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Tubulars & Connections (W250)

Part 3 Steel Types &


Specifications

Dave Seymour
Global TEH OCTGs
Updated March 2008

File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 Part 3.ppt


Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

API Carbon Steels for OCTGs


A range of simpler Carbon or low-alloy steels for OCTG use
Note that we are only concerned with Seamless tubing;
usefulness of welded (ERW) tubing is very limited
API Specification 5CT (8th Edition) ISO 11960:2004 defines 4 Groups, based on
chemistry, heat treatment and strength:
Group 1 H40, J55, K55, N80-1 & N80-Q
Simple chemistries, lower strengths, simplest applications
H40 obsolete, K55 & N80 for casing service
J55 common for simplest tubing service low pressure (sour) oil wells, modest life
expectancy in corrosive service, but cheap
N80-Q for non-corrosive tubing service
Group 2 (M65), L80-1, C90-1/2, C95, T95-1/2
Defined chemistries, all quenched and tempered (except M65), medium strengths, sour service
M65 rare, C and T grades mostly for (sour) casing service
L80-1 very common for tubing service in moderate environments medium pressure oil
and gas wells, moderately sour, no CO2
Group 3 P110
Simple chemistry, higher strength, quenched and tempered for casing service
Group 4 Q125-1/2/3/4
Defined chemistries, highest strength, quenched and tempered for casing service

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Proprietary Carbon Steels for OCTGs


A range of enhanced Carbon and low-alloy steels for seamless
OCTG use, each from specific suppliers. Full list is very long, but
examples in common use in Shell include:
Sumitomo SM95S sour service higher strength, mostly for casing
service standard sour gas well production casing in PD Oman.
Vallourec Mannesmann VM110SS highest strength for restricted sour
service - HPHT production casing in EP Europe.
Tenaris TN80SS medium strength to meet Canadian Industry
Recommend Practise specifications for critical sour gas service (> 5%
H2S).
Standard tubing and production casing for Shell Canadas sour gas wells
(typically 30% H2S, maximum 90% H2S!).
Alternatives to each of the above are available from nearly all the
major manufacturers

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Corrosion Resistant Alloys for OCTGs


API 13% Chrome
OCTG Group 2 L80-13 Cr
Standard material for sweet gas wells; CO2 resistant, but NOT sour service
ISO 13680 defines 4 groups based on micro-structure and chemistry:
Group 1 Martensitic & Martensitic/Ferritic x ~13-15% Cr, 15% Ni, low Mo
All heat treated to achieve required strengths - 80 to 110 Ksi yield
Includes API L80-13Cr, Modified and Super-13Cr
Many sweet service tubing applications, some also limited sour service.
Group 2 Duplex/Super Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) 2225% Cr, 5-7% Ni~3% Mo
For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 140 Ksi)
CO2 and brine resistant, limited sour service resistance, often used for HPHT tubing, also sea-
water injection tubing
Group 3 Austenitic Iron based 25-27% Cr, 30+% Ni, ~3% Mo
For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 140 Ksi)
Sour gas well tubing for long life Qatar Shell Gas to Liquids
Group 4 - Austenitic Nickel based 20+% Cr, 40-60% Ni, 3-16% Mo
For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 140 Ksi)
Hot sour gas well tubing for long life Sepco GoM HPHT tubing
Note: except for API L80-13Cr, all CRAs are Proprietary, even within ISO 13680

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications
Corrosion Resistant Alloys for OCTG Cost, Supply & Alternatives
CRA tubing is expensive; as of early 2008:
API J55 ~ US$ 1300 2500/Te (wide variation between suppliers)
Premium L80 ~ US$ 2000 3700/Te (wide variation between suppliers)
L80-13Cr ~ US$ 4000 5000/Te
Super 13Cr-110 ~ US$ 9000/Te plus
Super Duplex 25% Cr-125 ~ US$ 30,000/Te plus
Sanicro 28 Cr Austenitic ~ US$ 45,000/Te plus
Group 4 materials are 1 Mercedes/Tonne!
13% Chrome limited supplier base:
ONLY Sumitomo, JFE (Kawasaki) and Tenaris NKKt in Japan, V&M in Europe & Brazil
High end CRA tubing - very restricted supply:
Sumitomo - largest manufacturer :
< 20,000 Te/year for Duplexes and Austenitics now booking 2009+!
Availability > 7 even more restricted by manufacturing constraints
Few other manufacturers, much lower capacity, currently only up to 7:
ONLY DMV and Tenaris Sandvik in Europe, Special Metals/CRA in USA.
Are there any cheaper alternatives?
Not yet, but we are working on it, particularly for most severe applications!
Internally clad/lined tubing connections are the issue could be much cheaper.
Titanium alloys very expensive per Tonne, but need fewer Tonnes increased supply base?
Rolled and welded CRA plate, then cold worked increased supply base?

File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 Part 3.ppt


Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Tubing Specifications
API Specification 5CT (8th Edition) ISO 11960:2004 defines
Hereafter API for brevity
Basic definitions:
Outside Diameter
Wall thickness/Linear Weight
Drift diameter
Length
Grade
Thus chemical composition, mechanical properties and testing requirements
Inspection requirements
Connections (if API)
Protectors, markings, coatings, bundling, transportation, etc, etc
For Proprietary Carbon steels & CRAs:
Grade requirements (chemistry, processing, properties, testing etc)
Proprietary, may be linked with ISO 13680 for CRAs
Tube requirements (dimensions, inspection, marking, etc, etc)
API 5CT/ISO 11960 used as defining

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Outside Diameter:
API Tubing is up to 4.1/2 only
1.050, 1.315, 1.66, 1.90, 2.063, 2.3/8, 2.7/8, 3.1/2 & 4.1/2
API Casing is 4.1/2 to 20
4.1/2, 5, 5.1/2, 6.5/8, 7, 7.3/4, 8.5/8, 9.5/8, 11.3/4, 13.3/8, 16, 18.5/8,
20
Many other sizes available, meeting API requirements, but not strictly API
We commonly use both API Tubing and Casing as tubing
Beware different definitions within API spec, for example Range lengths
Most common Shell tubing sizes:
3.12/, 4.1/2 5, 5.1/2 & 7
Big bore systems:
7.5/8& 9.5/8, some even to 10.3/4
Specification tolerance is now OD 0.5%, + 1.0%
Pipe typically larger not smaller (easier to thread)
Special drift sizes may need extra OD tolerance I.e. even larger pipe OD

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications
Wall thickness/Linear Weight
API defines a limited list of wall thicknesses and matching linear weights
(e.g. pounds per foot) for each API Tubing or Casing
These are NOMINAL, not minimums or maximums
Other wall thicknesses/weights are available from many manufacturers,
but these are mostly more relevant to casing applications (e.g. Special
Drift heavy wall for HPHT wells).
Minimum wall thickness determines burst strength (internal pressure
capacity)
API defines required minimum as 87.5% of nominal
API burst ratings based thus on 87.5% of of nominal wall
Tubing can be slightly up-rated by specifying an increased minimum wall
thickness, often 90% of nominal
This increases burst rating just less than 3%
In modern mills this can often be supplied at little or no extra cost.
Average wall thickness, as cross section area, determines tensile and
compression rating (axial load capacity)
Beware cold worked CRAs often have less compression than tension capacity
due to anisotropic effects
Consult manufacturers specification and test data for de-rating figures

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications
Drift diameter:
API defines a minimum passing internal diameter, demonstrated by physical drifting
with a test mandrel.
It does NOT define the Internal Diameter of a pipe AT ALL,
Tubing and casing IDs are nominal; ONLY the drift diameter is defined .
For Tubing applications always specify a long (Tubing type) drift mandrel (42).
This helps ensure optimum concentricity for easy passage of tight tolerance tools, e.g. WL
More recent editions of API 5CT (including 8th Edition)/ISO 11960 define several
Alternate Drift diameters as formal options within the specification; these are mostly
in larger casing sizes, and are based on common bit sizes. Example Alternate Drift
tubulars for tubing use are:
7 23# - standard drift: 6.241 , Alternate Drift: 6.1/4 (6.250)
7 32# - standard drift: 5.969, Alternate Drift: 6 (6.000)
Other Alternate Drift diameters are specified, and very commonly used, for 8.5/8, 9.5/8,
10.3/4, 11.3/4 and 13.3/8 casings.
Several Shell companies purchase Special Drift tubulars, based on the same logic. For
example:
7 38# - standard drift: 5.795, Shell EPE Special Drift: 5.879 (same as standard 7 35#)
Be aware that these are SPECIALS, not yet industry standards, although many will become
such.
Note in particular that Special Drift or Alternate Drift tubulars will always have larger
actual IDs than the nominal value.

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Length:
API defines three length ranges (R1, R2 & R3) with different values for
different applications.
Casing & Liners:
R1: 16 to 25 ft; R2: 25 to 34 ft, R3: 34 to 48 ft
Most common is R3 for speed of running, but with REDUCED maximum length
dictated by shipping and handling restrictions.
Range length variation is wide to maximise mill productivity.
Casing & Tubing (threaded and coupled) used as Tubing:
R1: 20 to 24 ft, R2: 28 to 32 ft, R3: 38 to 42 ft
Most common onshore is R2 to match tubing hoist capabilities; R3 (restricted as
above) is more common offshore, for speed of running and maximum string
integrity.
Range length variation is minimal for user operational ease.
Integral Joint Tubing:
R1: 20 to 26 ft, R2: 28 to 34 ft, R3: 38 to 45 ft.
An exception to the API ranges is for tubulars to be shipped by container
maximum length is 38 ft (11.6 m) to fit inside ISO containers.
If you are specifying tubing in a new area check your rig capability and for
shipping restrictions (e.g. ocean liners, rail cars, trucks etc).

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

API grades define composition by:


Chemical composition LIMITS for Carbon steels by Group and Type:
All Group 1 materials (H40 through J & K55 and N80-1 and N80-Q):
only Sulphur and Phosphorus maxima are defined.
these limits (S: max 0.030% and P: Max 0.030%) are much higher than best practise;
very few tubulars made at these limits will have satisfactory mechanical properties.
The four types of Group 4 (Q125) material have only different maxima for:
C, Mn, Mo, Cr, Ni, P and S.
For a few grades, Copper and Silicon maxima are also defined.
Chemical composition RANGE & LIMITS only for L80, C90 & T95 products.
E.g for L80-13Cr:
C: 0.15 to 0.22%, Mn: 0.25 to 1%, Mo: n/s, Cr: 12 to 14%, Ni: max 0.5%, Cu: max 0.25%,
P: max 0.020%, S: max 0.010%, Si: max 1%
Chemistry limits in API 5CT are very wide and not at all complete:
Best practise is to agree whole analysis composition ranges with manufacturer.
Check in addition for Aluminium and Copper tramp elements
Proprietary grades will be much more closely specified by the
manufacturer.

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

ISO 13680 grades define CRA compositions by:


Category: X-Y-Z where:
X = nominal % Chromium content
Y = nominal % Nickel content
Z = nominal % Molybdenum content
Chemical composition to the level of also specifying typical analyses for
Carbon, Nitrogen, Tungsten and by balance, Iron.
Manufacturers are responsible for defining composition ranges for above
elements, and for defining what other elements to be controlled.
Beware:
Manufacturers typically quote contract chemical compositions, which they
must stay within to produce conforming product.
These ranges are typically much wider than in the performance tested product.
Typical manufacturing control documents will then state aiming compositions,
which they intend to manufacture the product within.
These ranges are typically a bit wider than in the performance tested product.
If your application relies on the proven performance of a very narrow
composition range agree this in writing with the manufacturer in
advance.

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Mechanical properties:
API defines tensile strength and hardness requirements:
Yield Strength: Minimum and Maximum
Ultimate Tensile Strength: Minimum
Elongation & Reduction in Area: Minimums (ductility measures)
Hardness: Maximum for Group 2 only
Through wall hardness variation: Maximum for Group 2 & 4 only
API defines Charpy V-Notch Impact Energies (toughness) requirements:
Minimums for coupling stock for all materials except H40
Minimums for pipe bodies for all higher grades, i.e except H40, J55, K55, & N80-1
Optional minimums for pipe bodies for H40 through N80-1
ALWAYS ensure that your pipe bodies DO have sufficient toughness, I.e.
always require toughness testing where it is an option
Principally by testing during manufacture
Occasionally by statistical control for very well controlled manufacturing routes
Consider also appropriate Toughness test temperature:
API permits room temperature not very relevant for cold environments
API also defines mechanical test specimens, methods and frequencies; these
will typically be INCREASED for more critical materials and proprietary
materials.
Mechanical property requirements (& testing methods & frequencies) will
usually be defined by manufacturer for proprietary materials

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Tubulars & Connections Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications

Inspection requirements:
Visual and dimensional
Surface condition for visible defects such as:
Rolling marks (scars, scratches, ridges) laps, pits, inclusions, pin holes, dents etc
Basic dimensions also straightness, roundness
Non-Destructive Examination:
Electro-Magnetic Inspection (EMI):
Using an electromagnetic field to automatically inspect for surface (ID & OD) defects
and to check wall thickness
Quite fast at moderate sensitivity levels
Ultra-Sonic Testing (UST):
Using very high frequency acoustics to automatically inspect for surface (ID & OD)
defects and to check wall thickness
Capable of inspecting thicker materials and non-magnetic materials
Capable of very high sensitivity at lower speeds
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI):
Dry - using a magnetic field and powder to further check defects found by EMI or
UST on pipe bodies, or to check un-inspected pipe ends.
Wet using a magnetic field and an ultra-violet light sensitive dye to check for
cracks and other defects typically on finished couplings.

File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 Part 3.ppt


Tubulars & Connections

File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 Part 3.ppt