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# Rock Slope Engineering

EAG 442

By: Dr Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail

Rock Slope Engineering

 Basic mechanics of rock slope failure
 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)

Rock Slope Engineering

 Basic mechanics of rock slope failure
 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)

Structurally controlled instability

Role of rock discontinuities in Rock
slope failure

 Discontinuities: Joints, Faults, Bedding
Planes, Fractures, etc.

 Discontinuities reduce the rock mass
strength.

 Discontinuities control Planes of Weakness.

 Orientation (Strike and Dip) influence the
failure modes and potency of sliding.

Cohesion and friction angle of rock joint  = c +.tan Shear Stress () Friction angle ( Normal Stress  Shear Stress  Cohesion (c) Normal Stress () .

A + W.Sin  W.Cos   W Limiting Equilibrium: W.Cos .tan  . Self-weight sliding of rock block R W.Sin  = R = c.

Sin  + V = R = c.Effect of water in tension crack Water-filled tension crack R V U W.A + (W.tan  .Cos   W Limiting Equilibrium: W.U).Cos .Sin  W.

(b) tension crack on slope face . Effect of water in tension crack (a) Tension crack at head.

Forces acting on slope Forces acting on a planar slide surface Forces exerted by a resistant external element (anchor) applied to the slope .

1981) . Types of failure in rock slope Strength curve for the rock mass and relationship between slope height and angle (modified from Hoek and Bray.

Rock Slope Engineering  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure  Typical type of rock slope failure  Graphical presentation of rock slope failure  Numerical modeling in rock slope  Example(s) .

Typical rock slope failure (a) Planar Rock slope failure (b) Rock slope wedge failure (c) Toppling failure .

strikes parallel to the slope face and dips into the excavation at an angle greater than the angle of friction. Planar Rock slope failure Plane Sliding  Occurs when a geological discontinuity such as bedding plane. .

Kinematic analysis .Planar failure .

Planar Rock slope failure  Occurs when a geological discontinuity such as bedding plane. strikes parallel to the slope face and dips into the excavation at an angle greater than the angle of friction. .

Rock slope wedge failure Wedge Sliding  When two discontinuity strike obliquely across the slope face and their line of intersections daylights in the slope face. the wedge of rock resting on these discontinuities will slide down the line of intersection. .

wedge failure .Kinematic analysis .

wedge failure .Kinematic analysis .

Daylight .

. Toppling failure Toppling Failure  When a block of rock resting on an inclined planes moving downward from the face of the slope.

block toppling and flexural toppling Buckling of vertical strata with bending and fracturing of strata . Toppling failure Strata toppling.

Rotational type failure  When a block of rock resting on an inclined planes moving downward from the face of the slope. .

non-circular) . Complex mechanism Combine discontinuity movements with failure of intact rock  Step-path  Toppling. flexural bending or buckling  Rotational (circular.

Complex mechanism Open pit mine slopes Controlled by geological structures at top and possibly shearing through intact rock at bottom .

Rock Slope Engineering  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure  Typical type of rock slope failure  Graphical presentation of rock slope failure  Numerical modeling in rock slope  Example(s) .

Discontinuity mapping – remote sensing .

Stereonet – pole plots .

Pole plots and modes of rock slope failure .

Planar Rock slope failure .

Rock slope wedge failure Wedge A and B will not slide Wedge C and D will slide .

Planar Rock slope failure .

Rock Slope Engineering  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure  Typical type of rock slope failure  Graphical presentation of rock slope failure  Numerical modeling in rock slope  Example(s) .

Rock slope wedge failure .

Continuum model Diagram of a curved failure surface in heavily jointed rock .

Rock fall program (Rocscience) .

Swedge program (Rocscience) .

Rock plane program (Rocscience) .

Numerical modeling in rock slope Planar wedge sliding Sliding along discontinuities .

Numerical modeling in rock slope Rotational type of failure .

Numerical modeling in rock slope Step-path Combined step-path and rotational .

Numerical modeling in rock slope Factors of safety – ranged from 0.1 .95 to 2.

Numerical modeling in rock slope Mine open pit in jointed rock mass .

Numerical modeling in rock slope Close up of rock mass jointing .

Numerical modeling in rock slope 3-D discrete fracture network .

Rock Slope Engineering  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure  Typical type of rock slope failure  Graphical presentation of rock slope failure  Numerical modeling in rock slope  Example(s) .

50 Plane B 750 2250 370 Factor of Safety for wedge failure: F  a tan A  B tan B . ϕ Plane A 450 1150 34. Example (1) A wedge is formed by two planes with the following characteristics: Dip Dip direction Friction angle.

Example (1) The procedure for finding the FoS is as follows:  The value of the difference in dip between two planes is calculated: 750- 450=300  From the different charts available. the two chart that correspond to the value of 300 are selected.  The value of the difference in dip direction between the two planes is calculated: 2250-1150=1100  On the abscissa axis of Chart a) a line is projected from this value of 1100 to intersect the line corresponding to the dip of plane A.1 0.753  1.687    0.10  The same procedure is applied to plane B on chart b) to obtain 0. giving a reading of the value of parameter A on the ordinate axis of 1.09 .45. the FoS can be calculated with the friction angle values of the two planes.45  0.  Once the values of A and B have been found. the value of parameter B. F  a tan A  B tan B  1.

Example (1) Charts for dip difference between planes forming the wedge of 300 .

Example (2) Determine the factor of safety against sliding of the block DBC. Assume block ABD is table .

Thank you for your attention .