101325 0.987 0.0075 106 1 10 1.1 -6 1 9.81×10 -5 10200 1 1.87 7501 105 9.PRESSURE UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Some popular pressure units and conv ersion factors pas cal MPa bar at kp/m 2 1 Pa (N/m 2) = 1 MPa (N/mm 2) = 1 bar (daN/cm2 )= 1 kp/m2 = 1 at (kp/cm2) = 1 atm (760 T orr) = 1 Torr (mmHg ) = 0.0736 98100 0.2 9.102×10 1 06-Oct 05-Oct 0.033 1 760 133 1.00133 13.00132 0.981 10000 1 0.1013 1.00132 1 08/03/10 19 .33×10 -4 0.102 4 5 atm 0.6 0.81 9.987×10 - Torr 0.81×10 0.02×10 5 10.02 04-Oct 0.0981 0.013 10330 1.968×10 4 750 0.

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE Measurement Of pressure Measurement Of pressure Manometers Manometers Mechanical Gauges Type title here Simple Manometers Differential Manometers BELLOWS DIAPHRAGM Piezometer U-Tube Single Column U-Tube Inverted U -Tube BOURDON 08/03/10 20 .

SIMPLE MANOMETRES  In general a simple manometer consists of a glass tube having one of its end connected to the gauge point where the pressure is to be measured and the other remains open to atmosphere.The location of point of insertion of a piezometer makes no deference in level rising of fluid 08/03/10 21 .  PIEZOMETERS:A piezometer is the simplest form of manometer which can be used for measuring moderate pressure of liquids.

PIEZOMETERS hm hm m 08/03/10 22 • .

NEGATIVE PRESSURE PIEZOMETER vacuum hm 08/03/10 23 .

08/03/10 24 . A U.U . since this would require very large tube which cannot be handled conveniently.TUBE MANOMETER: Piezometers cannot be used when large pressure in the lighter liquid is to be measured .TUBE MANOMETER •U .tube manometer consists of a glass tube in U shape .Further more gas pressure cannot be measured by Piezometers as a gas forms no free atmospheric surface. one end of which is connected to a gage point and other end remains open to the atmosphere.

U-TUBE SIMPLE MANOMETER V D Y Sp Gr S2 Sp Gr S1 B’ A’ B C Z • A 08/03/10 25 .

Gr.S1 D V A • B A’ h2 C h1 08/03/10 Manometric liquidSp.U-TUBE SIMPLE MANOMETER Fluid of Sp.Gr.S2 26 .

The pressure at free surface in the open end may be taken as zero. The following general procedure may be adopted to obtain the gage equation: 1) Start from A Or from free surface in the open end of the manometer.U-TUBE SIMPLE MANOMETER  The tube consists of a liquid of specific gravity greater than that of fluid of which the pressure is to be measured. 08/03/10 27 .

 3) continue the process until the other end of gauge is reached and equate the pressure at that point 08/03/10 28 . Use positive sign if the next level of contact is lower than the first and negative if it is higher.U-TUBE SIMPLE MANOMETER  2) Add the change in pressure which will caused while proceeding from one level to another adjacent level of contact of liquids of different specific gravities.

This difficulty is overcome in single column manometer which consists of a shallow reservoir of large cross sectional area as compared to the area of the tube introduced in the one limb of the manometer 29 08/03/10 .tube manometers as described above usually requires readings of fluid levels at two or more points.SINGLE COLUMN MANOMETER  The U.

S1 SINGLE COLUMN MANOMETER h2 D A• y O ∆ Y C V B h1 C 0 Sp.Fluid of Sp.Gr.S2 08/03/10 30 .Gr.

S2 SCALE 31 .S1 D A• Y O ∆Y C 08/03/10 Normal Level B h1 h2 Sp.Gr.Gr.INCLINED MANOMETER Sp.

SINGLE COLUMN MANOMETER A single tube manometer may also be made more sensitive by making its narrow tube inclined . With this modification the distance moved by the liquid in the tube is comparatively more even for small pressure intensities 08/03/10 32 .

DIFFRENTIAL MANOMETERS  For measuring the difference of pressure between any two points in a pipe line or two pipes or container a differential manometer is employed.Some common types of differential manometers are:  Two piezometer manometer  Inverted U.tube differential manometer 08/03/10 33 .tube manometer  U.

34 08/03/10 . The difference in levels of the liquid raised in the two tubes will denote the pressure difference between the two points.TWO PIEZOMETER MANOMETER  This manometer consists of two separate piezometers which are inserted at the two gage points where the pressure is required to be measured.

08/03/10 35 . These manometers are suitable for the measurement of small pressure difference in liquids.TUBE MANOMETER  It consists of a glass tube bent in U shape and held inverted as if two piezometers are connected at the top.INVERTED U.

INVERTED U TUBE DIFFRENTIAL MANOMETER Air Cock C Y C’ D h A• 08/03/10 B• 36 .

Gr.S1 C’ Manometric liquid Sp.INVERTED U TUBE DIFF. MANOMETER Air Cock C h Y Sp.Gr.S2 D 08/03/10 A• •B 37 .

The lower part of the manometer consist of a manometric liquid which is heavier than the liquid for which the pressure difference is required and is immiscible in it.U .TUBE DIFFRENTIAL MANOMETER  It consists of a glass tube bent in U shape the two end of which are connected to the two gage points between which the pressure difference is required to be measured. 08/03/10 38 .

Gr.S2 39 .U-TUBE DIFFRENTIAL MANOMETER A• Sp.S1 X C C’ Y D • B 08/03/10 Sp.Gr.

operates a pointer moving against a graduated circumferential scale. and this movement mechanically magnified. Generally these gages are used for measuring high pressure where high precision is not required. which embody an elastic element. which deflect under the action of the applied pressure.MECHANICAL GAGES  Mechanical gauges are those pressure measuring devices. 40 08/03/10 .

The commonly used mechanical pressure includes :  1)  2)  3) Bourdon tube pressure gauges diaphragm pressure gages Bellows pressure gages 08/03/10 41 .

BOURDON. The pressure responsive element is a tube of steel or bronze which is of elliptical cross section and is curved in circular arc. When the gage is connected to the gage point the fluid under pressure enters the tube. Due to increase in internal pressure. the elliptical portion tends to become circular thus causing the tube to straighten slightly 08/03/10 42 .BOURDON TUBE PRESSURE GAGE  This is most common type of pressure gage invented by E.

BOURDON TUBE 08/03/10 43 .

This gage is used to measure relatively low pressure intensities 44 08/03/10 . The elastic deformation of the diaphragm under pressure is transmitted to a pointer.DIAPHRAGM PRESSURE GAGE  The pressure responsive element in this gage is an elastic steel corrugated diaphragm.

DIAPHRAGMS 08/03/10 45 .

BELLOWS PRESSURE GAGES  In this gage the pressure responsive element is made up of a thin metallic tube having deep circumferential corrugations. there by moving pointer on a graduated circular disc. In response to pressure changes this elastic element expands or contracts. 46 08/03/10 .

 The second category involves the use of the quartz in some form of resonator whose frequency is modified as a result of applied force 08/03/10 47 . The first are those in which the applied force causes an electrostatic charge to be developed across the crystal which is in turn measured by a charge amplifier and the resultant signal used to provide an indication of applied force.QUARTZ ELECTROSTATIC PRESSURE SENSOR  There are two principal type of pressure sensor used for pressure measurement.

08/03/10 48 . The application of force in one direction of neutral axis sets up an electrostatic charge on the surface of the polar axis at right angle to it. The magnitude of this charge depends upon the dimensions of the quartz crystal and by selecting suitable shape it is possible to secure a high charge yield combined with good linearity and low temperature sensitivity.QUARTZ ELECTROSTATIC PRESSURE SENSOR  These sensors includes the transverse piezo electric effect.

Silicon diaphragms are generally used with resistors diffused in it to act as the means for generating a readable output proportional to the applied pressure 49 08/03/10 .PIEZORESISTIVE PRESSURE SENSORS  The principle involved is that in some metals or materials there is a significant change in there resistivities on application of external force or pressure .

 It consists of a δ cell sensor .DIFFRENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER  The Rosemount model 1151DP diff. Capacitance between the sensing diaphragm and the capacitor plates is electronically converted into two wire 4-20 mA dc.Diff. liquid level or other applications requiring accurate measurement of differential pressure. 08/03/10 50 .pressure transmitter may be used for flow. This sensor is a completely sealed capacitance sensing module that allows direct electronic sensing.

DIFFRENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER The capacitance between sensing diaphragm and either capacitor plate is 150pf.P side and the sensing diaphragm 08/03/10 51 .P side and the sensing diaphragm C2 is the capacitance between L. The process pressure is thus expressed as: P = K (C1 – C2 / C1 + C2) Where: P is the process differential pressure K is the constant C1 is the capacitance between H.

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM SENSOR DEMODULATOR CURRENT DETECTOR + CURRENT LIMITER TEST OSCILLATOR + _ SIGNAL OSC CNTR AMP CURR CONTROL AMP VOLTAGE REGULATOR CURRENT CONTROL 52 08/03/10 .

WELDED SEALS ISOLATING DIAPHRAGM SENSING DIAPHRAGM OIL FILL RIGID INSULATION CAPACITOR PLATES LEAD WIRES 08/03/10 53 .

LEVEL MEASUREMENTS BY Anshul Jain 54 Management Trainee (Instr) 08/03/10 .

LEVEL MEASUREMENTS  INTRODUCTION: Many industrial and scientific process require knowledge of the quantity of the content of tanks and other containers . In many instances it is not possible to directly view the interior. Sensors may thus be needed to detect high or low states for alarm or control use. 55 08/03/10 . for automatic control purpose or for manually read recorders. to provide proportional read out of the level with respect to the chosen datum.

Or to control the motion of a full range follower mechanism.METHODS PROVIDING FULL RANGE LEVEL MEASUREMENT  Methods used to measure or control level in a container grouped into those that can provide continuous read out through the whole range of level experienced and those that sense a small level change to operate alarms and switches. 56 08/03/10 .

LIQUID LEVEL GAGES  The liquid level gages are manufactured on four design principles for the direct external observation of the liquid level  REFLEX GAGES: The principle of the reflex glass is based on the difference in the refractive indices in the liquid and gas or in particular of water and steam. The liquid is contained within the center piece behind the sight glass which is clamped with the gage body 08/03/10 57 .

LIQUID LEVEL GAGES  TRANSPARENT GAGES: Remote reading gage – observable up to 20 meters. When necessary an illuminator is mounted on the rear side of the gage.  The liquid level is contained b/w the two sight glasses. Light rays which impinge on the surface of the liquid meniscus are reflected back to the eye if the observer. He thus sees in the gage the illuminated surface of the liquid. 08/03/10 58 .

accurately following its rises and falls.ESTABLISHED TECHNOLOGIES  Among the established technologies for the continuous level measurement. specific gravity is the physical property most commonly used to sense the level surface. 08/03/10 59 .  FLOATS: A simple float having a specific gravity in between that of the process fluid and headspace vapor will float at the level surface. An attached mechanical device read its position.

60 08/03/10 .HYDROSTATIC DEVICES  Displacers bubblers and differential pressure transmitters are all hydrostatic measuring devices. One drawback of these devices is that any change in temperature or pressure will cause a shift in the specific gravity of the liquid being measured which reduces the accuracy.

Displacers work best if there density is somewhat greater than that of the process fluid 08/03/10 61 . The change in buoyancy force on that spring is converted in to the motion. a column of solid material is suspended in a vessel. Connected to the displacer is a range with a transducer that monitors the force requires to support the displacer against the pull of gravity. This motion is then used to produce an output equal to change in the liquid level.DISPLACERS  For continuous level measurements using displacers.

Thus the level may be obtained without the liquid entering the piping or the instrument.BUBBLER TUBE METHOD  In the air purge or bubbler tube method liquid level is determined by measuring the pressure liquid to force a gas into the liquid at a point beneath the surface. An advantage is that the bubble tube method is applicable to corrosive or solid bearing liquid that can only damage an inexpensive easily replaceable pipe 62 08/03/10 .

measures overall capacitance and provides a continuous level measurement.CAPACITANCE TRANSMITTERS  Capacitance transmitters rely on the fact that process fluids generally have dielectric constant significantly different from air. overall capacitance rises proportionality. 63 08/03/10 . An electronic circuit. called a capacitance bridge. As the fluid level rises. filling more of the space between the plates.

CAPACITANCE LEVEL SENSORS BARE METAL PROBE AIR METAL TANK WALL FOR GROUND REFRENCE NON CONDUCTIVE MEDIA K<10 08/03/10 64 .

CAPACITANCE LEVEL SENSOR

INSULATED PROBE

AIR

METAL TANK WALL
08/03/10

CONDUCTIVE MEDIUM K>10
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EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
 TOF

(Time of flight) technologies operates by measuring the distance between the liquid level and a reference level somewhat near the top of the storage vessel.These differ mainly in the kind of waves used to make the measurement.Torsional waves, ultrasound, microwaves(radar), and light(lasers),have all been proven in systems for continuous liquid level measurement.
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MAGNETOSTRICTIVE LEVEL TRANSMITTERS
 Magnetostrictive

level transmitters eliminate the traditional mechanical read out systems – levers, screws, tapes, gears or racks.Instead, a torsional wave speeding along the wire is used to find the float and report its position . The float carries a permanent magnet. A sensor wire strung between a piezomagnetic sensor at the top of the vessel and a fixture attached to the bottom runs through the magnet’s center hole.
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MAGNETOSTRICTIVE LEVEL TRANSMITTER SENSOR WIRE PIEZOMAGNETIC SENSOR START PULSE 08/03/10 TORSIONAL WAVE RETURN PULSE 68 .

The sensor employ wave frequencies in the range of tens of kilohertz's. Transit times are about 6millisec/m. The speed of sound depends on the composition and temperature of gases in the head space 69 ULTRA SONIC LEVEL TRANSMITTER 08/03/10 . These devices measures the distance between the transducer and surface using the time it takes for an ultrasound pulse to travel from a transducer to the fluid surface and back.

ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR SIGNAL OUT ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER ULTRASONIC PULSE BEAM TANK WALL PROCESS FLUID 08/03/10 70 .

LASER LEVEL TRANSMITTER  These devices are designed for bulk solids. Level transmitters are ideal for use in vessels with numerous obstruction and can measure up to 1500ft. Instead of using the speed of sound here speed of light is used. For high temperature and high pressure lasers can be used with specialized sight glasses 71 08/03/10 . such as dirty sumps. and opaque liquids. liquid styrene etc. slurries. Lasers operate on the principle like that of ultrasonic level sensors.

LASER LEVEL TRANSMITTER LASER INLET 100% level 0% level 08/03/10 TO PROCESS TO PROCESS 72 .

The reflects off the fluid surface back to the source after it detects a change in dielectric constant from the vapor to the fluid.RADAR LEVEL TRANSMITTERS  Open air RADAR systems o-operate by beaming microwave downwards. A timing circuit measures the round trip time and calculate the distance to the fluid level 73 08/03/10 . from either a horn or parabolic discs located on the top of the vessel.

RADAR LEVEL SENSOR SIGNAL OUT TRANSMITTER TRANSMITTED PULSE TANK WALL WAVE GUIDE PROCES FLUID REFLECTED PULSE 08/03/10 74 .

 When a sealing fluid is used it must possess a specific gravity higher than that of liquid in the vessel 08/03/10 75 . With an open tank pressure at high pressure side of cell is measure of the liquid level.PRESSURE Tx.  These are the most popular methods of measuring liquid level and are as shown in the fig.LEVEL MEASUREMENT USING DIFF. the effect of tank pressure is nullified by piping this pressure to the opposite side of the cell. With a closed tank.

Open Tank Span = XGL Suppression = YGL+ZGs Minimum Level Y Z Tx 08/03/10 76 Maximum Level X .LEVEL MEASUREMENT USING DIFF.PRESSURE Tx.

PRESSURE Tx.LEVEL MEASUREMENT USING DIFF. Dry Outside Leg Maximum Level X Minimum Level Y Z 08/03/10 Closed Tank Span = XGL Suppression = YGL+ZGS Tx 77 .

LEVEL MEASUREMENT USING DIFF. Wet Outside Leg Maximum Level X Minimum Level Y Tx 08/03/10 78 Span = XGL Elevation = dGs .YGL D .PRESSURE Tx.

08/03/10 79 .