22 views

Uploaded by Yasser Bahaa

Multistage Compressor Design

- ME_F341_1270
- Stationary Gas Turbines Guidance Document and Checklist
- 02 Ms5001 Description
- compressor washing
- Axial induction factor evaluation and pressure distribution on wind turbine blades
- Analysis of Radial Compressor Options For
- Basic Equation of Energy in Fluid Machines
- AsmePTC Centrifugal Compressor
- Axial Fan Testing Equipments
- Thesis in Machine Design
- 10.5923.j.mechanics.20120201.03
- Cfm Engine Description
- Carpeta de Trabajos 2010-2012 Pablo Arizpe
- Failure Analysis of 7500 HP Motor
- Doc_27_01_E
- Axial Compressor
- Anthony J. Cali v. Eastern Airlines, Inc., 442 F.2d 65, 2d Cir. (1971)
- Design Optimization of an Axial Flow Compressor for Industrial Gas Turbine
- High Performance Retrofit
- i.g.v Openning and Closing Curve

You are on page 1of 63

Motivation: Market research has shown the need for a low-cost turbojet

with a take-off thrust of 12,000N. Preliminary studies will show that a

single-spool all-axial flow machine is OK, using a low pressure ratio and

modest turbine inlet temperatures to keep cost down.

Problem: Design a suitable compressor operating at sea-level static

conditions with

compressor pressure ratio = 4.15

air mass flow = 20 kg/s

turbine inlet temperature = 1100K

Assume:

Pamb = 1.01 bar, Tamb = 288 K Utip = 350 m/s

Inlet rhub / rtip = 0.5 Compressor has no inlet guide vanes

Mean radius is constant kJ

Polytropic efficiency = 0.90 R 0.287

kg 0 K

Constant axial velocity design

kJ

No swirl at exit of compressor c p 1.005 0

kg K

1.4 1

Steps in the Meanline Design Process

Steps

1) Choice of rotational speed and annulus dimensions

2) Determine number of stages, using assumed efficiency

3) Calculate air angles for each stage at the mean radius -

meanline analysis

4) Determine variation of the air angles from root to tip - radial

equilibrium

5) Investigate compressibility effects

cascade data or CFD

7) Check on efficiency previously assumed

8) Estimate off-design performance

2

Compressor Meanline Design Process

Given PR p0 , T0 m

p T0in turbine Cx constant

Assume 1 0 U T 350 mps

Steps

1) Choose Cx1 and rH/rT to satisfy m and keep Mtip low and define

rT

2) Select N from rT and UT

3) Compute T0 across compressor and all exit flow conditions

[keep rm same through engine]

4) Estimate T0 for first stage from inlet condtions [Euler and de

Haller]

5) Select number of stages T0comp / T0stage

6) ..

7) ..

3

Step 1- Choice of Rotational Speed & Annulus

Dimensions

Construct table of inlet / exit properties and parametric study of

c1x vs. tip Mach number [next chart]

Chose c1x from spread sheet to avoid high tip Mach numbers

and stresses

Calculate 1 from inlet static pressure and temperature

With mass flow = 20 kg/s and rhub/rtip = 0.5

r 2 rtip2

m

m ACx rtip2 1 hub Cx r 2

rtip Cx 1 hub

rtip

2 rtip Wtip

N M tip where Wtip U tip

2

Cx2

U tip RT 4

Calculate Tip Radius and Rotational Speed

Drive choice by compressor inlet conditions

Cx T1 (degK) P1 (bar) P1 (kg/m2) rho1(kg/m3) rtip (m) rhub/rtip N rev/sec N (rpm) W1tip M1tip

100 283.0226 0.950214 9692.1879 1.17103756 0.254398876 0.4 218.9643 13137.86 364.0055 1.079401

0.261089548 0.45 213.3531 12801.19

0.269230464 0.5 206.9018 12414.11

0.279178986 0.55 199.5289 11971.73

0.291450527 0.6 191.1277 11467.66

150 276.8009 0.879091 8966.7278 1.10773699 0.213568228 0.4 260.8266 15649.6 380.7887 1.141789

0.219185056 0.45 254.1427 15248.56

0.226019368 0.5 246.458 14787.48 Pick this

0.234371166 0.55 237.6755 14260.53

0.244673143 0.6 227.6681 13660.09

200 268.0905 0.786018 8017.3822 1.0226367 0.192497422 0.4 289.3767 17362.6 403.1129 1.228207

0.19756009 0.45 281.9612 16917.67

0.203720123 0.5 273.4353 16406.12

0.211247926 0.55 263.6915 15821.49

0.220533502 0.6 252.5887 15155.32

250 256.8913 0.676972 6905.1159 0.91916112 0.181607916 0.4 306.7282 18403.69 430.1163 1.338742

0.186384191 0.45 298.868 17932.08

0.192195753 0.5 289.8309 17389.86

0.199297711 0.55 279.5028 16770.17

0.208058005 0.6 267.7344 16064.06

5

Compute Root (Hub) and Mean Radius

rhub

rhub rtip 0.5 0 .2262 0.1131 m

rtip

and

rmean 0.1697 m

2 r1 N

U1 266.6 m / s

60

6

Compressor Meanline Design

Given: m, Utip, p01, T01, Pr, poly and c1x chosen to avoid high tip

Mach numbers and stresses

C 2

T1 1 p1

T1 T01 1x

p1 p01 1

2c p T01 RT1

1/ 2

Select RH/RT and Utip (N)

m for turbine issues

RT

R 2

1c1x 1 R

H

T

R 1 U tip

RH RT H Rm RH RT N

RT 2 2 RT

1/ 2 Ctip

Ctip C12x U tip

2

M tip

RT1

1/ 2

7

Compressor Meanline Design

Compressor exit (2)

Cx2

p02 p01 Pr T02 T01 Pr poly 1 T2 T02

2c p

T2 1 p2 m

p2 p02 2 A2

T01 RT2 2C x

A2

blade height at exit h RT RH

2 Rm

8

Compute Compressor Exit Conditions

Compute Compressor Exit Total Temperature

( 1)

P02 p

T02 T01

P01

so that T02 = 288.0 (4.15)0.3175 = 452.5 0K,

T0 compressor= 452.5 - 288.0 = 164.5 0K and other conditions:

C2 1502

T2 T02 452.5 441.3 0

K

2c p 2 1.005 x10

3

T2 (

3.5

1)

441.3

P2 P02 4.19 3.838 bar

T02 452.5

kg

3.838bar 10200 2

2

P2

m bar 3.03 kg / m3

RT2 kJ kg m 0

0.287 102 441.3 K 9

kg 0 K kJ

Compute Compressor Exit Conditions

Exit area, hub and tip radius:

m 20

A2 0.044 m 2

2Cx 3.031150

A2 0.044

r rtip rhub 0.0413 m

2 rmean 2 0.1697

r 0.0413

rtip rmean 0.1697 0.1903 m

2 2

r 0.0413

rhub rmean 0.1697 0.1491 m

2 2

10

Step 2 - Estimate the Number of Stages

From Eulers Turbine Equation:

U (CU 2 CU 1 ) UCx (tan 2 tan 1 )

T0stage

cP cp

and (tan 2 tan 1 ) (tan 1 tan 2 )

CU Cx tan( ) WU Cx tan( ) 2 r1 N

U1 266.6 m / s

60

With no inlet guide vane (Cu1=0, 1 = 0, and Wu1= -U), the

relative flow angle is:

U 266.6

tan( 1 ) 1 60.640

Cx 150

Cx 150

W1 305.9 m / s

cos( 1 ) cos(60.64) 11

Maximum Diffusion Across Compressor Blade-Row

There are various max. diffusion criteria. Every engine company has

its own rules. Liebleins rule is one example. Another such rule is

the de Haller criterion that states:

Note that de Hallers criterion is simpler than

W

0.72 2 1.0 Liebleins rule since it does not involve relative

circumferential velocities or solidity. To first order,

W1 this is same as a 0<Dfactor<~0.4. Could use

Liebleins rule but would have to iterate.

This criteria can also take the form of max. pressure ratio with

correlations for relative total pressure loss across the blade row as a

function of Mach number, incidence, thickness/chord, etc. Taking the

maximum diffusion (de Haller), leads to:

W2 0.72 W1 0.72 305.9 220 m / s

C x 150

cos( 2 ) 2 47.010

W2 220

U (CU 2 CU 1 ) 266.6 150 (tan(60.64) tan(47.01))

T0stage 3

280

K

cP 1.005 x10 12

Choose Number of Stages

Given poly and T0out/T0in T0 = T0out -T0in, so the number of

stages is T0 compressor / T0stage = 164.5/28 = 5.9

conservative (account for losses, ie. a<1),

Choose 7 stages

13

Compressor Meanline Design

Develop estimate of the number of stages

Assuming Cx = constant Cx

T0 stage tan 1 tan 2

cp

for axial inflow tan1 = Um/Cx

V1 = Cx / cos 1

de Haller criterion (like Dfactor) V2/V1 0.72

cos 2 = Cx/V2

neglect work done factor (=1) (T0)stage = .

(T0)stage Nstages T0out -T0in

Select Nstages and select nearly constant set of (T0)stage

Assume that continual blockage buildup due to boundary layers reduces

work done, therefore

stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14

0.98 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.83

Compressor Meanline Design

Develop Stage by Stage Design

C = absolute velocity, CU = absolute velocity in U direction

Um

tan 1

cx

c p T0

Um

U m CU U m

tan 2

cx cx

W2 C2 Constant Cx

C1

W1

U

15

Step 3 - Calculate Velocity Triangles of 1st Stage

at Mean Radius

So from Euler Turbine Equation:

U (CU 2 CU 1 ) UCx (tan 2 tan 1 )

T0stage 23.5

cP cp

We can re-calculate the relative angles for the 1st stage:

1 0

c p T0 stage 1.005 x103 (23.5)

tan 2 2 30.57 0

UCx 266.6 150

U 266.6

tan( 1 ) 1 60.640

Cx 150

W2

which leads to : 0.76 (acceptable according to de Haller criterion)

W1

16

Velocity Components and Reaction of 1st Stage

The velocity components for the 1st stage (rotor) are therefore:

C x 150 m / s C x 2 150 m / s

U 1 266.6 m / s U 2 266.6 m / s

WU 1 U 1 266.6 m / s WU 2 CU 2 U 2 178.0 m / s

W1 C x2 WU21 305.9 m / s W2 C x2 WU22 232.77 m / s

R 0.836

2U 2 (266.6)

(which is high for typica l designs)

17

Velocity Components for Stator of 1st Stage

Now consider the stator of the 1st stage. The h0 of the stator is

zero so from Eulers eqn.:

to stator is absolute air angle coming out of rotor and, exit

absolute angle of stator is inlet absolute angle of rotor:

CU 1 CU 3 0

Cx 3 Cx 2

U 0 for stator, so WU 3 0

2 stator 2 stator 1 rotor

18

Velocity Triangles of 1st Stage Using Repeating Stage

Assumption

Notice that the velocity triangles

1=0 Cx1=150 are not symmetric between the

W=C-U

rotor and stator due to the high

1=60.64 reaction design of the rotor. The

rotor is doing most of the static

pressure (temperature) rise.

W1=305.9 U=- WU1 =266.6

3=60.64

C2=174.21

2=30.57 CU2=88.6 U=266.6

W3=305.9

Cx2=150

ROTOR U=266.6

2=49.89

WU2=178.0

W2=232.77

19

Stage Design Repeats for Stages 2-7

stay the same for stages 2-7, provided:

mean radius stays constant

hub/tip radius ratio and annulus area at the exit of each

stage varies to account for compressibility (density variation)

stage temperature rise stays constant

reaction stays constant

assumption, we have more flexibility in controlling

each stage reaction and temperature rise.

20

Non- Repeating Stage Design Strategy

Instead of taking a constant temperature rise

T0stage 23.5

across each stage, we could reduce stage temperature rise for first

and last stages of the compressor and increase it for the middle

stages. This strategy is typically used to:

reduce loading of first stage to allow for a wide variation in angle

of attack due to various aircraft flight conditions

reduce turning required in last stage to provide for zero swirl flow

going into combustor

With this in mind, lets change the work distribution in the

compressor to:

1 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7

21

1st Stage Design for Non-Repeating Stages

1 0

c p T0 stage 1.005 x103 (20)

tan 2 2 26.68 0

UCx 266.6 150

U 266.6

tan( 1 ) 1 60.640 (same as before)

Cx 150

W2

which leads to : 0.79 (still acceptable , i.e. 0.72)

W1

(also note the reduced turning due to the reduced work requiremen t)

22

Velocity Components and Reaction of 1st

Stage with Non-Repeating Stages

The new velocity components for the 1st stage (rotor) are

therefore:

C x 2 150 m / s

C x 150 m / s

CU 2 C x 2 tan 2 75.38 m / s

CU 1 0.0

C1 150 m / s C 2 C x2 CU2 2 167.87 m / s

U 1 266.6 m / s U 2 266.6 m / s

WU 1 U 1 266.6 m / s WU 2 CU 2 U 2 191.22 m / s

W1 C W

2

x

2

U1 305.9 m / s W2 C x2 WU22 243.03 m / s

Wu 2 Wu1 266.6 190.31

R 0.859

2U 2 (266.6)

with the assumption that C 3 C1 . (note that the reaction increased)

23

Design of 1st Stage Stator

change, T0 = 20 is:

P 0.9 (1.4 )

P02 T02 ( 1)

288 20 .4

1.236

P01 T01 288

288+20=308 0K

When we designed with repeating stages, 3= 1.

But now we have the flexibility to change 3.

24

Design of the 1st Stage Stator & the 2nd Stage

Change 3 so that there is swirl going into the second stage and

thereby reduce the reaction of our second stage design.

Design the second stage to have a reaction of 0.7, then from the

equation for reaction:

Cx

Rstage 2 (tan 1 tan 2 )

2U

And if we design the second stage to a temperature rise of 25 0,

the Eulers equation:

UCx

T0 stage 2 (tan 1 tan 2 )

cp

1 stage2 57.310

2 stage2 42.92 0 25

Design of 1st Stage Stator & 2nd Stage Rotor

Note that this is same as specifying E, n, and R as in

one of your homeworks and computing the angles.

And absolute flow angles of second stage can be found

from

U

tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2

Cx

So

2 stage2 40.27 0

the 1st stage stator and the second stage rotor

26

Velocity Triangles of 1st Rotor Using Non-

Repeating Stage Assumption

W=C-U not symmetric due to the high

1=60.64 reaction design of the rotor. Also,

there is swirl now leaving the stator.

STATOR

3=12.36 Cx3=150

CU3=32.87

3=57.31

C2=167.87 U=266.6

Cx2=150

ROTOR 2=51.89 U=266.6

WU3=233.7

WU2=191.2 7

2

W2=242.03

27

Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage Rotor

done in same manner as 1st stage stator and 2nd stage

rotor.

degrees for 3rd stage will lead to increased work by

stage but a more evenly balanced rotor/stator design.

The velocity triangle of the stator will be a mirror of the

rotor.

28

Class 12 - The 7-Stage Compressor Design So

Far Has Lead to 1st and 2nd Stages:

1 0 26.68 12.36 60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248

2 12.36 40.27 57.31 -42.92 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962

3

4

5

6

7

1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069

2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 0.7 1.279 1.081

3

4

5

6

7

1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.248 1.248 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060143 1.08932261 276.806 293.9799 296.2683

2 1.248 1.596 1.596 308 333 333 1.089323 1.295942 296.2683 313.7723

3

4

5

6

7

29

Design of 2nd Stage Stator

The pressure ratio for the 2nd stage design with a temperature

change, T0 = 25 is:

P 0.9 (1.4 )

P02 T02 ( 1)

308 25 .4

1.279

P01 T01 308

provides for the desired Reaction and Work in 3rd stage using a

similar technique as previously used.

30

Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage

We can change 3 so that there is swirl going into third stage and

thereby reduce reaction of second stage design. If we design third

stage to have a reaction of 0.5, then from equation for reaction:

Cx

Rstage 3 (tan 1 tan 2 )

2U

And if we design third stage to a temperature rise of 25 0, Eulers

equation:

UCx

T0 stage 3 (tan 1 tan 2 )

cp

Which can be solved simultaneously for 1and 2

1 stage3 50.26 0

2 stage3 29.88 0 31

Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage Rotor

And the absolute flow angles of the second stage can be found

from U

tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2

Cx

So

1 stage3 29.88 0 3 stage2 1 stage3 50.26 0

2 stage3 50.26 0 2 stage3 29.88 0

Note the symmetry in angles for 3rd stage due to the 50%

reaction !

stage stator and the third stage rotor. Check the de Haller

number for the 3rd stage rotor:

W2 cos 1

.74 which is OK

W1 cos 2 32

Velocity Triangles of 2nd Stage

C3=153.56

CU3=32.87

3=57.31

U=266.6 C3=172.99

W3=277.73

STATOR

3=50.26

WU3=233.7 U=266.6

7 C2=196.59

W3=234.63

2=40.27 CU2=127.07

ROTOR Cx2=150

U=266.6 WU3=180.4

2=42.92 2

W2=204.86 WU2=139.5

3

not symmetric for the second

33

stage due to 70%reaction design but

will be for 3rd stage (50% reaction).

Summary of Conditions for Stages 1 - 3

STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1

1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248

2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962

3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.483867 0.656279

4

5

6

7

1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069

2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081

3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075

4

5

6

7

1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.248 1.248 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060143 1.08932261 276.806 293.9799 296.2683

2 0.483867 0.656279 1.248 1.596 1.596 308 333 333 1.089323 1.295942 1.35979317 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117

3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596 2.005 2.005 333 358 358 1.359793 1.517323 1.72789178 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117

4

5

6

7

34

Design of Stages 4-6

essentially be repeats of stage 3 since all have a 50%

reaction and a temperature rise of 25 degrees.

and static temperature of these stages will increase as

you go back through the machine.

compensated for by changing the spanwise radius

difference (area) between the hub and tip (i.e. hub/tip

radius ratio)

35

Velocity Triangles of Stages 3 - 6

C3=172.99

U=266.6 STATOR

3=50.26

W3=234.63 U=266.6

WU3=180.4 W3=234.63

2 C2=234.63

CU2=180.42 WU3=180.4

2=50.26 2

ROTOR Cx2=150

U=266.6

2=29.88

WU2=86.18

W2=172.99

are symmetric due to the

36

50%reaction design.

Summary of Conditions for Stages 1 - 6

STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1

1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248

2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962

3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.483867 0.656279

4 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.465906 0.631918

5 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.449807 0.610083

6 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.435269 0.590365

7

1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069

2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081

3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075

4 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.620713 0.457644 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.237 1.07

5 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.599981 0.442359 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.22 1.065

6 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.581197 0.42851 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.206 1.061

7

1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.24836 1.24836 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060449 1.08963684 276.806 293.9799 296.2683

2 0.483867 0.656279 1.24836 1.596652 1.596652 308 333 333 1.089637 1.296472 1.36034905 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117

3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596652 2.005395 2.005395 333 358 358 1.360349 1.517622 1.72823259 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117

4 0.449807 0.610083 2.005395 2.480674 2.480674 358 383 383 1.728233 1.913086 2.15910202 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117

5 0.435269 0.590365 2.480674 3.026423 3.026423 383 408 408 2.159102 2.372762 2.65703431 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117

6 0.422056 0.572443 3.026423 3.649866 3.649866 408 433 433 2.657034 2.903398 3.22898653 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117

7

37

Stage 7 Design

So going into stage 7, we have P01= 3.65 and T01 = 433. The

requirements for our 7-stage compressor design we have

P0 exit = 4.15 * 1.01 = 4.19 bar

T0 exit = 288.0 (4.15)0.3175 = 452.5 0K

T02 452.5

1.045 or T0 452.5 433 19.5

T01 433

0.9 1.4

P02

1.045 0.4

1.149

P01

38

Stage 7 Design

If we assume a Reaction = 0.5 for the 7th stage:

Cx

R stage7 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 0.5

2U

U Cx

T0 stage7 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 19.5

cp

Then, solving equations:

1stage7 48.590

2 stage 7 32.770

39

Stage 7 Design

And from: U

tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2

Cx

2 stage7 48.59 0

Note that the absolute angles going into stage 7 have changed

from those computed for stages 3 - 6 and that the exit absolute

air angle leaving the compressor is 32.770. This means that a

combustor pre-diffuser is required to take all of the swirl out of

the flow prior to entering the combustor.

40

Summary of Compressor Design

STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1

1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248

2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962

3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.483867 0.656279

4 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.465906 0.631918

5 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.449807 0.610083

6 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.435269 0.590365

7 32.77 48.59 32.77 -48.59 -32.77 -48.59 150 96.56 178.39 226.78 -170.08 0.435723 0.553917

1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069

2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081

3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075

4 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.620713 0.457644 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.237 1.07

5 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.599981 0.442359 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.22 1.065

6 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.581197 0.42851 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.206 1.061

7 170.08 226.78 178.39 -96.56 0.547558 0.430721 96.56 178.39 226.78 -170.08 0.5 1.149 1.045

1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.24836 1.24836 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060449 1.08963684 276.806 293.9799 296.2683

2 0.483867 0.656279 1.24836 1.596652 1.596652 308 333 333 1.089637 1.296472 1.36034905 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117

3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596652 2.005395 2.005395 333 358 358 1.360349 1.517622 1.72823259 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117

4 0.449807 0.610083 2.005395 2.480674 2.480674 358 383 383 1.728233 1.913086 2.15910202 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117

5 0.435269 0.590365 2.480674 3.026423 3.026423 383 408 408 2.159102 2.372762 2.65703431 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117

6 0.422056 0.572443 3.026423 3.649866 3.649866 408 433 433 2.657034 2.903398 3.22898653 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117

7 0.425883 0.541407 3.649866 4.193696 4.193696 433 452.5 452.5 3.20353 3.42041 3.70197943 417.1677 426.9133 436.6677

41

Hub and Tip Radii for Each Blade Row

From the pressure and temperature, we can compute the

density from the equation of state:

STAGE P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3 1 2 3

1 0.879088 1.060449 1.089637 276.806 293.9799 296.2683 1.10656 1.25687 1.281488

2 1.089637 1.296472 1.360349 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117 1.281488 1.439682 1.490009

3 1.360349 1.517622 1.728233 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117 1.490009 1.599425 1.755031

4 1.728233 1.913086 2.159102 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117 1.755031 1.874463 2.043674

5 2.159102 2.372762 2.657034 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117 2.043674 2.172154 2.355046

6 2.657034 2.903398 3.228987 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117 2.355046 2.494105 2.690866

7 3.20353 3.42041 3.701979 417.1677 426.9133 436.6677 2.675693 2.791621 2.953936

42

Hub and Tip Radii for Each Blade Row

From Continuity:

m

rtip2

r 2

Cx 1 hub

rtip

we can calculate the hub and tip radii (i.e. area) at the entrance

and exit of each blade row:

m m

rtip2 rtip 0.1697

.3394 r 2 Cx (.6788)

Cx 1 tip

rtip 43

Hub & Tip Radii for All Stages of Compressor

So we get:

rotor 1 0.879088 1.01 276.806 288 0.226203 0.113197

stator 2 1.060449 1.24836 293.9799 308 0.219446 0.119954

rotor 3 1.089637 1.24836 296.2683 308 0.21849 0.12091

stator 4 1.296472 1.596652 313.7723 333 0.213129 0.126271

rotor 5 1.360349 1.596652 318.1117 333 0.211662 0.127738

stator 6 1.517622 2.005395 330.6113 358 0.208792 0.130608

rotor 7 1.728233 2.005395 343.1117 358 0.205326 0.134074

stator 8 1.913086 2.480674 355.6113 383 0.203056 0.136344

rotor 9 2.159102 2.480674 368.1117 383 0.200294 0.139106

stator 10 2.372762 3.026423 380.6113 408 0.198484 0.140916

rotor 11 2.657034 3.026423 393.1117 408 0.196249 0.143151

stator 12 2.903398 3.649866 405.6113 433 0.194769 0.144631

rotor 13 3.20353 3.649866 417.1677 433 0.193067 0.146333

stator 14 3.42041 4.193696 426.9133 452.5 0.192097 0.147303

15 3.701979 4.193696 436.6677 452.5 0.190866 0.148534

44

Conditions in Compressor

Stagnation Temperature vs. Blade Row # Temperature vs. Blade Row #

Stagnation Tem perature

500 450

450

400

Tem perature

400

350

350 T0 T

300

300

250 250

200 200

11

13

15

1

11

13

15

1

9

Blade Row # Blade Row #

5 4

Stagnation Pressure

4

3

3 Pressure

P0 2 P

2

1 1

0 0

1

9

11

13

15

11

13

15

Blade Row # Blade Row #

45

Hub & Tip Radii Distribution - Flow Path Area

0.25

0.2

Radius

0.15 rtip

0.1 rhub

0.05

0

1

11

13

15

Blade Row #

46

Spanwise Variations

Blade wheel speeds vary with radius leading to a change in

velocity triangles with span for each blade row. For instance, the

first blade row has

rhub = .1131, rmean = .1697, rtip = .2262 m and

Uhub = 177.7 , Umean = 266.6, Utip = 355.3 m/s

leading to relative flow angles:

1 hub 49.83

1 mean 60.64

1 tip 67.11

1 hub 1 mean 1 tip 0

Next, we must choose the type of radial design strategy from:

free vortex where CU r = constant (dh0/dr = 0)

constant reaction where U CU = constant

exponential where CU1 = a - (b/R) and CU2 = a + (b/R)

The exit radial pressure gradient will be different for each of the designs47

Real World Effects

3-Dimensional effects

radial equilibrium

free vortex designs

secondary flows

Tip speed limitations maximum blade stresses (later)

48

Axisymmetric Flow Analyses

F Vdv V V dA

t

Consider axisymmetric flows [ / 0 ] and steady flow [ / t 0 ]

In the radial direction,

cos s sin s rdrd Fr

r rs dt

1 centripetal force due to circumferential flow

2 force due to streamline curvature

3 force for linear acceleration along streamline

where Fr pdA r

49

Radial Equilibrium

P+dp

dr Mass = dm = r d dr

CU

P+1/2 dp P+1/2 dp

If Cr=0 and Pressure Balances

P Centrifugal Forces, and streamline

curvature effects neglected then:

r d

1 d dmCU2

p dp r dr d prd 2( p dp)dr 50

2 2 r

Simple Radial Equilibrium

So from the radial momentum equation:

1 dmCU2

p dp r dr d prd ( p dp)drd

2 r

Radial equilibrium equation

dr r

1 dp CU2 dh ds

T

dr r dr dr

is assumed to be zero, then (Simple Radial Equilibrium Equation

with Cr=0): 1 dp C 2 dh

U

dr r dr

51

Simple Radial Equilibrium

Now:

h0 h

C2

h

C x2 CU2

2 2

So that we get (vortex energy equation):

Cx CU U

dr r dr dr

CX=constant as a function of span, then:

CU 0

r dr r dr 52

Simple Radial Equilibrium

One important variations / solutions to this equation

CU d (rCU )

0

r dr

CU dCU dCU dr

or CU r constant

r dr CU r

Later we will see more general form of this equaion will lead to

another solution for forced vortex flow

CU

constant

r

53

Consider Free Vortex Design for 1st Stage Rotor

CU r = constant so that:

rmean

CUtip CUmean

rtip

rmean

CUhub CUmean

hub

r

.1697 1 58.3

CU 2 tip 75.38 58.3 2 tan 21.24 0

.2194

tip

150

.1697 106.6

CU 2 hub 75.38 106.6 2 hub tan 1 35.4

0

.12 150

54

Free Vortex Design for 1st Stage Rotor

radius (Note that it doesnt have to be !)

WU CU U

58.3 355.3

2 tip tan

1

63.2 0

150

106.6 177.7

2 hub tan 1 25.36 0

150

55

1st Stage Blade Spanwise Variations

(Free Vortex Design)

W=C-U

1=0 Cx1=150

C2h=184.02

W1m=305. 1m=60.64 Um=- WU1m =266.6

9 Ut=- WU1t =355.3 C2m=167.87

W1t=385.7 1t=67.11

2h=35.4 C2t=160.93

2m=26.68 CU2h=106.6

2t=21.24 CU2m=75.38

CU2t=58.3

Cx2=150 Uh=177.7

ROTOR

Um=266.6

W2m=242.03 2m=51.89

WU2m=191.22

W2m=332.73 2t=63.2

56

WU2t=297.0

Spanwise Variation in Reaction with Free

Vortex Design

Remember that Reaction is given by:

Cx Cx

R tan 2 tan 1 1 tan 2 tan 1

2U 2U

CU 1 CU 2 CU 1r CU 2 r

R 1 1

2U 2U m r 2 / rm2

r

where U U m and CU r constant

rm

constant

R 1

r2

If R=50% at rm, radial variation may make root too small and tip too

large for good efficiency

The free vortex design, Rh =0.7, Rm = 0.859, and Rt = 0.918 (high at

the tip !!). This is why designers sometimes move away from free

vortex design in favor of a different strategy, like constant spanwise

57

Reaction distribution or forced vortex design.

Consideration When Diverting from Free

Vortex Design

The free vortex design,

Rh =0.7,

Rm = 0.859, and

Rt = 0.918 (high at the tip !!).

Designers sometimes move away from free vortex design in favor

of a different strategy, like constant spanwise Reaction distribution

or forced vortex design.

radial equilibrium is not satisfied, some error in velocities arise

total work of stage may not deliver design intent exactly

axial velocity may not be constant across span

mass flow may not reach design intent exactly

hub and tip radii would need to be re-computed

58

Non- Free Vortex Designs

b b

CU 1 aR n and CU 2 aR n

R R

where a, b, n are constants and R r / rm

1) if n 1, reduces to free vortex design approach

Equation of motion must be rederived with C x constant

Cx21 Cx21 2 a 2 R 2 2ab ln R a 2 and

m

2a ln R a

R 1

Um Um

59

Airfoil Design

Once velocity triangles for that blade-row are established from

meanline analysis, then job remaining is to design the airfoil that

will deliver required exit velocity triangle given the inlet velocity

triangle

Loading Coefficient Gives Solidity

2Cos 2 2 C X 1

z Tan1 Tan 2

Correlations For Deviation and Loss are x CX 2

Derived from Cascade Data

Solidity and Velocity Gives Dfactor

V2 Vu1 Vu 2

Deviation D factor 1

V1 2V1

Dfactor Gives /c, Loss, and Efficiency

0.006 0.0002 e

7.5 D f

c

Loss

2 2

C x 2 cos 1

c

cos 2 x1

C cos 2

1 Cx S R 60

2

1

2 E U cos 2 2 cos 2 1

Determined kinematics and thermodynamics for

compressor

Determined radii, i.e. rh, rm, rT

shape, Nb based on Class 6 and 8 notes.

1m 60.640 2 m 51.890

Choose shape from family, e.g. DCA [double circular

arc] for supersonic tip

[t/c]tip max=3% for structure, 10% for hub, linear

variation between, [t/c]m=6.5%

61

Pick c=chord for turbulent flow, Rec > 300,000 at all

hs.

Make bigger for structure and vibration issues

Re at 50 kft about 1/5 SLTO W1c1m

Rec c1m

n1

surface to produce no shock in supersonic flow

LE t

i max 3.7 0

2 c

62

Estimate deviation from Carters rule

30

4

1* 1 i 56.94 2* 2 48.89

camber * 8.05

*

stagger

*

1 56.94 4.25 52.7

2

Set number of blades

2 rm1 2 rm1

N b1

s1m c1m

63

- ME_F341_1270Uploaded bypankazspam
- Stationary Gas Turbines Guidance Document and ChecklistUploaded byajith143420
- 02 Ms5001 DescriptionUploaded byHafiz Usman Mahmood
- compressor washingUploaded bysamil68
- Axial induction factor evaluation and pressure distribution on wind turbine bladesUploaded byVasishta Bhargava
- Analysis of Radial Compressor Options ForUploaded bymrbookani
- Basic Equation of Energy in Fluid MachinesUploaded byabhigoyal1989
- AsmePTC Centrifugal CompressorUploaded byMarco Quintana
- Axial Fan Testing EquipmentsUploaded byVijay Shet
- 10.5923.j.mechanics.20120201.03Uploaded byMô Dion
- Cfm Engine DescriptionUploaded bySandeep Kumar Meena
- Doc_27_01_EUploaded byFelipe Miguel Sánchez Clements
- Thesis in Machine DesignUploaded byJames Mccullum
- Carpeta de Trabajos 2010-2012 Pablo ArizpeUploaded byPabloAlejandroArizpe
- Axial CompressorUploaded bySumiran Manghani
- Design Optimization of an Axial Flow Compressor for Industrial Gas TurbineUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Failure Analysis of 7500 HP MotorUploaded bygusgif
- Anthony J. Cali v. Eastern Airlines, Inc., 442 F.2d 65, 2d Cir. (1971)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- High Performance RetrofitUploaded byJose Fernando Barrera Valderrama
- i.g.v Openning and Closing CurveUploaded byHussam Safaa
- Gea Wiegand MVRUploaded byPrashant Bahirgonde
- Invariant Coordinate Systems for Compressor ControlUploaded bysurawutwijarn
- Engineering20100800013_23516688Uploaded byjamalhalim5
- Long Cased Axial Fan Approved OneUploaded byRaheem_ka
- Time Domain Sound Spectrum Measurements in Ducted Axial Fan Under Stall Region at Throttle Position 4 CmUploaded byIAEME Publication
- CTB158.pdfUploaded bysorenarya
- Comp778Uploaded byÄbdur Ráhmán
- MODULE I HMUploaded byAnilkumar Gopi
- BM11_00_TOC_Welcome.pptUploaded byDavid Vidales
- Compressor Stall Detection AlgorithmUploaded bysubbujjiv

- Fatigue ANalysis SN CurveUploaded byM Rafiq Raja
- sheet6Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Basic Design Principles for Gas Turbine CombustorUploaded byLeela Prasad
- Structure analysis of boltsUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- GasDynamic SubroutinesUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Nrea Taher Egypt Wind 20091109Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- elsobki_e.pdfUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- IRENA_Case_Egypt.pdfUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- GE Cycles Lecture Info 2009Uploaded bySayantan Datta Gupta
- 9Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- ENG20120200009_17177285Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- LabUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Chapter_9 - Fatigue From Variable Amplitude LoadingUploaded byOdjak Maryono
- Fueslage ( Bending and Shear Flow )Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- turbojet engine designUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- SingularUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- 20050207438.pdfUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Take Home ExamUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Cover Page (AERO)Uploaded byYasser Bahaa
- LaptopUploaded byYasser Bahaa
- Extracted Pages From Appdxs1_2Uploaded byYasser Bahaa

- Gte FundamentalsUploaded byHira Hasan
- Equipment Data_Fardy (2)Uploaded byAdy Fardy
- TQM & TEMUploaded byNAITIK
- Job Boss ManualUploaded bysmaldonado1
- Manual Up6 25Uploaded byFlaiverCarvajal
- Ferrocare LVDH Oil Cleaning MachineUploaded byssheart_mind
- Manual Atlas Copco Elektronikon I e IIUploaded bynunosobral
- ShoeBox MAX Compressor Manual 01ZUploaded byWa Chu
- WBHE ManualUploaded by윤홍민
- E-up Electrical SystemsUploaded byRepo_67
- Ruud Package Unit 12.5 TonUploaded byEmir Revilla
- SM Si50-402A CompressorUploaded byttt449
- 4033735Uploaded bykaspersky2009
- Fd60hz Secador Atlas Copco - ManualUploaded byEdvaldo França
- Engineering Failure Analysis-Investigation on the Failure of Air CompressorUploaded bywholenumber
- Eng Komolafe Thermodynamics Lecture Note. (Module 1-4)DocxUploaded byTundeOyedotun
- 39701-01_A4-P________2.2_ENUploaded bymkpq
- Thermodynamics Property Tables 2011Uploaded byTham Wai Hung
- Subpart W Offshore Calculation Tool for RY2013 and LaterUploaded byMichael Haise
- ENT 243 Tutorial 1 Chapter 1Uploaded byAmiRul SaLimi SAyuti
- PressureGauges PagesUploaded byradio-chaser
- Implementing Rules and Regulations of EO NO. 70Uploaded byMadoTan
- VanAir Compressor Parts Manual ReliantUploaded byMauro Pérez
- ChillerUploaded byzara
- 369_WrapflexUploaded byJuan Pablo Ciriza
- ET101e Simple Compression Refrigeration (Heat Pump)Uploaded byRizwan Shad
- Magnetic RefrigerationUploaded byabhimanyu_iitb
- In Plant Training Report_ Sanjay Suresh.docxUploaded byAshutosh Prakash Mishra
- Employee Knowledge Management TecumsehUploaded bySwathi Manthena
- PresentationUploaded byMuhammad FirDaus