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Section - a

Types of research
Correlation
Research process
Signification of research
Survey questionnaires
Sampling

The basic idea of sampling is that by selecting


some of the elements in a population, we may
draw conclusions about the entire population.
Definition of hypothesis:
Hypotheses are defined as the formal statement of the tentative
or expected prediction or explanation of the relationship between
two or more variables in a specified population.
Interview
Interview is a verbal interaction between the researcher and the
respondents. It is a data collection encounter in which one person
(an interviewer) asks questions to another (a respondent).
Interview may be conducted face-to-face or by telephone.

A structured interview, sometimes called standardized interview,


entails the administration of an interview schedule by an
interviewer.

In unstructured interview the questions are not ordered in a


particular manner. The order of questions followed in one
interview may not be followed in the next interview. It is
characterized by flexibility approach to questioning.
sources for literature review

Primary Sources
Literature review mostly relies on primary sources, i.e. research reports,
which are description of studies written by researchers who conducted
them.
A primary source is written by a person who developed the theory or
conducted the research, or is the description of an investigation written by
the person who conducted it.
Most primary sources are found in published literature.

Secondary Sources:
Secondary source research documents are description of studies prepared by
someone other than the original researcher.
They are written by people other than the individuals who developed the
theory or conducted the research.
The secondary sources may be used when primary sources are not available
or if researchers want external opinions on an issue or problem or even the
results of their own research.
Purpose of a literature review:
Correlation
Finding an average is often called the "mean." The mean is the
most commonly used measure of center.

The median is the middle observation in a set of data

Correlation is a statistical measure of the relationship between


two or more variables.

A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation,


meaning that both variables move in the same direction together.

A correlation of -1 indicates a perfect negative correlation,


meaning one variable goes up and other goes down.
Quantitative and Qualitative

Quantitative:

A type of educational research in which the researcher decides what to


study.
Quantitative research looks at patterns in numeric data.
Quantitative research gathers data in numerical form which can be put into
categories or measured in units of measurement.
Number-based
more generalizable

Qualitative:

A type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views


of the participants.
Qualitative research gathers information that is not in numerical form.
Qualitative data is typically descriptive data.
Text-based
Less generalizable
Secondary data

The data (published or unpublished) which have already been


collected and processed by some agency or person and taken over
from there and used by any other agency for their study are termed
as secondary data.

It may be noted that the distinction between primary and secondary


data is a matter of degree only. The same set of data may be
secondary in the hands of one and primary in the hands of others.
What is variable

A variable is any entity that can take on different values.

Trait

Event

Characteristic

Act
SECTION - B
CREATERIA OF GOOD RESEARCH

The purpose of research is clearly defined.


High ethical standards should be applied.
The research process followed should be clearly
described in sufficient detail.
The research design should be thoroughly planned.
The limitations should be frankly revealed.
Conclusions should be justified by the data.
Difference between independent and dependent variables with examples

Independent Variables

These variables are ones that are more or less controlled.


Scientists manipulate these variables as they see fit.
They still vary, but the variation is relatively known or taken into account.
Often there are many in a given study.
EG: Extraneous Variables

Dependent Variables
Dependent variables are not controlled or manipulated in any way,
but instead are simply measured or registered.
These vary in relation to the independent variables, and while results
can be predicted, the data is always measured.
There can be any number of dependent variables, but usually there is
one to isolate reason for variation.
EG: Moderating Variable
Data collection methods
Primary Data
Primary data are those statistical data which are collected by the investigator himself
for the first time and are original in nature. The primary data are originally collected
by the authorities who are required to collect them.

The primary data are truthful and suit the purpose of study. But the collection of data is
expensive and time consuming.

Secondary data
The data (published or unpublished) which have already been collected and
processed by some agency or person and taken over from there and used by any other
agency for their study are termed as secondary data.

It may be noted that the distinction between primary and secondary data is a matter of
degree only. The same set of data may be secondary in the hands of one and primary in
the hands of others.
Types of hypothesis
Null Hypothesis: Null Hypothesis is also called statistical hypothesis because this type of
hypothesis is used for statistical testing and statically interpretation. The null hypothesis
predicts that, there is no relationship between the independent variable and dependent
variable.

Relational hypothesis: as the name describes, it describes the relationship between two
variables.

Correlational hypothesis: in this types of hypothesis, without implying to one


cause to another, by a specific manner the variables occurs together.

Explanatory hypothesis: it describes that the change occurred to one variable is


causing a change to other variable.
Cont.

Non -directional Hypothesis:


Predicts the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent
variable but does not specific the directional of the relationship.

Simple hypothesis: predicts that, there exist a relationship between the


independent variable and dependent variable.
Section - C
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Observation
Observation method as the name itself indicates is based on observation.
Observation is strong and scientific study of a problem.

Interview
Interview method is a direct method of collection of data, which is based on
interview. It is the most important methods of collection of data. Through this
method we can know the views and ideas of other persons. It is a method of
social interaction. Interviews can be conducted through personal and telephone.

Questionnaires
This is an important and very popular method of data collection. This is adopted
by individuals, organization and government. In this method, a questionnaire is
prepared and sent to respondent by post. It is a set of questions. The success of
this method depends on the proper drafting of the questions.
CONT:

Focus Group

A facilitated group interview with individuals that have something in common.

Gathers information about combined perspectives and opinions.

Responses are often coded into categories and analyzed thematically

Documents and Records

Comprises of analyzing existing information as databases, meeting minutes,


reports, participation logs, money related records, and so forth.

This can be an economical approach to assemble data, however might be an


inadequate information source.
TWO CATEGORIES OF SAMPLING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING:

- there is a known, non zero chance of selection for each element in


the population.
- based on the concept of random sampling.

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING:

- probability of selecting any particular member is unknown.

- not suggested by the probability theory.


Probability sampling techniques

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING:

Each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection.
Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the
sample actually selected.
This implies that every element is selected independently of every other element.

SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING:

The sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point and then picking every ith
element in succession from the sampling frame.

The sampling interval, i, is determined by dividing the population size N by the sample
size n and rounding to the nearest integer.
CONT:
Stratified Sampling:

Two step process

Population is divided in to sub populations or strata.

Every population element should be assigned once to one stratum only.

No population element should be omitted.

Next, elements are selected from each stratum by random procedure.

Cluster Sampling:
Intact groups are selected, not the individuals with in a defined population
sharing similar characteristics.

Clusters are selected based on random sampling technique.

Each selected cluster all the elements are included in the sample.
NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING

Convenience Sampling

Element selection is based on ease of accessibility.


Cheap and easy way to conduct and are least reliable.

Example:
* online poll,
* survey your best friends,
* asking for volunteers at the mall.

JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING

Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements


are selected based on the judgment of the researcher.
CONT:
Quota sampling
may be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental sampling.
The first develop control categories of population element.
In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on
convenience or judgment.

SNOW BALL SAMPLING

Initial respondents are selected at random.


Additional respondents are obtained by the initial respondents.
Ask participants during interviews to suggest other individuals to be sampled.