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You are on page 1of 75

Io

For resistive load I=I sin t I rms

2

<P> = P/2

period, Distinguish

frequency, 24.1 Characteristics between peak and

peak value of alternating current rms value

and root-mean

square value 24.2

24. Alternating Transformer

Currents

Half-wave and Principle of

full-wave

operation

24.3 Transmission

24.4 Rectification N s Vs I P

of electrical energy

N P VP I s

effect of single Single diode and

capacitance on bridge rectifier Advantage of ac

smoothing and high voltages

http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/ac/index.html

Terms you are likely to encounter

Alternating Current (AC) Electricity

by Ron Kurtus (revised 2 June 2009)

electricity commonly used in homes and

businesses throughout the world. While direct

current (DC) electricity flows in one direction

through a wire, AC electricity alternates its

direction in a back-and-forth motion. The

direction alternates between 50 and 60 times

per second, depending on the electrical system

of the country.

http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/ac.htm

Alternating Current (AC) Electricity

by Ron Kurtus (revised 2 June 2009)

generator, which determines the frequency.

What is special about AC electricity is that the

voltage can be readily changed, thus making it

more suitable for long-distance transmission

than DC electricity. But also, AC can employ

capacitors and inductors in electronic circuitry,

allowing for a wide range of applications.

http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/ac.htm

24.1 Characteristics of a.c.

current current

time

time

Current flow in an electric current that

one direction. periodically reverses its

direction in the circuit, with a

frequency f independent of

the constants of the circuit.

http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-format-wars.php

a) Peak or maximum

Terms current (Io, or Im) is

the maximum current

or amplitude of

current.

amplitude

b) One cycle is one

alternation.

c) Frequency (f) is the

number of cycles

occurring per

one cycle second.

d) Period (T) is the time

for one complete

cycle.

T = 1/f

Equations of graph?

Equation of sinusoidal alternating

current

a) The instantaneous current is the current

at any time t is given by,

i = I0 sin (t + )

where I0 = peak or maximum current

t = time

= 2f = angular frequency

= phase

f = frequency of a.c.

A.C. flowing in a resistor,

The voltage from the source

is

v = Vo sin t

v

i I osin t

R

Where I = Vo /R

The current and voltage are

in phase.

Power

The instantaneous

power developed

across the resistor is

P = i2R

= P0 sin 2t

where P0 = IoR

=peak or maximum

power

http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/Rms.htm

http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/PHYS1111/acc/acc.html

Mean power

R T 2

Io P I o sin 2 t.dt

T 0

RI o2

Io/2

2

Po

2

The mean power is

equal to half the

The equation i2 = Io2 sin2 t is maximum power.

also a sinusoidal curve with a

mean value Io2/2.

Review: Mean value

Exercise 24.2

a)

Determine the

mean of the

curves shown.

Soln

Power

b) a) <V> = 0

Po

b) <P> = Po/2

Po/2

0

Exercise 24.3

alternating current

of amplitude 20 A,

50 Hz and a phase

of /2 radian. What 5 10 15 20 25 time/ms

is the equation of

the graph?

Pulse

generator

[oscillator]

Provides alternating

current of different

frequency and

amplitude.

SIGNAL GENERATOR

symbol

Oscillator, frequencies and

low voltage a.c., pulse amplitudes of

generator sinusoidal wave forms

Provides different to be selected.

waveforms in the form Variation in voltage.

of a.c.

7/6/2017 B. H. Khoo 16

Root mean square current.

Mean Power Io

I rms

2

I o2

P R The root mean

2 square [rms]

<P> = IrmsR current is the a.c.

where that has the same

Irms = root mean square heating effect in a

current given resistor as a

For d.c., P = IR direct current (d.c.)

Mathematics corner [for info]

1 T 2 2

I I o sin t.dt

2

T 0

I o2 T

(1 cos2t )dt

2T 0

2

Io sin 2t T

[t ]0

2T 2 cos 2 = cos2 - sin2

Io 2

2 = 1 - 2 sin2

as

2 T

Exercise 24.4

voltage shown,

determine,

a) peak voltage,

b) frequency,

c) root mean square

voltage,

d) state the equation

of the sinusoidal

voltage.

Exercise 24.5 i I osin t

Io

I rms

An alternating current of 2

i = [5.0/A] sin [100 t/s]

passes through a load of resistance 20 . The

current is measured in ampere and the time in

second. Calculate,

a) the peak current, 5.0 A 5

I rms 3.54 A

b) the root mean square current, 2

c) the frequency of the current, = 100, =2f

d) the period, T 2 2 f = 15.9 Hz

100

62.8 ms

Exercise 24.5

An alternating current of e) I = 5 sin 100(0.07)

i = 5.0 sin [100 t/s]

Calculate, = 3.3 A

e) the instantaneous f) Po = IoR = 520

current at 70 ms, = 500 W

f) the maximum power

dissipated g) <P> = 500/2 = 250 W

g) the mean power

dissipated,

(Ans. a) 5.0 A, b) 3.54 A ,

c) 15.9 Hz, d) 62.8

ms e) 3.2 A, f) 500

W g) 250 W)

Exercise 24.5

a) Sketch the graph of i

versus time.

b) Sketch the graph of

the instantaneous 5

power versus time.

0

c) Sketch the graph of 31 63 time/ms

double the peak -5

current but half the

frequency.

How to calculate root mean square current.

the phrase. N

a) Find the sum of a )

square of the i 1

I i I1 I 2 .....I N

2 2 2 2

quantity,

b) Find the mean of

a), and b) I 2 I 2

N

c) Take the square

root of b), c) I I 2

rms

Find a) the mean voltage, Exercise 24.6

and b) the mean

square voltage and c)

root mean square

voltage/V

voltage.

(Ans. a) 3.33 V b) 33.3 V2,

c) 5.77 V) 10

Soln.

a) 3<V> = 10[1]

2 4 6 8 t/s

<V> = 3.33 V

b) 3<V>= 100[1]

<V>= 33.3 V2

c) Vrms = 33.3 = 5.77 V

Self-test 24.1 1) An alternating current

(a.c.) is an electric

1) What is an current that periodically

alternating reverses its direction in

current? the circuit, with a

2) What is the peak frequency f independent

voltage? of the constants of the

circuit.

2) Peak or maximum

voltage is the maximum

voltage or amplitude of

voltage.

Self-test 24.1 3) Peak voltage is the

maximum voltage while root

3) Distinguish mean square voltage is the

between the alternating voltage that has

peak and root the same heating effect in a

mean square given resistor as a direct

voltage. voltage. The peak voltage

is larger than rms voltage.

Self-test 24.1

4) What is meant by 4a) Frequency (f) is the

a) frequency, number of cycles

b) the root mean occurring per

square current of an second.

a.c.? b) The root mean

square [rms]

current is the a.c.

that has the same

heating effect in a

given resistor as a

direct current (d.c.)

Self-test 24.1

5) For an alternating

voltage,

5a) 20 V

v=[20/V]sin

b) 20/2 =14.1 V

[200t/ms]

c) 2f = 200 /10

Determine

f = 100 kHz

a) the peak voltage,

b) the rms voltage,

c) frequency of the

alternating voltage.

PYP 24.1

The magnetic flux density B of the Soln.

field due to a long straight wire peak current Io

is given by = 20002

o I = 2828 A

B

2d o I

An overhead power cable carries B

an alternating current of 2000 A

2d

r.m.s. At what distance would 6 4x10 7

(2828)

100 x10

the peak magnetic flux density 2d

due to the current in the cable

be 100 T? d = 5.7 m

[Ans.: 5.7 m]

PYP 24.2

Ans A 2

Vo

P = Po =

2R

Is independent of

frequency

24.2 Transformer

alternating p.d from one value to another

of greater (step-up) or smaller value

(step-down) using the mutual induction

principle.

Power Transformer

Transformer

500 MVA Single-phase

autotransformers

Substation

Equipment: Power

Transformers

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/elect

ric_power/illustrated_glossary/sub

station_equipment/power_transfor

mers.html

Electricity

Flow on the

Farm

http://www.wisconsinpublicservice.com/business/farm_voltage_electricity.aspx

Transformer (electrical appliants)

Used in laboratory

power supply.

Description

a) A simple transformer

consists of two coils,

the primary and the

secondary coils wound

over a core made of

magnetically soft

material.

b) There is no electrical

connection between the

primary and secondary

coils, but the soft iron

core provides a magnetic

link between them.

http://www.electricityforum.com/products/trans-s.htm

Description

primary coil produces an a.c. through it,

which produces an alternating magnetic

flux in the core threading the secondary

coil.

b) An alternating voltage is induced in the

secondary coil.

c) Frequency of secondary voltage is the same

as the primary voltage.

Transformer

primary

secondary

coil

coil

a.c. CRO

source

flux produced by the primary coil passes through

the secondary. The primary coil is connected to

an a.c. source.

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/electromagnetic_induction.html

http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1011v4/css/h1011v4_48.htm

Principle [how it works]

When current rises in the As the current

primary coil, the reverses direction,

magnetic field through the emf in the

the secondary coil due secondary reverses

to this current direction.

increases. the frequency of the

The changing flux through secondary is the

the secondary causes same as the primary.

e.m.f to be induced in

the secondary coil

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/electromagnetic_induction.html

Main causes of energy loses

resistor is i2R where R is the resistance of the

resistor and i the current passing through the

coil. This is reduced by using low resistance

thick copper wire.

b) Eddy current. The changing flux in the core

will cause and induced current called eddy

current to flow. Laminating the core reduces

the energy losses due to eddy current.

Main causes of energy loses [2]

c) Flux leakage occurs when the changing flux from

the primary threads the secondary. Efficient core

design to ensure that all the primary flux is linked

with the secondary.

d) Hysteresis loss. Magnetization of the core is

repeatedly changed from one direction another and

back again. This requires energy and causes the

core to get hot. This is reduced by using soft

magnetic material for the core.

Commercial transformer has an efficiency of 95% to

99%. An ideal transformer has an efficiency of

100%.

changing field

induced changing

field

eddy current

Laminated iron core

induced

magnetic field

changing

produced by the

field

current.

induced

I current

[eddy

current]

core

Function of soft iron core:

a) concentrates the magnetic flux,

b) laminated to reduce eddy current losses.

formed of a piles of thin iron or steel

stampings (thin sheets) called lamination.

These are oxidized on the surface or lightly

varnished to increase the electrical resistance

from one to another.

For a transformer,

vs Ns

#vs and vp must both be

vp N p either peak voltage or

where both rms.

vs = secondary voltage *For Ns> Np, its a step up

v p= primary voltage transformer and

Ns = number of turns in if Np> Ns its a step down

secondary transformer.

Np = number of turns in

primary.

For an ideal transformer

Power output = power For ideal transformer

input there is not energy

is v s i P v p

lost, the input energy

is completely

vs i p transformed into the

output energy.

vp is

where ip = primary current

is = secondary current

24.3 Transmission of electrical energy

usually placed some

distance from towns.

Electricity needs to

Transformer play an

be transmitted over

essential part in the

long distance.

transmission of

electricity. There is always

power loss in

transmission lines

due to their

resistance (IR).

Transmission of electrical energy

pylon

http://www.t2.unh.edu/spring99/pg4.html

Transmission

In Britain a network of cables, called the

national grid, links all the power stations. It

allows the demand for electricity to be

shared out between the power stations.

Most of the cables in the grid system are

carried overhead on pylons. Underground

cables are more expensive and difficult to

maintain. They are used in cities and

where the scenery must not be spoilt.

Advantages of using electrical

energy

1. Electrical energy is the easiest form of

energy to transmit, and distributed by cables.

2. For many modern appliances, electrical

energy is the only form of energy that can be

used.

3. Electrical energy can be converted efficiently

into any one of the other forms of energy.

How electrical energy is transmitted?

cables. Transmission is done using

alternating current at high voltages to

reduces energy losses in cables.

1. The voltage is step up to high voltage

before transmitted from power station.

2. This ensures that the current flowing in

the cables is small and the rate of power

dissipated in cables are minimum (IR).

How electrical energy is transmitted?

is lowered in stages at receiving

substations depending on the need of the

customer.

4. The national grid is made up of close

network of cables that join receiving

substations

Example 24.7

The output power P and R

output voltage V from a

power station is connected

to a factory by cables of

total resistance R. ~ factory

Calculate P, V

a)the current flowing in the

circuit, power station

b) the power dissipated in

cables,

c) the power input to the

factory.

Advantages of a.c. in transmission

1. Direct current are less easy to generate than

alternating currents.

2. Alternating e.m.fs are more convenient to step

up and to step down.

as direct current. The heating effect does not

depend on direction of current. e.g. (a) lighting:

filament lamps depend on the heating effect, gas

discharge lamps run as well on alternating

current. (b) small motors in vacuum cleaners can

use a.c.

Advantages of a.c. in transmission [2]

4. Transmission using alternating current is more efficient

than d.c. transmission. This is because high voltage

transmission is more efficient than low voltage

transmission.

5. In high voltage and low current transmission of

electrical power, low currents require thinner and

therefore cheaper cables.

Disadvantage.

For use of high voltage the high cost of the substation

insulation needed. Cost of transmitting a.c. is lower

than direct current.

Practical transmission system

two basic ways:

(a) By reducing the resistance of the cables.

(b) By reducing the current flowing.

can only be brought about by making the cables

very thick. This is not practical for several

reasons.

Practical transmission system [2]

materials are required, expensive to

manufacture and installed.

2. Thicker cables may not be slung from

pylons.

3. It is more difficult and costly to insulate high

voltage cables than to be laid underground.

PYP 24.4

Ans: C

24.4 Rectification

1. Rectification is the conversion

of alternating current (a.c.) to current

direct current (d.c.)

2. A rectifier is a conductor

which is largely unidirectional.

3. Ideal rectifier or diode.

a) Must have a zero resistance voltage

when the current flow in one

direction and

b) Must have an infinite

resistance when the current

flows in opposite direction.

Forward biased

Direction of

conventional current is

the same as direction

of arrow of diode.

Rectifier conducts and

has a zero resistance.

A real diode has low

resistance

http://www.gadgetjq.com/tach_install.htm

Reversed biased

Direction of conventional

current is opposite to that

of the arrow of the diode.

The diode is non-

conducting, and has an

infinite resistance.

A real diode has a high

resistance and negligible

current flows.

Why do we need to rectify a.c.?

D.C is required for

a) battery charging

b) operating of CRO

c) operation of GM tube.

d) operation of X-ray tube

e) operation of radio receivers and

transmitters.

P Half Wave Rectification

Q

During the first half

cycle when Q is

cycle when P is

negative, the diode is

positive, the diode reversed

forward ........................

is.......................

biased, and is

biased and is non-conducting

..................................

................................

conducting

http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/physics_a2/options/module_9/Topic_3/topic_3.htm

Half Wave Rectification [2]

The output is a This is adequate for a

pulsating crude circuit, for

unidirectional (direct) example the low

current. The rectifier voltage fan motor for

conducts only during a hair dryer.

half

.................. the cycle.

The disadvantage is

half

that only ..................

cycle contributes to

the rectification.

Full wave Rectification

half cycles are rectified.

Two half-wave rectifiers are placed back to back.

The load is connected to a centre tapping of the

transformer.

This is called a centre-tap full-wave rectifier.

It always needs a transformer with a centre tap.

Bridge Rectifier

The arrows show the forward

and reverse half cycles:

http://www.eleinmec.com/article.asp?18

www.antonine-education.co.uk/.../TOPIC_3.HTM

How it works?

During the first half cycle, when terminal X of the

B

supply is positive, diodes ........ D are

and ........

conducting, and diodes .......... A C

and ............. are

reversed biased.

During the second half cycle, when terminal Y is

A and .........

positive, diodes .......... C are

conducting, and diodes .......... B and ..........

D are

reversed biased.

In both half cycle. the current through the load are

same

in the ................. direction.

How it works?

doubled

Power utilised is ...................... that achieved with

half wave rectification.

doubled

The output is .............................. with an average

voltage of

<V> = 2/3 Vo

where Vo is the peak voltage.

Alternative diagram

http://ocw.weber.edu/automotive-technology/ausv-1320-automotive-electronics/12-diodes/rectification

Smoothing

The pulsating

output produced

by both half-

wave and full-

wave rectifiers

can be made

more steady

(smooth) by

putting suitable

capacitor in

parallel with the

load.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge_rectifier

Smoothing [2]

When the current flows through the load in both

half cycles the capacitor charges, and when the

voltage across the load decreases the capacitor

discharges.

If the time constant CR is large the capacitor

recharges before it has completely discharges

i.e. use a capacitor with large capacity.

The output is ripple voltage at twice the input

frequency.

Summary

1. Alternating currents can be rectified using

diodes;

2. A single diode will carry out half wave

rectification;

3. Two diodes connected to a centre tapped

transformer well carry out full wave rectification;

4. Four diodes in a bridge circuit form a bridge

rectifier.

5. Capacitors are used to smooth rectified AC.

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