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INTRODUCTION AND

HISTORY OF FEDERALISM
Dr. Edwin Chinel Monares
Federalist
President, Global Zenith Research and
Consulting, Inc.
Executive Director, SAVE ME Movement, Inc.
WHAT IS GOVERNMENT?
Agency of the STATE by which
the WILL of the PEOPLE is
EXPRESSED, FORMULATED and
CARRIED OUT
WHAT ARE THE FORMS OF
GOVERNMENT?
What are the forms of
government?
According to the Number of According to the POWER According to the relationships
People Holding POLITICAL exercised by the Central between the EXECUTIVE
POWER Government POWER and LEGISLATIVE
POWER
1. MONARCHY Political 1. UNITARY a system of 1. PRESIDENTIAL Adopts the
power is exercised by the government by which the SEPARATION OF POWERS
King/Queen/Monarch central government is between the EXECUTIVE and
a) Absolute Monarchy ULTIMATELY SUPREME and any the LEGISLATIVE branches of
b) Constitutional or administrative divisions the government
Limited Monarchy exercise only powers that the
2. ARISTOCRACY/OLIGARCHY central government chooses 2. PARLIAMENTARY Adopts
Political power is exercised to delegate (Devolution in the the FUSION OF POWERS
by the PRIVILEGED FEW. Philippines, RA 7160) between the EXECUTIVE and
the LEGISLATIVE branches of
the government
3. DEMOCRACY Political 2.FEDERAL - a system of 3. SEMI-PARLIAMENTARY/
power is exercised by the government that DIVIDE UP PRESIDENTIAL Adopts the
MANY POWER between a strong BALANCE OF POWERS between
a) Direct Democracy national government and the Head of State and the
b) Indirect/Representati smaller local governments Head of Government.
ve or Republican
Democracy
What is The present form of
Philippine government?
According to the Number of According to the POWER According to the relationships
People Holding POLITICAL exercised by the Central between the EXECUTIVE
POWER Government POWER and LEGISLATIVE
POWER
3. DEMOCRACY Political 1. UNITARY a system of 1. PRESIDENTIAL Adopts the
power is exercised by the government by which the SEPARATION OF POWERS
MANY central government is between the EXECUTIVE and
a) Direct Democracy ULTIMATELY SUPREME and any the LEGISLATIVE branches of
b) Indirect/Representati administrative divisions the government
ve or Republican exercise only powers that the
Democracy central government chooses
to delegate (Devolution in the
Philippines, RA 7160)
Forms of government by selected
countries?
According to the According to the According to the
Number of People POWER exercised by relationships between
Countries Holding POLITICAL the Central the EXECUTIVE POWER
POWER Government and LEGISLATIVE
POWER
USA Democratic Federal Presidential
CANADA Monarchy Federal Parliamentary
FRANCE Democratic Unitary Semi-Presidential
GERMANY Democratic Federal Parliamentary
MALAYSIA Monarchy Federal Parliamentary
JAPAN Monarchy Unitary Parliamentary
THAILAND Monarchy Unitary Parliamentary
The pre-colonial form of
Philippine government?
According to the Number of According to the POWER According to the relationships
People Holding POLITICAL exercised by the Central between the EXECUTIVE
POWER Government POWER and LEGISLATIVE
POWER
MONARCHY Political power Balangays and PARLIAMENTARY the Council
was exercised by the Chieftain Confederation of Balangays of Elders assists the DATU /
called DATU / RAJAH (Kedatuan) RAJAH in making policies
Confederation of Madyaas
HISTORY OF FEDERALISM IN THE USA?
Articles of Confederation in 1777
Dual (Divided Sovereignty) Federalism 1789
10th Amendment to the Constitution 1791 - The
powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States,
are reserved to the States respectively, or to the
people.
HISTORY OF FEDERALISM IN THE
PHILIPPINES?
Aguinaldo and Mabini wanted the Philippine divided into three Federal
States in the drafting of the Malolos Constitution in 1899
Executive Order No. 453 on August 19, 2005 creating the Consultative
Commission headed by Dr. Abueva. The draft provided for a transition
to a parliamentary-federal government system.
Joint Resolution No. 10 (April 28, 2008) called for amending the 1987
Constitution and the eventual adoption of a federal system of
government (11 States plus Metro Manila) through Constituent
Assembly. (Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr., Edgardo Angara, Rodolfo Biazon,
Pia "Companera" Cayetano, Juan Ponce Enrile, Francis "Chiz" Escudero,
Jinggoy Estrada, Gregorio Honasan, Panfilo Lacson, Francis Pangilinan,
Ramon "Bong" Revilla, Manuel "Manny" Villar)
House Concurrent Resolution No. 15 (May 7, 2008) was in support of the
Senates Joint Resolution No. 10 but included constitutional convention
as the mode to revise the constitution.
What are the Stages to A federal
Philippines?
1. Approval of Concurrent Resolution by the House
of Representatives and the Senate to Revise the
Constitution either by Constitutional Convention
or Constituent Assembly.
2. Drafting of the Proposed Constitution by the
ConCon or ConAss and the Consultation Process
3. Submission of the Draft Proposed Constitution
to the People for Ratification via a Plebiscite
4. If YES prevails, the transition and the election
under the new constitution
Methods of federalism?
American Method Powers of the central government are
written down and the remaining powers know as the
residuary powers are given to the provinces. The idea is to
make the center weak and the provinces strong.
Canadian Method Powers of the provinces are written
down in the constitution and residuary powers are given to
the federal government. The idea is to make the center
strong.
Indian Method Three lists are drawn. One contains the
powers of the federal government called the Federal Lists.
Similarly there is the Provincial List and then there are third
list called concurrent list containing the powers which can
be exercised by both the governments.
Whats In it For Me (WIFM)
in Federalism
Will federalism solve the problem in
education?
Will federalism solve the problem
concerning agriculture and fishery?
Will federalism address the issue of
disaster risk reduction and climate
change?
Will federalism solve the problem of
pollution on all fronts and environmental
degradation?
Will federalism solve public health
issues, nutrition and sanitation?
Will federalism solve the problem of
the vulnerable sectors (IP, Seniors,
PWDs, Single Parents, Potentially
Neglected Children, etc)?
Will federalism solve the problem in
Muslim Mindanao and Insurgency?
Will federalism solve traffic?
Will federalism solve corruption?
Will federalism solve peace and order
problems, i.e., crimes and drugs
Will federalism solve injustice -
justice delayed.
Will federalism solve transport
problems?
Will federalism solve unemployment
and poverty?
For change to be
permanent, it must start
with us and in us.
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!