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CEMENT CONCRETE TILES AND

PAVING BLOCK

PRODUCT : CEMENT PAVERS

QUALITY AND STANDARD: NIL

MONTH & YEAR :

PREPARED BY : HAR ENTERPRISES,


VILL. KADIANA,
NEAR SHAM
CHAURASI
DISTT. HOSHIARPUR
1. INTRODUCTION
Cement concrete tiles and paving blocks are precast solid
products made of out of cement concrete. The product is made
in various sizes and shape viz. rectangular, square blocks of
different dimensions with designs for interlocking of adjacent
tiles blocks. The raw materials required for manufacture of the
product are Portland cement and aggregates which are
available locally in every part of the country.

1.1. MARKET POTENTIAL


Cement concrete tiles and paving blocks find applications in
payment, footpaths, gardens, passenger waiting sheds, bus-
stops, industry and other public places. The product is
commonly used urban area for the above applications. Hence,
the unit may be set up in urban and semi-urban areas.
A lot of face-lift is being given to roads, footpaths along the
roadside. Concrete paving blocks are ideal material on the
footpaths for easy laying, better look and finish. Whereas the
tiles find extensive use outside large building and houses, lots of
this materials are used in flouring in the open areas of public
offices and commercial buildings and residential apartments.
2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS
Process of Manufacture
Cement concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, aggregates and
water. Aggregates passing through 4.7mm IS sieve are known as fine
aggregates and the aggregates retained on this sieve are coarse
aggregates.

The process of manufacture of cement concrete paving blocks


involving the following steps :
a) Proportioning
b) Mixing
c) Compacting
d) Curing
e) Drying
(a) Proportioning :
A concrete mix of 1:2:4 by volume may be used for cement concrete paving
blocks with water to cement ratio of 0.62. The concrete mix should not be
richer than 1:6 by volume of cement to combined aggregates before
mixing. Fineness modules of combined aggregates should be in the range
of 3.6 to 4.0.
(b) Mixing :
All the raw material are placed in the concrete mixture is rotated for 15
minutes. The prepared mix is discharged from the mixture consumed in the
next 30 minutes.
(c) Compacting :
Vibrating table may be used for compacting the concrete mix in the
moulds of desired size and shapes.

VIBRATING TABLE
After compacting the blocks are demoulded and kept for 24 hours in
a shelter away from direct sun and wind.
(d) Curing :
The blocks thus hardened and cured with water to permit completed
moisturisation for 14 to 21 days. Water in the curing tanks is changed
every 3 to 4 days, after curing the blocks are dried in natural atmosphere
and sent for used. The concrete paving blocks gain good strength during
the first 3 days of curing secured in the first 10 to 15 days of curing.
(e) Drying :
After curing, blocks are allowed to dry in shade so that the initial
shrinkage of the block is completed before they are used in the work. A
drying period of 7 to 15 days would normally complete the drying
shrinkage after which they can be used. The concrete tiles are similarity
produced with the help of semi-dry tracing of the mixture allow to set
for 24-36 hours, it is cured in the tank for 15 days.
3. Design Mix Concrete :
(a) All pavers designated by strength shall be treated as design mix
concrete. The aggregate and cement shall be measured by weight in an
approved weigh batching equipment. Mixing water shall be measured in
graduated liter cans. One or more complete bags of cement shall be
used
for each batch of concrete.
(b) The contractor shall be responsible for designing mixes of the specified
performance to suit the degree of workability and characteristic
strength. The mix design shall be finalized before manufacturing of the
paver considering a set of suppliers for cement, sand and aggregates. In
case of any change of suppliers of cement, sand or aggregates, party
should have design mix ready for alternate suppliers.
(c) The minimum cement content for compacted concrete of pavers shall
not be less than 380 Kg / cum.
(d) The maximum water cement ratio for pavers concrete shall not be
more
than 0.40.
(e) The design mix proportions for each set of raw material suppliers shall
be finalized and approved by the authorized lab for the required
compressive strength and the lab report with proportions should be
available with the vendor at all times for scrutiny and verification
purpose.
4. RAW MATERIALS
4.1 CEMENT :
The cement used in the manufacture of high quality precast concrete paving
blocks shall be conforming to IS 12269 (53 grade ordinary Portland
cement) or IS 8112 (43 grade ordinary Portland cement) or IS 1489 (Part 1)
(Portand-pozzolana cement fly ash based). The minimum cement content
in concrete used for making paver blocks should be 380 kg/Cum.

4.2 AGGREGATES :
The fine and coarse aggregates shall consist of naturally occurring crushed
or uncrushed materials, which apart from the grading requirements comply
with IS 383-1970. The fine aggregates used shall contain a minimum of
25% natural silicon sand. Lime stone aggregates shall not be used.
Aggregates shall contain no more than 3% by weight of clay & shall be free
from deleterious salts and contaminants. Zone iv sand shall not be
acceptable. Course aggregate shall be 10 mm and below.
4.3 WATER :
The water shall be clean and free from any deleterious matter. It shall
meet the requirements stipulated in IS: 456-2000.

4.4 OTHER MATERIALS :


Any other materials / ingredients used in the concrete shall conform to
I.S. Specifications.

5.5 HARDENER :
The quantity of hardener used for making paver block is 0.6% per bag
of cement. The main advantage of hardener is that the paver block
could take out from mould within two days, which results rapid
increase in manufacturing paver block in a less period of time.
5. TESTING OF PAVER BLOCK

(i) Paver Block Dimension

Thickness 60mm

Shape I-shaped (with no hollow or


cracks)

Colour Natural cement grey colour


without use of any pigment.
Dimensional Tolerance Tolerance as per: 15658-2006
(ii) Compressive Strength Test
Sampling and Testing Procedure strictly As Per IS 15658:2006.The compressive
strength requirement of concrete paverblock shall be minimum 47.2 MPa (N/mm)
for 28 days (Testing as per IS-15658:200) after applying the correction factor as per
IS-15658:2006.

SAMPLE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH(N/mm)


1st Block 40.0
2nd Block 42.10
3rd Block 45.0
4th Block 43.0
5th Block 46.0
6th Block 44.25
7th Block 43.40
8th Block 43.60
(iii) SIZE AND GRADING OF AGGREGATES

Graded Aggregates :
Graded coarse aggregates may be supplied in the nominal sizes
given in IS:383-1970.

Fine Aggregates :
The grading of fine aggregates, when determined as described in IS:
2386 (Part I)-1963 shall be within the limits given in IS:383-1970
Table 4 and shall be described as fine aggregates, Grading Zones I,
II, III and IV: Where* the grading falls outside the limits of any
particular grading zone of sieves other than 600-micron IS Sieve by a
total amount not exceeding 5 percent, it shall be regarded as falling
within that grading zone. This tolerance shall not be applied to
percentage passing the 600-micron IS Sieve or to percentage
passing other sieve size on the coarse limit of Grading Zone I or the
finer limit of Grading Zone IV.
Coarse Fraction :
Total mass of sample = 2000g
S.No Observations Calculations
IS Sieve Size of Mass of (%) Cumulative (%)
(%)
opening material retained Finer
retained
retained
1. 80mm 80mm - - - 100

2. 63mm 63mm - - - 100

3. 40mm 40mm - - - 100

4. 20mm 20mm 327 g 16.35 16.35 83.65

5. 12.5mm 12.5mm 1601 g 80.05 96.4 3.6

6. 10mm 10mm 52.2 g 2.61 99.01 0.99

7. 4.75mm 4.75mm 19.6 g 0.98 100 0


Fine Fraction:
Total mass of sample = 2000g

S.No Observations Calculations


IS Sieve Size of Mass of (%) Cumulative (%)
(%)
opening material retained Finer
retained
retained

1. 4.75mm 4.75mm 123.5g 6.18 6.18 93.82


2. 2.36mm 2.36mm 255g 12.6 18.78 81.22
3. 1.18mm 1.18mm 443.2g 22.16 40.94 59.06
4. 600u 0.600mm 416.5g 20.83 61.77 38.23
5. 425u 0.425mm 254.0g 12.7 74.47 25.53
6. 300u 0.300mm 292.4g 14.6 89.07 10.93
7. 150u 0.150mm 197.4g 9.87 98.94 1.06
8. 75u 0.075mm 9.0g 0.45 99.39 0.61
9. Pan - 8.7g 0.44 100 0
From above results, it is cleared that all aggregates are used in
correct proportions for making paver blocks as per IS : 380-1970.

UNIFORM INTERLOCKING SPACES :


The pavers should have uniform interlocking space of 2mm to 3mm
to ensure compacted sand filling after vibration on the paver surface.

BY: