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Non-parametric tests

and Pivot table

Group 8


ANNU J KONATHAPPALLY (1628135) Date: 15-06-2017
Non-parametric tests
Sign Test
Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon Test
Kruskal-Wallis Test
What are non-parametric tests?
Non-parametric tests were developed for the situations where
lesser assumptions have to considered. Also known as
Distribution-free tests
They do not assume an underlying Normal (bell-shaped)
There are two general situations when non-parametric tests are
Data is nominal or ordinal (where means and variance cannot be
The data does not satisfy other assumptions underlying
parametric tests.
Practical differences between parametric and NP are that NP
methods use the ranks of values rather than the actual values
Parametric Test Non - Parametric
Assumed Distribution Normal Any
Assumed Variance Homogeneous Any
Type of Data Ratio or Interval Ordinal or Nominal
Data set Relation Independent Any
Measures of Central Mean Median
Benefits More Conclusions Simple; Less affected by
Correlation test Pearson Spearman
Independent Measures, 2 T- test Mann-Whitney test
Independent Measures, >2 One way independent Krusal-Wallis Test
groups measures ANOVA
Repeated Measures, 2 Matched pair T-test Wilcoxon test
Sign Test
It is a versatile NP method for hypothesis testing that uses
binomial distribution p=.50 as sampling distribution.

It does not require any assumptions about distribution of the


The sign test is an alternative to a one sample t test or a paired

t test.

The objective is to determine whether there is a difference in

preference between the two items being compared.

To record the preference data, if the observation is greater

than the hypothesized value, we record a + sign or vice versa.
Example for Sign Test
For example:

Population Proportion: For example A manager claimed that median

score to get a spot award is achieving 40 learning hours. Whereas
Employees claimed it as more than 40 . (1 tailed)

Employee performance before and after probation period. (Matched

sample sign test)
Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
It is a NP method for analyzing data from matched sample

It only requires an assumption that the differences b/w paired

observations have symmetric distribution.

This occurs only when the shape of 2 populations are the same & the
focus is on determining if there is difference b/w the medians of 2
Example for Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test

Comparison of Hiring Rate b/w two companies

Ho: The targeted hiring rate of infosys and wipro is 10%.

Ha: The targeted hiring rate of infosys and wipro is not 10%.
The Mann-Whitney test
The Mann-Whitney test compares the medians of two groups of ordinal,
non-parametric data to determine if they are statistically different.

The Mann-Whitney test can be thought of as the non-parametric

equivalent of the independent-measures t-test.

The Mann-Whitney test statistic is called U, which is calculated as follows:

- Put all the scores together (keeping note of their group identities) into
rank order
- Calculate U as the sum of the numbers of scores from the experimental
group that are less than each of the control group scores (or the other way
round, whichever gives the smaller value of U.
Example for Mann-Whitney test

Let us consider the on-job performance ratings for employees at

Showtime Cinemas multiplex, during an performance review,
the theater manager rated all 35 employees from best (
rating1) to worst ( rating 35) ,so he want to found out whether
the performance of part time employees( i.e were primary
college and high school) is identical or not.
Results obtained : The performance of both primary and
secondary college students is identical.
Kruskal-Wallis Test
It is used for comparing two or more independent samples of equal or
different sample sizes.

The Kruskal-Wallis test is used when the assumptions of one-way

ANOVA are not met.

Both the Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA assess for significant
differences on a continuous dependent variable by a categorical
independent variable (with two or more groups).

When using the Kruskal-Wallis Test, we do not have to make any of

the assumptions. Therefore, the Kruskal-Wallis test can be used for
both continuous and ordinal-level dependent variables.
Example Kruskal-Wallis Test

A Management company hires employees for its management from

three colleges. The companys HR manager want to review
performance ratings of the managers who graduated from three
different colleges( A, B, C).
( The data obtained from three colleges is summarised on the scale of
0 to 100, with 100 being the highest possible rating , we use 0.05 as
level of significance)
Results obtained: It would be reasonable for the company to either
reduce its recruiting from college B or atleast evaluate college B
graduates before making hiring decision.
Pivot Table (Short Introduction)

It is a data summarization tool found in data visualization programs such

as spreadsheets (i.e. excel) or business intelligence software.

A pivot table can automatically sort, count, total or average the data
stored in one table or spreadsheet, displaying the results in a second table
showing the summarized data.
What will you learn today?
Grouping fields by month and year
Showing data as a percentage of total
Using Slicers
Creating a calculated field
Applying Conditional Formatting to a
Thank you