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Research Title:
Presented by: Ir. Muhammad Syukri Imran

Supervised by: A.P. Dr. Azhaili Baharun

Co Supervised by: A.P. Dr. Siti Halipah Ibrahim


1. Introduction and Problem Statement

2. Research Objectives

3. Research Methodology

4. Results

5. Conclusion
The Big Picture

Climate change and energy conservation has an impact on the way we use
energy globally and locally.
The Prime Minister of Malaysia made a promise in United Nation Climate Change
Conference (Copenhagen, 2009) to reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2020
compared to 2005 levels.
Launched the National Green Technology Policy in 2009 to promote the use of
renewable energy and adoption of energy efficiency in sustainable
Strategies include RDIC in creating new technologies, techniques and
applications of green technology.
Four key areas are the energy, building, water & waste management and
transportation sector.
Field of Research
The main agenda of this research is the development of sustainable and low energy
building cooling system.

The retrofit consists of passive and active element to provide building cooling which
integrates natural heat sink source and active system such as radiative heat
exchangers (Figure 1).

Fig 1. Schematic diagram of the sustainable and low energy building retrofit
Problem Statement
Building cooling rely heavily on air conditioning system which
consumes great amount of energy.
The research focuses on a passive cooling method as well as low
energy cooling solution while maintaining the thermal condition of the
building to an acceptable level.
Previous study by Azhaili et al. (2011) through computer simulation
focused on the night sky as heat sink source and its impact on the
building thermal comfort.
However more data was needed to address a few other important
Therefore this research is necessary to gather empirical evidence of the
viability of the system as well as to evaluate the long-term system
performance and its energy saving opportunity.
Research Objectives

The objectives are:

1. To assess the performance of the indoor radiant cooling device in a test room integrated with the
nocturnal/ night sky heat exchanger.
2. To identify the thermal comfort level and energy savings performance of several building models
fitted with such system by using building simulation software.
3. To validate the building simulation software used in the study.
4. To determine the effect of combining indoor radiant cooling with another passive cooling device
such as earth tube heat exchanger (ETHE) to enhance thermal comfort.
5. To establish a design guideline for the application of the nocturnal cooling device with the indoor
radiant cooling system.
Research Methodology


Fig 2. Research Methodology Diagram

Experimental work

Fig 4. Night sky heat

exchanger to cool water

Fig 6. Test room fitted with

Fig 3.Schematic of a night cooling loop radiant wall and ceiling
Fig 5. Cold thermal storage panels
and indoor radiant cooling loop
Results: Test Room Retrofit Findings

Table 1. Radiative cooling system

performance at different cooling mode during
critical hour between 3 pm and 7 pm (hottest
hour in the test room)
Cooling mode Base case Test room Maximum
temperature temperature Temperature
Ceiling only 29.9C-30.0C 1.9C
Wall and 30.2C -32.0C
ceiling 26.5C-26.8C 4.0C

Fig 7. Graphical representation of test room thermal

condition for a given clothing insulation and a metabolic
rate value.
Fig 8. Combined ceiling and wall radiative cooling test conducted on 27th July 2016
(sample of multiple test run)
Computer simulation findings: The thermal comfort level and energy savings
performance of a few building model fitted with radiant and hybrid (Radiant + ETHE)

Fig 9. Resulting annual operative temperature by hybrid system in a low-income house

Computer simulation findings: The thermal comfort level and energy savings
performance of a few building model fitted with radiant and hybrid (Radiant + ETHE)

Fige 10. Hourly operative temperature of a low income house

Table 2. Comparison of energy consumption between a radiant system and a conventional air cooling
% of conventional air
Electrical Yearly operational
Cooling system conditioning operating Saving Remark
energy (kWh) cost (RM)*
Low Conventional air cond Cooling operation from
income system 2182 654.00 - - morning until midnight
house Radiant cooling with
Cooling operation from
(40 sqm) free night cooled water 209 62.00 10% 90% morning until midnight

Annual electrical
Yearly operation Operation cost from
Cooling system energy Saving Remark
Semi (kWh)
cost (RM)* AC system (%)
Detached Conventional air Cooling operation from
house conditioning 5263 1578.00 - - morning until midnight
Radiant cooling with free Cooling operation from
(82 sqm) night cooled water 979 294.00 19 % 81 % morning until midnight

Annual electrical
Yearly operation Operation cost from
Cooling system energy Saving Remark
Outpatient cost (RM)* AC system (%)
clinic Conventional air Cooling operation from
conditioning 41908 12,572.00 - - 8am to 6pm
Radiant cooling with free Cooling operation from
(8200 sqm) night cooled water 11,715 3,514.00 28 % 72 % 8am to 6pm
Table 3. Calculated cooling energy savings for hybrid system in relative to
conventional air cooling system
Annual cooling requirement in
Building type Cooling system energy comparison to
consumption, kWh conventional
Air Cond 3394 - -
Low income house
Hybrid 646 19% 81%
Air Cond 7991 - -
Semi D residential house
Hybrid 2726 34% 66%
Air Cond 91579
Outpatient clinic building
Hybrid 27315 30% 70%
An alternative to the conventional building cooling system using radiative cooling and night cooled
water is possible in a climatic condition like Malaysia.
Application of the radiant system has been able to provide acceptable thermal condition nearly
100% of the time throughout the year according to the relevant thermal comfort standard.
The electrical energy consumption by the radiant system as a stand-alone or hybrid system is less
than one-third of a conventional air cooling system.

The major implication of this research finding is that with the available design tool as well as the
prototype modular PVC based tubing radiant cooling panel; it opens up multiple opportunities to
building owners, architects, building designers and other building industry players. Not only it
promotes efficient energy utilization in line with Malaysia national energy policy but will also
enhance economic development as well.
Thank You

Q&A session

Cold energy thermal storage and

associated piping work
Outdoor heat exchanger (roof)
forming part of the night cooling loop
Indoor heat exchanger
(horizontal and vertical) within
the indoor radiant cooling loop
PCV based radiant cooling
panel prototype
Paper title Journal Host Remark
Investigation of Ground Temperature for Heat Sink Application in Kuching, Journal of Civil Engineering, Science
1 UNIMAS (1) April
Sarawak and Technology (JCEST)
Investigation of Earth Tube System Application in Low Income Building in Journal of Engineering Science and Taylor's (JESTEC)
Kuching, Sarawak Technology (JESTEC) University 12 (6) 2017
Trans tech
Nocturnal Cooling of Water as Free Cooling Source for Building Indoor Applied Mechanics and Materials 833,April
3 Publication,
Radiant Cooling in Malaysian Climate Journal 2016
Vol 26, p
Trans tech
Renewable Night Cooled Chill Water Source for Energy Efficient Indoor Journal of Engineering and Research 86-
4 Publication,
Radiant Cooling Africa (JERA) 98,October
Renewable Indoor Radiant Cooling and Earth Tube Heat Exchanger 7 (1) June
5 Journal of Building Performance (JBP) UKM
Hybrid for Thermal Comfort Improvement 2016
Performance of Alternative Low Cost Radiant Cooling Panel in Malaysia International Journal of Applied Research India 11(11) June
Climate Application Engineering Research (IJAER) Publications 2016
Night Cooled Radiant Cooling Panel for Sustainable Building Cooling Journal of Construction in Developing
7 USM and due for
Mode in Malaysia Countries
Research Accepted
Bioclimatic Home Cooling Design for Acceptable Thermal Comfort in Malaysian Construction Research
8 Institute of and due for
Malaysian Climate Journal (MCRJ)
Malaysia publication
Conference papers

Nocturnal Cooling of Water as Free Cooling Source for 8th International UNIMAS STEM
1 UNIMAS October
Building Indoor Radiant Cooling in Malaysian Climate Engineering Conference (ENCON) 2015
Global 25-26
Evaluation Of Low Cost Radiant Cooling Panel In A Test MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACADEMIC
2 Illuminator August
Room With Passively Cooled Water RESEARCH & GLOBAL INNOVATION
s 2016
(MARGI- 2016) Beijing
Bioclimatic home cooling design for acceptable thermal 9th International UNIMAS STEM
3 UNIMAS October
comfort in Malaysian climate Engineering Conference (ENCON) 2016


1 Gold Medal Intex 2016, UNIMAS UNIMAS

2 Best Paper Award Winner MARGI 2016, Beijing Global Illuminators
3 Silver Medal ITEX 2017 ,Kuala Lumpur MINDS Malaysia