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Tubulars & Connections (W250

)
Part 3 – Steel Types &
Specifications

Dave Seymour
Global TEH – OCTG’s
Updated March 2008

File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.ppt

higher strength. heat treatment and strength: • Group 1 – H40. L80-1. highest strength. but cheap » N80-Q for non-corrosive tubing service • Group 2 – (M65). modest life expectancy in corrosive service. C90-1/2. N80-1 & N80-Q – Simple chemistries. no CO2 • Group 3 – P110 – Simple chemistry. quenched and tempered – for casing service • Group 4 – Q125-1/2/3/4 – Defined chemistries. K55. moderately sour. based on chemistry. sour service » M65 rare. T95-1/2 – Defined chemistries. J55. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • API Carbon Steels for OCTG’s – A range of simpler Carbon or low-alloy steels for OCTG use • Note that we are only concerned with Seamless tubing. C95. lower strengths. C and T grades mostly for (sour) casing service » L80-1 very common for tubing service in moderate environments – medium pressure oil and gas wells. simplest applications » H40 obsolete.ppt . K55 & N80 for casing service » J55 common for simplest tubing service – low pressure (sour) oil wells. medium strengths. quenched and tempered – for casing service File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. – usefulness of welded (ERW) tubing is very limited – API Specification 5CT (8th Edition) ISO 11960:2004 defines 4 Groups. all quenched and tempered (except M65).

HPHT production casing in EP Europe. each from specific suppliers. maximum 90% H2S!). Full list is very long. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Proprietary Carbon Steels for OCTG’s – A range of enhanced Carbon and low-alloy steels for seamless OCTG use. • Vallourec Mannesmann VM110SS – highest strength for restricted sour service .ppt . – Standard tubing and production casing for Shell Canada’s sour gas wells (typically 30% H2S. but examples in common use in Shell include: • Sumitomo SM95S –sour service higher strength. – Alternatives to each of the above are available from nearly all the major manufacturers File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. mostly for casing service – standard sour gas well production casing in PD Oman. • Tenaris TN80SS – medium strength to meet Canadian ‘Industry Recommend Practise’ specifications for critical sour gas service (> 5% H2S).

1–5% Ni. some also limited sour service. 5-7% Ni~3% Mo – For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 – 140 Ksi) » CO2 and brine resistant. often used for HPHT tubing.80 to 110 Ksi yield – Includes API L80-13Cr. Modified and Super-13Cr » Many sweet service tubing applications. low Mo – All heat treated to achieve required strengths . Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Corrosion Resistant Alloys for OCTG’s – API 13% Chrome • OCTG Group 2 L80-13 Cr – Standard material for sweet gas wells. even within ISO 13680 File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. but NOT sour service – ISO 13680 defines 4 groups based on micro-structure and chemistry: • Group 1 – Martensitic & Martensitic/Ferritic x ~13-15% Cr. all CRA’s are Proprietary. • Group 2 – Duplex/Super Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) – 22–25% Cr. 30+% Ni.Austenitic Nickel based – 20+% Cr. ~3% Mo – For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 – 140 Ksi) » Sour gas well tubing for long life – Qatar Shell Gas to Liquids • Group 4 . 40-60% Ni. also sea- water injection tubing • Group 3 – Austenitic Iron based – 25-27% Cr. limited sour service resistance. 3-16% Mo – For tubing cold worked for higher strength (110 – 140 Ksi) » Hot sour gas well tubing for long life – Sepco GoM HPHT tubing • Note: except for API L80-13Cr.ppt . CO2 resistant.

000/Te plus • Sanicro 28 Cr Austenitic ~ US$ 45. – Are there any cheaper alternatives? • Not yet.000 Te/year for Duplexes and Austenitics – now booking 2009+! – Availability > 7” even more restricted by manufacturing constraints • Few other manufacturers. – Titanium alloys – very expensive per Tonne. particularly for most severe applications! – Internally clad/lined tubing – connections are the issue – could be much cheaper. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Corrosion Resistant Alloys for OCTG – Cost. as of early 2008: • API J55 ~ US$ 1300 – 2500/Te (wide variation between suppliers) • Premium L80 ~ US$ 2000 – 3700/Te (wide variation between suppliers) • L80-13Cr ~ US$ 4000 – 5000/Te • Super 13Cr-110 ~ US$ 9000/Te plus • Super Duplex 25% Cr-125 ~ US$ 30. much lower capacity.ppt . Supply & Alternatives – CRA tubing is expensive. JFE (Kawasaki) and Tenaris NKKt in Japan.000/Te plus • Group 4 materials are 1 Mercedes/Tonne! – 13% Chrome – limited supplier base: • ONLY Sumitomo. but need fewer Tonnes – increased supply base? – Rolled and welded CRA plate. but we are working on it.very restricted supply: • Sumitomo . then cold worked – increased supply base? File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. Special Metals/CRA in USA. V&M in Europe & Brazil – High end CRA tubing . currently only up to 7”: – ONLY DMV and Tenaris Sandvik in Europe.largest manufacturer : – < 20.

markings. transportation. marking. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Tubing Specifications – API Specification 5CT (8th Edition) ISO 11960:2004 defines • Hereafter ‘API’ for brevity – Basic definitions: • Outside Diameter • Wall thickness/Linear Weight • Drift diameter • Length • Grade – Thus chemical composition. etc – For Proprietary Carbon steels & CRA’s: • Grade requirements (chemistry. processing. may be linked with ISO 13680 for CRA’s • Tube requirements (dimensions. coatings. bundling. etc) – API 5CT/ISO 11960 used as defining File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. etc. testing etc) – Proprietary. inspection. etc. properties.ppt . mechanical properties and testing requirements • Inspection requirements • Connections (if API) • Protectors.

4.1/2” & 4. 20” – Many other sizes available. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Outside Diameter: – API Tubing is up to 4.3/4” – Specification tolerance is now OD – 0. even larger pipe OD File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.0% • Pipe typically larger not smaller (easier to thread) • Special drift sizes may need extra OD tolerance – I. 2.315”.3/4”. 9. meeting API requirements.7/8”. but not strictly API – We commonly use both API Tubing and Casing as tubing • Beware different definitions within API spec. 7.3/4”.5/8”. 5. 13. 5. + 1.1/2” only • 1.3/8”.1/2” to 20” • 4.5/8”. 1.12/”. 1. 1.063”. 6.1/2”.5/8”& 9. 2. 18. 8.5/8”.90”.1/2” & 7” – Big bore systems: • 7. 7”.1/2”. 16”. 2.5/8”.3/8”.1/2” – API Casing is 4. 3.5/8”. for example Range lengths – Most common Shell tubing sizes: • 3.66”.e. 5”. some even to 10.5%.ppt .1/2” 5”. 11.050”.

Special Drift heavy wall for HPHT wells).g. often 90% of nominal – This increases burst rating just less than 3% – In modern mills this can often be supplied at little or no extra cost. but these are mostly more relevant to casing applications (e. not minimums or maximums – Other wall thicknesses/weights are available from many manufacturers. – Minimum wall thickness determines burst strength (internal pressure capacity) • API defines required minimum as 87.g. – Average wall thickness.5% of of nominal wall • Tubing can be slightly up-rated by specifying an increased minimum wall thickness. determines tensile and compression rating (axial load capacity) • Beware cold worked CRA’s often have less compression than tension capacity due to ‘anisotropic’ effects – Consult manufacturers specification and test data for de-rating figures File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Wall thickness/Linear Weight – API defines a limited list of wall thicknesses and matching linear weights (e. pounds per foot) for each API Tubing or Casing • These are NOMINAL.ppt .5% of nominal – API burst ratings based thus on 87. as cross section area.

Shell EPE Special Drift: 5.241” . – It does NOT define the Internal Diameter of a pipe AT ALL.3/4”. 11. Alternate Drift: 6” (6.250”) • 7” 32# . based on the same logic. demonstrated by physical drifting with a test mandrel.1/4” (6.g. File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.5/8”. Example Alternate Drift tubulars for tubing use are: • 7” 23# . Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Drift diameter: – API defines a minimum passing internal diameter.5/8”. – For Tubing applications always specify a long (Tubing type) drift mandrel (42”).standard drift: 5. for 8. – Several Shell companies purchase Special Drift tubulars. e.standard drift: 6. WL – More recent editions of API 5CT (including 8th Edition)/ISO 11960 define several Alternate Drift diameters as formal options within the specification.ppt . not yet industry standards. although many will become such.879” (same as standard 7” 35#) • Be aware that these are SPECIALS. – Note in particular that Special Drift or Alternate Drift tubulars will always have larger actual ID’s than the nominal value.969”.standard drift: 5. 9.795”. • Tubing and casing ID’s are nominal.3/4” and 13. For example: • 7” 38# .000”) • Other Alternate Drift diameters are specified. • This helps ensure optimum concentricity for easy passage of tight tolerance tools. ONLY the drift diameter is defined . 10.3/8” casings. these are mostly in larger casing sizes. Alternate Drift: 6. and are based on common bit sizes. and very commonly used.

– Casing & Tubing (threaded and coupled) used as Tubing: • R1: 20 to 24 ft. – Range length variation is wide to maximise mill productivity. R3: 38 to 42 ft – Most common onshore is R2 to match tubing hoist capabilities.ppt . File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. but with REDUCED maximum length dictated by shipping and handling restrictions. R2: 28 to 32 ft.6 m) to fit inside ISO containers. – Casing & Liners: • R1: 16 to 25 ft. trucks etc). R2: 25 to 34 ft. R3: 38 to 45 ft.g. R3: 34 to 48 ft – Most common is R3 for speed of running. – If you are specifying tubing in a new area check your rig capability and for shipping restrictions (e. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Length: – API defines three length ranges (R1. R2: 28 to 34 ft. – An exception to the API ranges is for tubulars to be shipped by container • maximum length is 38 ft (11. rail cars. for speed of running and maximum string integrity. – Range length variation is minimal for user operational ease. R3 (restricted as above) is more common offshore. R2 & R3) with different values for different applications. ocean liners. – Integral Joint Tubing: • R1: 20 to 26 ft.

Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • API grades define composition by: – Chemical composition LIMITS for Carbon steels by Group and Type: • All Group 1 materials (H40 through J & K55 and N80-1 and N80-Q): – only Sulphur and Phosphorus maxima are defined.22%. Si: max 1% – Chemistry limits in API 5CT are very wide and not at all complete: • Best practise is to agree whole analysis composition ranges with manufacturer. File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.030% and P: Max 0.15 to 0. – Chemical composition RANGE & LIMITS only for L80.25%. Ni: max 0. very few tubulars made at these limits will have satisfactory mechanical properties. Mo: n/s.5%. – these limits (S: max 0. Cr. P: max 0.030%) are much higher than best practise.010%. Cu: max 0.ppt . C90 & T95 products. Cr: 12 to 14%. • For a few grades.25 to 1%. S: max 0.020%. Mo. • The four types of Group 4 (Q125) material have only different maxima for: – C.g for L80-13Cr: – C: 0. Ni. • Check in addition for Aluminium and Copper tramp elements – Proprietary grades will be much more closely specified by the manufacturer. Copper and Silicon maxima are also defined. Mn. P and S. • E. Mn: 0.

• Typical manufacturing control documents will then state “aiming” compositions. – Beware: • Manufacturers typically quote “contract” chemical compositions.ppt . Tungsten and by balance. which they intend to manufacture the product within. File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. – These ranges are typically a bit wider than in the performance tested product. – Manufacturers are responsible for defining composition ranges for above elements. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • ISO 13680 grades define CRA compositions by: – Category: X-Y-Z where: • X = nominal % Chromium content • Y = nominal % Nickel content • Z = nominal % Molybdenum content – Chemical composition to the level of also specifying ‘typical analyses’ for Carbon. and for defining what other elements to be controlled. • If your application relies on the proven performance of a very narrow composition range – agree this in writing with the manufacturer in advance. – These ranges are typically much wider than in the performance tested product. which they must stay within to produce conforming product. Nitrogen. Iron.

ppt . – Mechanical property requirements (& testing methods & frequencies) will usually be defined by manufacturer for proprietary materials File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3. K55. i. & N80-1 • Optional minimums for pipe bodies for H40 through N80-1 • ALWAYS ensure that your pipe bodies DO have sufficient toughness.e.e except H40. J55. methods and frequencies. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Mechanical properties: – API defines tensile strength and hardness requirements: • Yield Strength: Minimum and Maximum • Ultimate Tensile Strength: Minimum • Elongation & Reduction in Area: Minimums (ductility measures) • Hardness: Maximum for Group 2 only • Through wall hardness variation: Maximum for Group 2 & 4 only – API defines Charpy V-Notch Impact Energies (toughness) requirements: • Minimums for coupling stock for all materials except H40 • Minimums for pipe bodies for all higher grades. these will typically be INCREASED for more critical materials and proprietary materials. I. always require toughness testing where it is an option – Principally by testing during manufacture – Occasionally by statistical control for very well controlled manufacturing routes • Consider also appropriate Toughness test temperature: – API permits room temperature – not very relevant for cold environments – API also defines mechanical test specimens.

using a magnetic field and powder to further check defects found by EMI or UST on pipe bodies. – Wet – using a magnetic field and an ultra-violet light sensitive dye to check for cracks and other defects – typically on finished couplings. scratches. inclusions. pin holes. or to check un-inspected pipe ends. dents etc • Basic dimensions also straightness.ppt . ridges) laps. Tubulars & Connections – Part 3: Steel Types & Specifications • Inspection requirements: – Visual and dimensional • Surface condition for visible defects such as: – Rolling marks (scars. pits. roundness – Non-Destructive Examination: • Electro-Magnetic Inspection (EMI): – Using an electromagnetic field to automatically inspect for surface (ID & OD) defects and to check wall thickness » Quite fast at moderate sensitivity levels • Ultra-Sonic Testing (UST): – Using very high frequency acoustics to automatically inspect for surface (ID & OD) defects and to check wall thickness » Capable of inspecting thicker materials and non-magnetic materials » Capable of very high sensitivity at lower speeds • Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI): – Dry . File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.

Tubulars & Connections File: Tubulars & Connections (W250) Mar 08 – Part 3.ppt .