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Design of a Multi-Stage Compressor

Motivation: Market research has shown the need for a low-cost turbojet
with a take-off thrust of 12,000N. Preliminary studies will show that a
single-spool all-axial flow machine is OK, using a low pressure ratio and
modest turbine inlet temperatures to keep cost down.
Problem: Design a suitable compressor operating at sea-level static
conditions with
compressor pressure ratio = 4.15
air mass flow = 20 kg/s
turbine inlet temperature = 1100K
Assume:
Pamb = 1.01 bar, Tamb = 288 K Utip = 350 m/s
Inlet rhub / rtip = 0.5 Compressor has no inlet guide vanes
Mean radius is constant kJ
Polytropic efficiency = 0.90 R 0.287
kg 0 K
Constant axial velocity design
kJ
No swirl at exit of compressor c p 1.005 0
kg K
1.4 1
Steps in the Meanline Design Process

Steps
1) Choice of rotational speed and annulus dimensions
2) Determine number of stages, using assumed efficiency
3) Calculate air angles for each stage at the mean radius -
meanline analysis
4) Determine variation of the air angles from root to tip - radial
equilibrium
5) Investigate compressibility effects

6) Select compressor blading, using experimentally obtained


cascade data or CFD
7) Check on efficiency previously assumed
8) Estimate off-design performance
2
Compressor Meanline Design Process
Given PR p0 , T0 m
p T0in turbine Cx constant
Assume 1 0 U T 350 mps
Steps
1) Choose Cx1 and rH/rT to satisfy m and keep Mtip low and define
rT
2) Select N from rT and UT
3) Compute T0 across compressor and all exit flow conditions
[keep rm same through engine]
4) Estimate T0 for first stage from inlet condtions [Euler and de
Haller]
5) Select number of stages T0comp / T0stage
6) ..
7) ..
3
Step 1- Choice of Rotational Speed & Annulus
Dimensions
Construct table of inlet / exit properties and parametric study of
c1x vs. tip Mach number [next chart]
Chose c1x from spread sheet to avoid high tip Mach numbers
and stresses
Calculate 1 from inlet static pressure and temperature
With mass flow = 20 kg/s and rhub/rtip = 0.5

r 2 rtip2
m
m ACx rtip2 1 hub Cx r 2
rtip Cx 1 hub
rtip

and compute rotational speed and tip Mach number

2 rtip Wtip
N M tip where Wtip U tip
2
Cx2
U tip RT 4
Calculate Tip Radius and Rotational Speed
Drive choice by compressor inlet conditions

Cx T1 (degK) P1 (bar) P1 (kg/m2) rho1(kg/m3) rtip (m) rhub/rtip N rev/sec N (rpm) W1tip M1tip
100 283.0226 0.950214 9692.1879 1.17103756 0.254398876 0.4 218.9643 13137.86 364.0055 1.079401
0.261089548 0.45 213.3531 12801.19
0.269230464 0.5 206.9018 12414.11
0.279178986 0.55 199.5289 11971.73
0.291450527 0.6 191.1277 11467.66
150 276.8009 0.879091 8966.7278 1.10773699 0.213568228 0.4 260.8266 15649.6 380.7887 1.141789
0.219185056 0.45 254.1427 15248.56
0.226019368 0.5 246.458 14787.48 Pick this
0.234371166 0.55 237.6755 14260.53
0.244673143 0.6 227.6681 13660.09
200 268.0905 0.786018 8017.3822 1.0226367 0.192497422 0.4 289.3767 17362.6 403.1129 1.228207
0.19756009 0.45 281.9612 16917.67
0.203720123 0.5 273.4353 16406.12
0.211247926 0.55 263.6915 15821.49
0.220533502 0.6 252.5887 15155.32
250 256.8913 0.676972 6905.1159 0.91916112 0.181607916 0.4 306.7282 18403.69 430.1163 1.338742
0.186384191 0.45 298.868 17932.08
0.192195753 0.5 289.8309 17389.86
0.199297711 0.55 279.5028 16770.17
0.208058005 0.6 267.7344 16064.06

5
Compute Root (Hub) and Mean Radius

Choose N = 250 rev/sec or 15,000 RPM and rhub/rtip = 0.5

With hub/tip radius ratio and tip radius:

rhub
rhub rtip 0.5 0 .2262 0.1131 m
rtip
and
rmean 0.1697 m

2 r1 N
U1 266.6 m / s
60

6
Compressor Meanline Design
Given: m, Utip, p01, T01, Pr, poly and c1x chosen to avoid high tip
Mach numbers and stresses

Compressor inlet (1)



C 2
T1 1 p1
T1 T01 1x
p1 p01 1
2c p T01 RT1
1/ 2

Select RH/RT and Utip (N)
m for turbine issues
RT
R 2

1c1x 1 R
H

T
R 1 U tip
RH RT H Rm RH RT N
RT 2 2 RT
1/ 2 Ctip
Ctip C12x U tip
2
M tip
RT1
1/ 2
7
Compressor Meanline Design
Compressor exit (2)


Cx2
p02 p01 Pr T02 T01 Pr poly 1 T2 T02
2c p

T2 1 p2 m
p2 p02 2 A2
T01 RT2 2C x
A2
blade height at exit h RT RH
2 Rm

8
Compute Compressor Exit Conditions
Compute Compressor Exit Total Temperature
( 1)
P02 p
T02 T01
P01
so that T02 = 288.0 (4.15)0.3175 = 452.5 0K,
T0 compressor= 452.5 - 288.0 = 164.5 0K and other conditions:

C2 1502
T2 T02 452.5 441.3 0
K
2c p 2 1.005 x10
3


T2 (
3.5
1)
441.3
P2 P02 4.19 3.838 bar
T02 452.5
kg
3.838bar 10200 2
2
P2
m bar 3.03 kg / m3
RT2 kJ kg m 0
0.287 102 441.3 K 9
kg 0 K kJ
Compute Compressor Exit Conditions
Exit area, hub and tip radius:

m 20
A2 0.044 m 2
2Cx 3.031150
A2 0.044
r rtip rhub 0.0413 m
2 rmean 2 0.1697
r 0.0413
rtip rmean 0.1697 0.1903 m
2 2
r 0.0413
rhub rmean 0.1697 0.1491 m
2 2

10
Step 2 - Estimate the Number of Stages
From Eulers Turbine Equation:
U (CU 2 CU 1 ) UCx (tan 2 tan 1 )
T0stage
cP cp
and (tan 2 tan 1 ) (tan 1 tan 2 )

CU Cx tan( ) WU Cx tan( ) 2 r1 N
U1 266.6 m / s
60
With no inlet guide vane (Cu1=0, 1 = 0, and Wu1= -U), the
relative flow angle is:
U 266.6
tan( 1 ) 1 60.640
Cx 150

And the relative inlet velocity to the 1st rotor is:


Cx 150
W1 305.9 m / s
cos( 1 ) cos(60.64) 11
Maximum Diffusion Across Compressor Blade-Row
There are various max. diffusion criteria. Every engine company has
its own rules. Liebleins rule is one example. Another such rule is
the de Haller criterion that states:
Note that de Hallers criterion is simpler than
W
0.72 2 1.0 Liebleins rule since it does not involve relative
circumferential velocities or solidity. To first order,
W1 this is same as a 0<Dfactor<~0.4. Could use
Liebleins rule but would have to iterate.

This criteria can also take the form of max. pressure ratio with
correlations for relative total pressure loss across the blade row as a
function of Mach number, incidence, thickness/chord, etc. Taking the
maximum diffusion (de Haller), leads to:
W2 0.72 W1 0.72 305.9 220 m / s
C x 150
cos( 2 ) 2 47.010
W2 220
U (CU 2 CU 1 ) 266.6 150 (tan(60.64) tan(47.01))
T0stage 3
280
K
cP 1.005 x10 12
Choose Number of Stages
Given poly and T0out/T0in T0 = T0out -T0in, so the number of
stages is T0 compressor / T0stage = 164.5/28 = 5.9

Typically (T0)stage 40K (subsonic) - 100K (transonic)

Therefore we choose to use six or seven stages. To be


conservative (account for losses, ie. a<1),
Choose 7 stages

Recalculate the T0stage = 164.5/7 = 23.5

So 1st stage temperature ratio is T0 ratio = 288 + 23.5/288 =1.0816

The stage pressure ratio is then P0 ratio = (T0 ratio ) p / 1 = 1.2803


13
Compressor Meanline Design
Develop estimate of the number of stages
Assuming Cx = constant Cx
T0 stage tan 1 tan 2
cp
for axial inflow tan1 = Um/Cx
V1 = Cx / cos 1
de Haller criterion (like Dfactor) V2/V1 0.72
cos 2 = Cx/V2
neglect work done factor (=1) (T0)stage = .
(T0)stage Nstages T0out -T0in
Select Nstages and select nearly constant set of (T0)stage

Develop Stage by Stage Design


Assume that continual blockage buildup due to boundary layers reduces
work done, therefore

stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14
0.98 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.83
Compressor Meanline Design
Develop Stage by Stage Design
C = absolute velocity, CU = absolute velocity in U direction

CU 1 0 axial inf low


Um
tan 1
cx
c p T0
Um
U m CU U m
tan 2
cx cx

W2 C2 Constant Cx
C1
W1

U
15
Step 3 - Calculate Velocity Triangles of 1st Stage
at Mean Radius
So from Euler Turbine Equation:
U (CU 2 CU 1 ) UCx (tan 2 tan 1 )
T0stage 23.5
cP cp
We can re-calculate the relative angles for the 1st stage:
1 0
c p T0 stage 1.005 x103 (23.5)
tan 2 2 30.57 0
UCx 266.6 150
U 266.6
tan( 1 ) 1 60.640
Cx 150

tan(1 ) tan(2 ) tan( 2 ) tan(1 ) 2 49.890


W2
which leads to : 0.76 (acceptable according to de Haller criterion)
W1
16
Velocity Components and Reaction of 1st Stage
The velocity components for the 1st stage (rotor) are therefore:
C x 150 m / s C x 2 150 m / s

CU 1 0.0 CU 2 C x 2 tan 2 88.6 m / s

C1 150 m / s C 2 C x2 CU2 2 174.21 m / s


U 1 266.6 m / s U 2 266.6 m / s
WU 1 U 1 266.6 m / s WU 2 CU 2 U 2 178.0 m / s
W1 C x2 WU21 305.9 m / s W2 C x2 WU22 232.77 m / s

The Reaction of the 1st stage is given by:

Wu 2 Wu1 266.6 190.31


R 0.836
2U 2 (266.6)
(which is high for typica l designs)
17
Velocity Components for Stator of 1st Stage
Now consider the stator of the 1st stage. The h0 of the stator is
zero so from Eulers eqn.:

If design uses assumption of repeating stage, then inlet angle


to stator is absolute air angle coming out of rotor and, exit
absolute angle of stator is inlet absolute angle of rotor:

CU 1 CU 3 0
Cx 3 Cx 2
U 0 for stator, so WU 3 0

1 stator 1 stator 2 rotor


2 stator 2 stator 1 rotor
18
Velocity Triangles of 1st Stage Using Repeating Stage
Assumption
Notice that the velocity triangles
1=0 Cx1=150 are not symmetric between the
W=C-U
rotor and stator due to the high
1=60.64 reaction design of the rotor. The
rotor is doing most of the static
pressure (temperature) rise.
W1=305.9 U=- WU1 =266.6

STATOR 3=0 Cx3=150

3=60.64

C2=174.21
2=30.57 CU2=88.6 U=266.6
W3=305.9
Cx2=150
ROTOR U=266.6
2=49.89

WU2=178.0
W2=232.77
19
Stage Design Repeats for Stages 2-7

Then the mean radius velocity triangles essentially


stay the same for stages 2-7, provided:
mean radius stays constant
hub/tip radius ratio and annulus area at the exit of each
stage varies to account for compressibility (density variation)
stage temperature rise stays constant
reaction stays constant

If, however, we deviate from the repeating stage


assumption, we have more flexibility in controlling
each stage reaction and temperature rise.

20
Non- Repeating Stage Design Strategy
Instead of taking a constant temperature rise

T0stage 23.5
across each stage, we could reduce stage temperature rise for first
and last stages of the compressor and increase it for the middle
stages. This strategy is typically used to:
reduce loading of first stage to allow for a wide variation in angle
of attack due to various aircraft flight conditions
reduce turning required in last stage to provide for zero swirl flow
going into combustor
With this in mind, lets change the work distribution in the
compressor to:

T0stage 20.0 T0stage 25.0 T0stage 20.0


1 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7

21
1st Stage Design for Non-Repeating Stages

We can re-calculate the relative angles for the 1st stage:


1 0
c p T0 stage 1.005 x103 (20)
tan 2 2 26.68 0
UCx 266.6 150

U 266.6
tan( 1 ) 1 60.640 (same as before)
Cx 150

tan(1 ) tan(2 ) tan( 2 ) tan(1 ) 2 51.890


W2
which leads to : 0.79 (still acceptable , i.e. 0.72)
W1
(also note the reduced turning due to the reduced work requiremen t)
22
Velocity Components and Reaction of 1st
Stage with Non-Repeating Stages
The new velocity components for the 1st stage (rotor) are
therefore:
C x 2 150 m / s
C x 150 m / s
CU 2 C x 2 tan 2 75.38 m / s
CU 1 0.0
C1 150 m / s C 2 C x2 CU2 2 167.87 m / s
U 1 266.6 m / s U 2 266.6 m / s
WU 1 U 1 266.6 m / s WU 2 CU 2 U 2 191.22 m / s

W1 C W
2
x
2
U1 305.9 m / s W2 C x2 WU22 243.03 m / s

The Reaction of the 1st stage is given by:


Wu 2 Wu1 266.6 190.31
R 0.859
2U 2 (266.6)
with the assumption that C 3 C1 . (note that the reaction increased)
23
Design of 1st Stage Stator

The pressure ratio for this design with a temperature


change, T0 = 20 is:
P 0.9 (1.4 )
P02 T02 ( 1)
288 20 .4
1.236
P01 T01 288

So P03= P02 = 1.01 (1.236) = 1.248 bar and T03=


288+20=308 0K

Now we must choose a value of 3 leaving the stator.


When we designed with repeating stages, 3= 1.
But now we have the flexibility to change 3.
24
Design of the 1st Stage Stator & the 2nd Stage
Change 3 so that there is swirl going into the second stage and
thereby reduce the reaction of our second stage design.
Design the second stage to have a reaction of 0.7, then from the
equation for reaction:
Cx
Rstage 2 (tan 1 tan 2 )
2U
And if we design the second stage to a temperature rise of 25 0,
the Eulers equation:
UCx
T0 stage 2 (tan 1 tan 2 )
cp

Which can be solved simultaneously for 1and 2


1 stage2 57.310
2 stage2 42.92 0 25
Design of 1st Stage Stator & 2nd Stage Rotor
Note that this is same as specifying E, n, and R as in
one of your homeworks and computing the angles.
And absolute flow angles of second stage can be found
from
U
tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2
Cx
So

1 stage2 12.36 0 3 stage1


2 stage2 40.27 0

Therefore, we have determined the velocity triangles of


the 1st stage stator and the second stage rotor
26
Velocity Triangles of 1st Rotor Using Non-
Repeating Stage Assumption

1=0 Cx1=150 Notice that the velocity triangles are


W=C-U not symmetric due to the high
1=60.64 reaction design of the rotor. Also,
there is swirl now leaving the stator.

W1=305.9 U=- WU1 =266.6 C3=153.56


STATOR
3=12.36 Cx3=150
CU3=32.87
3=57.31
C2=167.87 U=266.6

2=26.68 CU2=75.38 W3=277.73


Cx2=150
ROTOR 2=51.89 U=266.6
WU3=233.7
WU2=191.2 7
2
W2=242.03
27
Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage Rotor

Design of 2nd stage stator and 3rd stage rotor can be


done in same manner as 1st stage stator and 2nd stage
rotor.

A choice of 50% reaction and a temperature rise of 25


degrees for 3rd stage will lead to increased work by
stage but a more evenly balanced rotor/stator design.
The velocity triangle of the stator will be a mirror of the
rotor.

This stage design will then be repeated for stages 4 - 6.

28
Class 12 - The 7-Stage Compressor Design So
Far Has Lead to 1st and 2nd Stages:

STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1


1 0 26.68 12.36 60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248
2 12.36 40.27 57.31 -42.92 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962
3
4
5
6
7

STAGE Cu2 C2 W2 W u2 M2 Mr2 Cu3 C3 W3 W u3 R P03/P01 T03/T01


1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069
2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 0.7 1.279 1.081
3
4
5
6
7

STAGE M3 Mr3 P01 P02 P03 T01 T02 T03 P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3


1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.248 1.248 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060143 1.08932261 276.806 293.9799 296.2683
2 1.248 1.596 1.596 308 333 333 1.089323 1.295942 296.2683 313.7723
3
4
5
6
7
29
Design of 2nd Stage Stator

The pressure ratio for the 2nd stage design with a temperature
change, T0 = 25 is:
P 0.9 (1.4 )
P02 T02 ( 1)
308 25 .4
1.279
P01 T01 308

So P03= P02= 1.248 (1.279) = 1.596 bar and T03= 308+25=333 0K

Now we must choose a value of 3 leaving 2nd stage stator that


provides for the desired Reaction and Work in 3rd stage using a
similar technique as previously used.

30
Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage
We can change 3 so that there is swirl going into third stage and
thereby reduce reaction of second stage design. If we design third
stage to have a reaction of 0.5, then from equation for reaction:

Cx
Rstage 3 (tan 1 tan 2 )
2U
And if we design third stage to a temperature rise of 25 0, Eulers
equation:
UCx
T0 stage 3 (tan 1 tan 2 )
cp
Which can be solved simultaneously for 1and 2

1 stage3 50.26 0
2 stage3 29.88 0 31
Design of 2nd Stage Stator & 3rd Stage Rotor
And the absolute flow angles of the second stage can be found
from U
tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2
Cx

So
1 stage3 29.88 0 3 stage2 1 stage3 50.26 0
2 stage3 50.26 0 2 stage3 29.88 0
Note the symmetry in angles for 3rd stage due to the 50%
reaction !

Therefore, we have determined the velocity triangles of the 2nd


stage stator and the third stage rotor. Check the de Haller
number for the 3rd stage rotor:
W2 cos 1
.74 which is OK
W1 cos 2 32
Velocity Triangles of 2nd Stage
C3=153.56

3=12.36 Cx3=150 W=C-U


CU3=32.87
3=57.31
U=266.6 C3=172.99

3=29.88 Cx3=150 CU3=86.18


W3=277.73
STATOR
3=50.26

WU3=233.7 U=266.6
7 C2=196.59
W3=234.63
2=40.27 CU2=127.07
ROTOR Cx2=150
U=266.6 WU3=180.4
2=42.92 2

W2=204.86 WU2=139.5
3

Notice that the velocity triangles are


not symmetric for the second
33
stage due to 70%reaction design but
will be for 3rd stage (50% reaction).
Summary of Conditions for Stages 1 - 3
STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1
1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248
2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962
3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.483867 0.656279
4
5
6
7

STAGE Cu2 C2 W2 W u2 M2 Mr2 Cu3 C3 W3 W u3 R P03/P01 T03/T01


1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069
2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081
3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075
4
5
6
7

STAGE M3 Mr3 P01 P02 P03 T01 T02 T03 P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3


1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.248 1.248 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060143 1.08932261 276.806 293.9799 296.2683
2 0.483867 0.656279 1.248 1.596 1.596 308 333 333 1.089323 1.295942 1.35979317 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117
3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596 2.005 2.005 333 358 358 1.359793 1.517323 1.72789178 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117
4
5
6
7

34
Design of Stages 4-6

The velocity triangles of stages 4 through 6 will


essentially be repeats of stage 3 since all have a 50%
reaction and a temperature rise of 25 degrees.

Stagnation and static pressure as well as stagnation


and static temperature of these stages will increase as
you go back through the machine.

As a result, density will also change and will have to be


compensated for by changing the spanwise radius
difference (area) between the hub and tip (i.e. hub/tip
radius ratio)
35
Velocity Triangles of Stages 3 - 6
C3=172.99

3=29.88 Cx3=150 CU3=86.18 W=C-U C3=172.99

3=50.26 3=29.88 Cx3=150 CU3=86.18


U=266.6 STATOR
3=50.26
W3=234.63 U=266.6

WU3=180.4 W3=234.63
2 C2=234.63
CU2=180.42 WU3=180.4
2=50.26 2
ROTOR Cx2=150
U=266.6
2=29.88
WU2=86.18
W2=172.99

Notice that the velocity triangles


are symmetric due to the
36
50%reaction design.
Summary of Conditions for Stages 1 - 6
STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1
1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248
2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962
3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.483867 0.656279
4 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.465906 0.631918
5 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.449807 0.610083
6 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 180.42 0.435269 0.590365
7

STAGE Cu2 C2 W2 W u2 M2 Mr2 Cu3 C3 W3 W u3 R P03/P01 T03/T01


1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069
2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081
3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075
4 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.620713 0.457644 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.237 1.07
5 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.599981 0.442359 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.22 1.065
6 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.581197 0.42851 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.206 1.061
7

STAGE M3 Mr3 P01 P02 P03 T01 T02 T03 P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3


1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.24836 1.24836 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060449 1.08963684 276.806 293.9799 296.2683
2 0.483867 0.656279 1.24836 1.596652 1.596652 308 333 333 1.089637 1.296472 1.36034905 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117
3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596652 2.005395 2.005395 333 358 358 1.360349 1.517622 1.72823259 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117
4 0.449807 0.610083 2.005395 2.480674 2.480674 358 383 383 1.728233 1.913086 2.15910202 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117
5 0.435269 0.590365 2.480674 3.026423 3.026423 383 408 408 2.159102 2.372762 2.65703431 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117
6 0.422056 0.572443 3.026423 3.649866 3.649866 408 433 433 2.657034 2.903398 3.22898653 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117
7

37
Stage 7 Design

So going into stage 7, we have P01= 3.65 and T01 = 433. The
requirements for our 7-stage compressor design we have
P0 exit = 4.15 * 1.01 = 4.19 bar
T0 exit = 288.0 (4.15)0.3175 = 452.5 0K

This makes the requirements for stage 7:

T02 452.5
1.045 or T0 452.5 433 19.5
T01 433
0.9 1.4
P02
1.045 0.4
1.149
P01

38
Stage 7 Design
If we assume a Reaction = 0.5 for the 7th stage:
Cx
R stage7 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 0.5
2U

U Cx
T0 stage7 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 19.5
cp
Then, solving equations:

1stage7 48.590
2 stage 7 32.770

39
Stage 7 Design
And from: U
tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2
Cx

or from symmetry of the velocity triangles for 50% reaction:

1 stage7 32.77 0 3 stage7


2 stage7 48.59 0

Note that the absolute angles going into stage 7 have changed
from those computed for stages 3 - 6 and that the exit absolute
air angle leaving the compressor is 32.770. This means that a
combustor pre-diffuser is required to take all of the swirl out of
the flow prior to entering the combustor.

40
Summary of Compressor Design
STAGE 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cx Cu1 C1 W1 W u1 M1 Mr1
1 0 26.68 12.36 -60.64 -51.89 -57.31 150 0 150 305.9 -266.6 0.449778 0.917248
2 12.36 40.27 29.88 -57.31 -42.92 -50.26 150 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.445072 0.804962
3 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.483867 0.656279
4 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.465906 0.631918
5 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.449807 0.610083
6 29.88 50.26 29.88 -50.26 -29.88 -50.26 150 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.435269 0.590365
7 32.77 48.59 32.77 -48.59 -32.77 -48.59 150 96.56 178.39 226.78 -170.08 0.435723 0.553917

STAGE Cu2 C2 W2 W u2 M2 Mr2 Cu3 C3 W3 W u3 R P03/P01 T03/T01


1 75.38 167.87 243.03 -191.22 0.488438 0.707125 32.87 153.56 277.73 -233.77 0.874 1.236 1.069
2 127.07 196.59 204.86 -139.53 0.553668 0.576959 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.7 1.279 1.081
3 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.643754 0.474632 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.256 1.075
4 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.620713 0.457644 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.237 1.07
5 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.599981 0.442359 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.22 1.065
6 180.42 234.63 172.99 -86.18 0.581197 0.42851 86.18 172.99 234.63 -180.42 0.5 1.206 1.061
7 170.08 226.78 178.39 -96.56 0.547558 0.430721 96.56 178.39 226.78 -170.08 0.5 1.149 1.045

STAGE M3 Mr3 P01 P02 P03 T01 T02 T03 P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3


1 0.445072 0.804962 1.01 1.24836 1.24836 288 308 308 0.879088 1.060449 1.08963684 276.806 293.9799 296.2683
2 0.483867 0.656279 1.24836 1.596652 1.596652 308 333 333 1.089637 1.296472 1.36034905 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117
3 0.465906 0.631918 1.596652 2.005395 2.005395 333 358 358 1.360349 1.517622 1.72823259 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117
4 0.449807 0.610083 2.005395 2.480674 2.480674 358 383 383 1.728233 1.913086 2.15910202 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117
5 0.435269 0.590365 2.480674 3.026423 3.026423 383 408 408 2.159102 2.372762 2.65703431 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117
6 0.422056 0.572443 3.026423 3.649866 3.649866 408 433 433 2.657034 2.903398 3.22898653 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117
7 0.425883 0.541407 3.649866 4.193696 4.193696 433 452.5 452.5 3.20353 3.42041 3.70197943 417.1677 426.9133 436.6677

41
Hub and Tip Radii for Each Blade Row
From the pressure and temperature, we can compute the
density from the equation of state:

STAGE P1 P2 P3 T1 T2 T3 1 2 3
1 0.879088 1.060449 1.089637 276.806 293.9799 296.2683 1.10656 1.25687 1.281488
2 1.089637 1.296472 1.360349 296.2683 313.7723 318.1117 1.281488 1.439682 1.490009
3 1.360349 1.517622 1.728233 318.1117 330.6113 343.1117 1.490009 1.599425 1.755031
4 1.728233 1.913086 2.159102 343.1117 355.6113 368.1117 1.755031 1.874463 2.043674
5 2.159102 2.372762 2.657034 368.1117 380.6113 393.1117 2.043674 2.172154 2.355046
6 2.657034 2.903398 3.228987 393.1117 405.6113 418.1117 2.355046 2.494105 2.690866
7 3.20353 3.42041 3.701979 417.1677 426.9133 436.6677 2.675693 2.791621 2.953936

42
Hub and Tip Radii for Each Blade Row
From Continuity:
m
rtip2
r 2
Cx 1 hub
rtip

and our design value of rmean = 0.1697,

rmean 0.5(rtip rhub ) 0.1697 rhub 0.3394 rtip

we can calculate the hub and tip radii (i.e. area) at the entrance
and exit of each blade row:
m m
rtip2 rtip 0.1697
.3394 r 2 Cx (.6788)
Cx 1 tip

rtip 43

Hub & Tip Radii for All Stages of Compressor
So we get:

Station P P0abs T T0abs rtip rhub


rotor 1 0.879088 1.01 276.806 288 0.226203 0.113197
stator 2 1.060449 1.24836 293.9799 308 0.219446 0.119954
rotor 3 1.089637 1.24836 296.2683 308 0.21849 0.12091
stator 4 1.296472 1.596652 313.7723 333 0.213129 0.126271
rotor 5 1.360349 1.596652 318.1117 333 0.211662 0.127738
stator 6 1.517622 2.005395 330.6113 358 0.208792 0.130608
rotor 7 1.728233 2.005395 343.1117 358 0.205326 0.134074
stator 8 1.913086 2.480674 355.6113 383 0.203056 0.136344
rotor 9 2.159102 2.480674 368.1117 383 0.200294 0.139106
stator 10 2.372762 3.026423 380.6113 408 0.198484 0.140916
rotor 11 2.657034 3.026423 393.1117 408 0.196249 0.143151
stator 12 2.903398 3.649866 405.6113 433 0.194769 0.144631
rotor 13 3.20353 3.649866 417.1677 433 0.193067 0.146333
stator 14 3.42041 4.193696 426.9133 452.5 0.192097 0.147303
15 3.701979 4.193696 436.6677 452.5 0.190866 0.148534
44
Conditions in Compressor
Stagnation Temperature vs. Blade Row # Temperature vs. Blade Row #
Stagnation Tem perature

500 450
450
400

Tem perature
400
350
350 T0 T
300
300
250 250
200 200
11

13

15
1

11

13

15
1

9
Blade Row # Blade Row #

Stagnation Pressure vs. Blade Row # Pressure vs. Blade Row #

5 4
Stagnation Pressure

4
3
3 Pressure
P0 2 P
2

1 1

0 0
1

9
11

13

15

11

13

15
Blade Row # Blade Row #
45
Hub & Tip Radii Distribution - Flow Path Area

Hub and Tip Radii vs. Blade Row #

0.25

0.2
Radius

0.15 rtip
0.1 rhub

0.05

0
1

11

13

15
Blade Row #

46
Spanwise Variations
Blade wheel speeds vary with radius leading to a change in
velocity triangles with span for each blade row. For instance, the
first blade row has
rhub = .1131, rmean = .1697, rtip = .2262 m and
Uhub = 177.7 , Umean = 266.6, Utip = 355.3 m/s
leading to relative flow angles:
1 hub 49.83
1 mean 60.64
1 tip 67.11
1 hub 1 mean 1 tip 0
Next, we must choose the type of radial design strategy from:
free vortex where CU r = constant (dh0/dr = 0)
constant reaction where U CU = constant
exponential where CU1 = a - (b/R) and CU2 = a + (b/R)
The exit radial pressure gradient will be different for each of the designs47
Real World Effects
3-Dimensional effects
radial equilibrium
free vortex designs
secondary flows
Tip speed limitations maximum blade stresses (later)

Axial velocity compressibility, shocks, losses

High flow deflection Dfactor, de Haller, Carters rule

Blockage (Kbar) due to boundary layers work done factor

48
Axisymmetric Flow Analyses

F Vdv V V dA
t

Consider axisymmetric flows [ / 0 ] and steady flow [ / t 0 ]
In the radial direction,

CU2 CS2 dCs


cos s sin s rdrd Fr
r rs dt
1 centripetal force due to circumferential flow
2 force due to streamline curvature
3 force for linear acceleration along streamline
where Fr pdA r
49
Radial Equilibrium

P+dp

dr Mass = dm = r d dr

CU
P+1/2 dp P+1/2 dp
If Cr=0 and Pressure Balances
P Centrifugal Forces, and streamline
curvature effects neglected then:
r d

1 d dmCU2
p dp r dr d prd 2( p dp)dr 50
2 2 r
Simple Radial Equilibrium
So from the radial momentum equation:

1 dmCU2
p dp r dr d prd ( p dp)drd
2 r

reduces to: 1 dp CU2


Radial equilibrium equation
dr r
1 dp CU2 dh ds
T
dr r dr dr

Tds/dr represents the spanwise variation in relative loss. If this


is assumed to be zero, then (Simple Radial Equilibrium Equation
with Cr=0): 1 dp C 2 dh
U

dr r dr
51
Simple Radial Equilibrium
Now:

h0 h
C2
h

C x2 CU2
2 2
So that we get (vortex energy equation):

dh0 CU2 dCx dC


Cx CU U
dr r dr dr

If dh0/dr = 0 (work is constant with r) and we assume that


CX=constant as a function of span, then:

CU2 dCU CU d (rCU )


CU 0
r dr r dr 52
Simple Radial Equilibrium
One important variations / solutions to this equation

CU d (rCU )
0
r dr

Free vortex flow

CU dCU dCU dr
or CU r constant
r dr CU r
Later we will see more general form of this equaion will lead to
another solution for forced vortex flow

CU
constant
r
53
Consider Free Vortex Design for 1st Stage Rotor
CU r = constant so that:

rmean
CUtip CUmean
rtip
rmean
CUhub CUmean
hub
r

So that at the exit of the first stage rotor we have:

.1697 1 58.3
CU 2 tip 75.38 58.3 2 tan 21.24 0

.2194
tip
150
.1697 106.6
CU 2 hub 75.38 106.6 2 hub tan 1 35.4
0

.12 150
54
Free Vortex Design for 1st Stage Rotor

The axial velocity Cx is assumed to be constant as a function of


radius (Note that it doesnt have to be !)

WU CU U

58.3 355.3
2 tip tan
1
63.2 0

150
106.6 177.7
2 hub tan 1 25.36 0

150

55
1st Stage Blade Spanwise Variations
(Free Vortex Design)
W=C-U

1=0 Cx1=150

W1h=232.5 1h=49.83 Uh=- WU1h =177.7


C2h=184.02
W1m=305. 1m=60.64 Um=- WU1m =266.6
9 Ut=- WU1t =355.3 C2m=167.87
W1t=385.7 1t=67.11
2h=35.4 C2t=160.93

2m=26.68 CU2h=106.6
2t=21.24 CU2m=75.38
CU2t=58.3
Cx2=150 Uh=177.7
ROTOR
Um=266.6

W2m=166.0 2h=25.36 WU2h=71.1 Ut=355.3

W2m=242.03 2m=51.89
WU2m=191.22
W2m=332.73 2t=63.2
56
WU2t=297.0
Spanwise Variation in Reaction with Free
Vortex Design
Remember that Reaction is given by:

Cx Cx
R tan 2 tan 1 1 tan 2 tan 1
2U 2U
CU 1 CU 2 CU 1r CU 2 r
R 1 1
2U 2U m r 2 / rm2
r
where U U m and CU r constant
rm
constant
R 1
r2
If R=50% at rm, radial variation may make root too small and tip too
large for good efficiency
The free vortex design, Rh =0.7, Rm = 0.859, and Rt = 0.918 (high at
the tip !!). This is why designers sometimes move away from free
vortex design in favor of a different strategy, like constant spanwise
57
Reaction distribution or forced vortex design.
Consideration When Diverting from Free
Vortex Design
The free vortex design,
Rh =0.7,
Rm = 0.859, and
Rt = 0.918 (high at the tip !!).
Designers sometimes move away from free vortex design in favor
of a different strategy, like constant spanwise Reaction distribution
or forced vortex design.

When using a radial design strategy other than free vortex:


radial equilibrium is not satisfied, some error in velocities arise
total work of stage may not deliver design intent exactly
axial velocity may not be constant across span
mass flow may not reach design intent exactly
hub and tip radii would need to be re-computed
58
Non- Free Vortex Designs

Consider rotor inlet / exit swirl velocity distributions of the form

b b
CU 1 aR n and CU 2 aR n
R R
where a, b, n are constants and R r / rm
1) if n 1, reduces to free vortex design approach

2) if n 1, called first power or forced vortex design approach


Equation of motion must be rederived with C x constant
Cx21 Cx21 2 a 2 R 2 2ab ln R a 2 and
m

2a ln R a
R 1
Um Um
59
Airfoil Design
Once velocity triangles for that blade-row are established from
meanline analysis, then job remaining is to design the airfoil that
will deliver required exit velocity triangle given the inlet velocity
triangle
Loading Coefficient Gives Solidity
2Cos 2 2 C X 1
z Tan1 Tan 2
Correlations For Deviation and Loss are x CX 2
Derived from Cascade Data
Solidity and Velocity Gives Dfactor
V2 Vu1 Vu 2
Deviation D factor 1
V1 2V1
Dfactor Gives /c, Loss, and Efficiency

0.006 0.0002 e
7.5 D f

c
Loss
2 2
C x 2 cos 1

c

cos 2 x1
C cos 2

1 Cx S R 60
2

1
2 E U cos 2 2 cos 2 1
Determined kinematics and thermodynamics for
compressor
Determined radii, i.e. rh, rm, rT

Now need to define actual airfoils, c, =stagger,


shape, Nb based on Class 6 and 8 notes.
1m 60.640 2 m 51.890

Pick =solidity from choice of Df and velocities


Choose shape from family, e.g. DCA [double circular
arc] for supersonic tip
[t/c]tip max=3% for structure, 10% for hub, linear
variation between, [t/c]m=6.5%

61
Pick c=chord for turbulent flow, Rec > 300,000 at all
hs.
Make bigger for structure and vibration issues
Re at 50 kft about 1/5 SLTO W1c1m
Rec c1m
n1

Define incidence such that flow is aligned with upper


surface to produce no shock in supersonic flow

LE t
i max 3.7 0
2 c

62
Estimate deviation from Carters rule

30
4
1* 1 i 56.94 2* 2 48.89
camber * 8.05

Define stagger angle from


*
stagger
*
1 56.94 4.25 52.7
2
Set number of blades

2 rm1 2 rm1
N b1
s1m c1m
63