You are on page 1of 44

BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONS)

BLD 60403 BUILDING SERVICES 1

WATER TREATMENT FOR DOMESTIC


WATER SUPPLIES

LECTURER :
MR. LEONG BOON TIK
INTRODUCTION
Water UNIVERSAL SOLVENT

Water treatment is crucially vital for the consumption and for any
relevant usage.
of water treatment
Uses of Water
IMPORTANCE OF WATER
TREATMENT
IMPORTANCE OF WATER TREATMENT

Unfiltered water contains


- chlorine
human body is composed - fluoride
of 70% water - dioxins
- parasites, etc.
those could be hazardous to your
health.
Water treatment in HAEMODIALYSIS CENTRE
STANDARD/GUIDELINE
Association for the Advancement of
Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)
The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) is a
unique alliance of professionals and organizations dedicated to the understanding
and beneficial use of medical device technology founded in 1965.

AAMI Members

health care research and government manufacturers test houses


institutions teaching facilities agencies
CASE STUDY
STATION 2,
HAEMODIALYSIS CENTRE

STATION 2,
HAEMODIALYSIS CENTRE
IMPORTANCE OF WATER
TREATMENT IN
HAEMODIALYSIS CENTRE
Why water treatment is important in haemodialysis centre?

Ensuring a safe and effective manner of water delivery to haemodialysis


patients

-Average person (10-14 litres )


-Average dialysis patient (300 litres)
If they are exposed to such untreated water that carries contaminants which is
now directly exposed to their blood, severe complication could occur.
REVERSE OSMOSIS (R.O) IN
DIALYSIS
Reverse Osmosis in Dialysis

Uses a pump to push water through semipermeable membrane or filter


Some common uses include:
-drinking water
-laboratory applications
-water used in chemical processes
-houseplants
-greenhouses
-haemodialysis.
Reverse Osmosis in Dialysis
RO machine produces two types of water
-product water
-reject water.
RO is the most trusted water purification technology because the
devices remove dissolved inorganic solutes as well as bacteria and
endotoxins.
Safest
most economical method
most reliable water purifier system
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Design Consideration

Choice of equipment Drainage required


for power and water
efficiency
Design Consideration

Clearly labelled Water quality monitoring


system
Design Consideration

Shall be located in an area


where noise and disruption
is minimized.
THE PROCESS
How does the whole treatment
works?
PRE FILTRATION

Backflow
preventer

Pre filter Post filter


raw water tank raw water tank
Temperature
Rocket filter
blending valve
X2
POST FILTRATION
DISPOSAL
MONITORING WATER
QUALITY
Chemical Contaminants
Monitoring Feed Water
Analyzed at least four times a year
Sample can be taken from the water before it enters any part of the water treatment system.
( Sink near the water treatment room)
Samples are sent to qualified lab to analyse them

Monitoring Product Water


Quality testing needed to de done at least quarterly .
Samples should drawn from sample port immediately after the RO system.
Samples are sent to a qualified lab to ensure that no contaminants levels that exceed AAMI
standards.
Water quality degrades- have an alarm in the treatment room to alert dialysis centre.
A trend analysis should be done if any contaminants results exceed AAMI standards.
Microbiological contamination
Monitoring bacteria levels in water
Level shall not exceed AMMI standard (100 CFU/ml) with an
action level of 50 CFU/ml.
Samples is taken where all haemodialysis equipment connects to
distribution piping system.
Assay of sample:
within 30 minutes of collection or
Immediately stored at temperature between 1-5
and assayed within 24 hours of collection
Microbiological contamination
Monitoring endotoxin levels in water
Level must not exceed AMMI standards (0.25 EU/ml) with an action level of 0.12 EU/ml.
Measured 6 monthly
Sampling at the point of delivery to haemodialysis equipment
Tested using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test.
What happen if test results exceed the action level?
Procedures to isolate the potential problem :

Level of bacteria exiting the RO machine

Product water distribution system disinfection


procedures

Examination of the distribution piping system for dead spots


that may contribute to bacterial contamination including
possible contamination of bacteria filters if they are installed in
the distribution system
Correction action :

Need to make sure that


Disinfection of the
Cleaning and disinfection the water hose on the
of RO membrane
product water
machine is being
distribution system
disinfected.

Installation of an
endotoxin filter system Increasing the frequency
in the RO water of disinfection of
distribution system existing bacteria filters
ADVANTGES OF
REVERSE OSMOSIS (R.O)
Advantages of Reverse Osmosis
exhaust and dump its retained
Water is demineralized ions
Eco-friendly
Expandable and space saving
R.O able to remove bacteria and pyrogen ; Deionization filter (DI)
coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) machine unable to remove low
molecular weight bacterial by-products. (microcystins)

Two tanks : one as workers; one


as backup
DISADVANTAGES OF
REVERSE OSMOSIS (R.O)
Disadvantages of R.O
Extensive life cycle cost of dialysis water treatment

Acquisition Costs
-The price of water treatment unit may vary from
depending on specific requirements and design

Operation Costs
-Expenses in the supply of water and electricity
-Recurrent costs include the purchase of
consumables goods

Service /Maintenance Costs


-Inspection of reprocessing machine on regular
basis
-Repairing for defection in particular systems to
preserve the efficiency of the system
-Expenditures for quality control measures
POSSIBLE PROBLEMS &
SUGGESTIONS
Possible Problems & Suggestions
Problem #1: Bacteria growth
Research found that stagnant water, especially those stored in water storage tank which contains large
amount of water that no longer have chlorine or chloramine is one of the source of bacteria and
endotoxin in the product water.

Suggestion #1: Storage tank with specific design consideration


Storage tanks shall be:
Conical or bowl-shaped bottom for complete emptying
Having light fitting lid that is vented to air
Designed for easy frequent disinfection and rinse with an internal spray mechanism
Using inert materials that do not leach contaminants into the purified water
Having UV bulbs to kill microorganism
Problem #2: Improper design of RO system
For a given system, the higher the percentage of recovery or the lower the percentage of rejection, the
poorer the quality of product water becomes

Suggestion #2: AAMI chemical analysis


An AAMI chemical analysis shall be performed at least once a year to validate the removal of
contaminants by the water treatment system

All gauges and flow meters should be within manufacturers specifications and the readings should be
recorded daily

Water quality (conductivity or total dissolved solids) should be within normal limits for the area, and
checked against an independent device routinely and recorded at least daily
Problem #3: High wastage of treated water
When treated water does not meet the required standard, it would be regarded as reject water. If the
reject stream is not recycled or not returned to the RO system, high wastage will be created. In the
centre, these reject water are discard off.

Suggestion #3: Such water can be stored or recycled


Reject water can be reused in gardens, lawns and landscaping, for toilet flushes as well as other
cleaning purpose works or it can be recycled back through a closed loop system.
CONCLUSION
HEALTH IS WEALTH & WATER
TREATMENT HALLMARKS IT!
THANKS!

1. DAPHNE TAN LI WEN 0329055

2. KAREN LIM SHI CHEE 0329431

3. LAU WAN YEE 0328947

4. LIM XIAO SHI 0324410

5. LOH WEI TING 0328314