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Shaly Sand Evaluation

What are Shales?

Clay + silt + other


Clays Absorbed
Water
Plate-like form Sodium Ion

Large surface area Water


Contain Al+3 and Si+4 Clay
Hydration
Crystal
Substitution by Mg+2 Water

Negative charge
results
Schematic
Attraction by water
xH Outer
Water
and cations Molecule
Helmholtz
Plane
Shale Distribution Types

fe Clay
Minerals
Dispersed Clay
Detrital Quartz
Grains

fe
Clay Lamination

Structural Clay fe
(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay-Replaced Grains)
How are Shales Distributed?
Structural
replaces matrix
may not affect porosity-permeability
relatively uncommon
e.g., clasts in channels

Structural Clay f
e
(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay
Clay-Replaced Grains) Detrital Quartz
Grains Minerals
How are Shales Distributed?
Laminated
replaces matrix
and porosity
reduces porosity-
permermeability
common
e.g., intercalations
assume similar to
nearby shale

fe Clay
Minerals
Clay Lamination
Detrital Quartz
Grains
How are Shales Distributed?
Dispersed
replaces pore space
very common
forms in situ
may differ greatly from nearby shales
porosity-permeability reduction
depends on form

f Clay
e Minerals

Dispersed Clay
Detrital Quartz
Grains
Dispersed Clay Forms
Kaolinite booklets
moderate perm effects
may dislodge, block
throats
Chlorite coating
significant perm loss
traps water
Illite tangle
chokes pores and
throats
drastic perm reduction
Shaly Sands are Complicated!
Swt

VSH Vma

Sh Sw Sb

Oil Free Bound Dry Matrix Solids


Gas Water Water Clay

fe

ft

fz
Vshale Estimation
Several estimators
(Vsh)GR
(Vsh)SP
(Vsh)DS
All depend on defining
Clean point e.g., GRmin
Shale point e.g., GRmax
Set Vsh = min{(Vsh)GR,(Vsh)SP,(Vsh)DS}
Each estimator has flaws e.g., GR and mica, SP
and HCs
Assumes smallest estimate is accurate
Vshale Assumptions

Response in nearby shale gives 100% shale


Some interval has 0% shale
Shale in formation same as nearby shale
The minimum is best estimate
Porosity Estimation using Vsh

fcorr fapp Vshf sh


Effective porosity = fcorr
Apparent porosity, matrix adjusted = fapp
Apparent porosity in shale = fsh
10ft shale Example - Well X
RHOB = 2.39
ma b
f sh
ma fl
2.65 2.39
15
2.65 1.0
224ft shaly sand
RHOB = 2.27
Vsh = 19%
ma b
fapp 23
ma fl

f Dcorr 23 0.19(15) 20
Example - Well X
10ft shale
PHIN = 36 (LS)
PHIN = 40 (SS)

224ft shaly sand


PHIN = 23 (LS)
PHIN = 27 (SS)
Vsh = 19%
f Ncorr 27 0.19(40) 19

Density and neutron


agree within 1pu
Porosity Estimation using Vsh

fcorr fapp Vshf sh


In water, fcorr for each tool will agree
In HCs, fcorr may still differ
For the density-neutron,

2 2
f Dcorr f Ncorr
fcorr 2
10000

Effect of Shaly 1000

Permeability (mD)
100
Formations 10

1
Shales affect porosity- 0.1
permeability 0.01 Illite-free
Illite-affected
Reduce porosity 0.001
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Change permeability Porosity (%)
10000 1
Reduce levels Illite-free

Vertical Permeability (mD)


1000 Illite-affected 0.1

Reduce variability 100 0.01


10 0.001
Reduce anisotropy 1
k v /k h

0.1
0.01
0.001
0.001 0.1 10 1000
Horizontal Permeability (mD)
Well Log Effects
Well X
Water leg
OWC @ 150 ft
Shaly interval
220 - 230 ft.
Resistivity
increase
Sonic Dt
increase
Density b
increase
Well Log Effects
HC zone
OWC @ 150 ft
Shaly interval
115 - 130 ft.
Resistivity
decrease
Sonic Dt increase
Density b
increase
Neutron fN
increase
Permeability Estimation using
Porosity Log Result

Tixier Method
f 3
k 1/ 2
250
S wi
Timur Method

f 2.25
k 1/ 2
100
S wi
Summary
Shale/clays affect formation
Porosity
Permeability
Pessimistic Sws
Shale/clays affect logs
Shale/clay take several forms
Estimating Vshale
SP Log
Resistivity Log
GR Log
Water Saturation Equation

Many different water saturation equations


have been developed
Archies model for a clean formation is:

n F Rw
Sw
Rt
All other models are for shaly formations
where the rock is not a perfect insulator
Water Saturation Equation
Commonly used formulas to account for shale:
Simandeaux
Indonesia
Waxman-Smits
Dual water
Simandeaux and Indonesia are Vsh models
W-S and D-W
Double-layer models
Attempt to avoid using Vsh
Water Saturation Equation
Archie
fe
m
Ct Cw S wn
A
Simandeaux
Cwf e S w
m n
n 1
Ct S w VshCsh
A1 Vsh
Indonesia
Cw n / 2 1 (Vsh / 2) n/2
Ct S w Vsh Csh S w
F
All Vsh models are similar: total C = clean C +
shale C
Well X Example
Depth b fD fNLS fNSS CGR VSH fD corr fN corr Rt Sw
010 2.39 15.5 37.5 41.5 88 100% 2.7
225 2.27 23.0 23 27.5 20 19% 20.0 19.6 0.5 0.95
047 2.17 29.0 24.0 28.0 20 19% 26.2 20.5 30 0.10
Water Saturation Equation
Waxman-Smits model

' ft
m
n
Ct Cw S wt
A
where

' BQv
Cw Cw
S wt
Note independent conduction paths by free
water and bound water
Waxman-Smits Equation
New terms
BQV: conductivity of bound water
QV: cation exchange capacity (meq/gm dry clay)
1 meq = 6E20 atoms
measures how many cations are present
different clays have different CECs
kaolinite 0.03 to 0.06
chlorite 0 to 0.1
illite 0.1 to 0.4
montmorillonite 0.8 to 1.5
B: specific counterion conductivity (mho/m per meq/cc)
counterions are the charge-balancing Na cations
B is a per unit measure
measures how effective cations will conduct electricity
Waxman-Smits Equation
Waxman-Smits Swt obtained
1
by iteration
F n

S wt i 1 Rt
1
Rw

BQv S wt i


where Swt0 is the initial guess, Swt1 is the next
guess, etc., and
A
F
ftm

B 1 0.83e 0.5 Rw Bmax
Note: Rw in B equation is at 75F.
Maximum Equivalent Conductance of Sodium-
Exchange Ions, NA or Bmax vs temperature
NA or Bmax, mho - cm-2 mca-1

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05 Bmax (51.31)lnT R 317.2

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Temperature, C
Approximate values for Qv are:
Very shaly Qv = 1.5
Moderate shale Qv = 1.0
Medium shale Qv = 0.5
Low shale Qv = 0.25
No shale Qv = 0
CEC or Qv should, however, be lab measured
Qv may correlate with logs (e.g., GR)
Dual Water Model
m
f
Ct Cw t Snwt
A
where
Sb Sb
Cw Cwb 1 Cwf
S wt S wt
The Dual Water Model is a more general form of
the Waxman-Smits model.
The free water salinity can be different than
the salinity of the claybound water.
To determine Sw, use iterative method, like W-S
New terms
Both depend on CEC
Without CEC, have to use nearby shale
Sb - bound water saturation
Sb = f(CEC, Cwf)
Sb = Vshfsh/ft
Cwb- bound water conductivity
Cwb = g(CEC, Sb)
Cwb = ACsh/(fsh)2
Summary

There is no one correct model

Normally, Archie or Dual Water Model will


be satisfactory to solve most problems.

On occasion, however, Waxman-Smits,


Simandeauxs, or other models can be
used with certain data to provide useful
results.