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You are on page 1of 57

Chapter 1 (week 1)

FACULTY OF ELECTRONIC AND

COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Learning Outcome

Upon completion of this chapter, student

should be able to:

Describe the basic structure of atoms

Define nucleus, proton, neutron and electron

Describe ionization and free electron

Define conductor, semiconductor and insulator

Convert decimal no to standard or engineering

notation

2

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Chapter 1

Subtopics:

1. Atomic structure

2. SI units, Scientific and Engineering notation

3. Electrical charges

4. Electrical quantities - voltage, current and resistance

5. Active and passive components

6. Basic electrical instruments

7. Basic circuit measurement

8. Electrical safety.

3

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Atomic Structure

ATOM : The smallest particle of an

element that possesses the unique

characteristics of that element.

PROTON : The basic particle of

positive charge.

ELECTRON : The basic particle of

negative charge.

NEUTRON : An uncharged particle

found in the nucleus of an atom.

NUCLEUS : The central part of an

atom containing protons and

neutrons.

4

Balanced Atom

an equal number of electrons and protons.

no electrical charge.

5

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Valance Electrons

VALANCE SHELL : The

outermost shell of an atom.

VALANCE ELECTRONS :

Electrons in the valance shell.

The valance electrons

contribute to chemical

reactions and bonding within

the structure of a material

and determine its electrical

properties.

Ionization

Since electrons are lighter

than protons and are outside

the nucleus, they can be easily

moved from atom to atom to

form electrons

When an atom absorbs

energy, the valance electrons

possess more energy and they

can actually escape from the

outer shell and becoming free

electrons. 7

The periodic table

Exercises

1. How many electrons contains in the

valence shell for the elements below.

a) Sodium

b) Chlorine

atom (no.of electrons = 29).

9

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

CONDUCTORS

A material that easily conduct electrical

current.

A CONDUCTOR has 1 to 3 valence

electrons in the outermost shell. Therefore

its electrons tend to move to other atom.

Most metals are good conductors and the

best conductors are single-element

materials such as copper, silver, gold

and aluminium.

INSULATORS

A material that does not conduct electrical

current under normal conditions.

Most good insulators are compounds

rather than single-element material such

as rubber, plastics, glass, mica, and

quartz.

An insulator is any material with 5 to 8

valence electrons in the outer ring.

SEMICONDUCTORS

A material that is between conductors and

insulators in its ability to conduct electrical

current. It has exactly 4 valence electrons.

A semiconductor in its pure (intrinsic) state is

neither a good nor a good insulator.

The most common single-element

semiconductors are silicon, germanium, and

carbon.

The most common compound semiconductor is

gallium arsenide.

SI units [1]

Quantity Unit Symbol

length meter m

mass kilogram kg

time second s

electric current ampere A

temperature Kelvin K

luminous intensity candela cd

amount of substance mole mol

Table 1-1

13

This is the units that are derived from the

fundamental units except for current since

it is a fundamental unit

ampere A

current

charge coulomb C

Table 1-2 voltage volt V

resistance ohm

W

power watt

W

14

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

All magnetic units are derived from the

fundamental units [1].

Table 1-3

flux density tesla T

magnetic flux weber Wb

magnetizing force ampere-turns/meter At/m

magnetomotive force ampere-turn At

permeability webers/ampere-turns-meter Wb/Atm

reluctance ampere-turns/weber At/Wb

15

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Scientific notation

Provides a convenient method for

expressing large and small numbers

1=100 1/10 =0.1 =10-1

10 =101 1/100 =0.01 =10-2

100 =102 1/1000 = 0.001 =10-3

1000 =103 1/10,000 =0.0001 =10-4

16

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Mathematical Operation

To perform addition or subtraction using

powers of ten, the power of ten must be the

same for each term:

A 10n B 10n ( A B) 10n

Multiplication

( A 10n )( B 10m ) ( A)( B) 10nm

Division A 10n A nm

10

B 10m B

Power ( A 10n )m Am 10nm

17

Exercises

1. Express each number in scientific

notation

a) 200

b) 5000

c) 85000

d) 3,000,000

e) 4750

18

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

2. Express each of the following numbers in

scientific notation:

a) 0.2

b) 0.005

c) 0.00063

d) 0.000015

3. Express each number as a regular

decimal number:

a) 1 x 105

b) 2 x 103

c) 3.2 x 10-2

d) 2.5 x 10-6

19

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Engineering notation

Similar to scientific notation

A number can have from one to three digits to

the left of the decimal point and the power-of-

ten exponent must be a multiple of three [1]

For example;

33000 = 3.3 x 104 = 33 x 103

20

Matrix prefix

Specific powers of ten in engineering notation

have been assigned prefixes and symbols [2]

21

Metric unit conversions

Larger unit: move the decimal point to the

right

Smaller unit: move the decimal point to the

left

e.g.

0.15mA = 150A

22

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Exercises

1. Perform the mathematical operation;

a) 6300 + 75000

b) 0.0096 0.000086

c) (0.0002)(0.000007)

d) (340,000)(0.00061)

e) 0.00047/0.002

f) 690000/0.0000013

g) (0.00003)3

h) (90800000)2

23

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

2. Example 1-8 [1]: express the following

numbers in engineering notation

a) 82,000

b) 243,000

c) 1,956,000

d) 0.0022

e) 0.000000047

f) 0.00033

3. Example 1-10 [2]: Convert the following

20 kHz to megahertz

0.01ms to microseconds

0.002km to millimeters

24

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Electrical Charges

Charges of opposite signs (one negative and

one positive) attract one another.

both negative) repulse one another.

25

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Electrical Charges

The unit of charge [1]:

The unit of charge is denoted by Coulomb

One coulomb is the total charge possessed

by: 6.25 x 1018 electrons or protons

A single electron has a charge of 1.6 x 10-19

C and a single proton has a charge of +1.6

10-19 C.

Total charge;

number of electrons

Q

6.25 10 electrons/C

18

26

Exercises

1. How many Coulombs of charge do 93.8 x

1016 electron represent?

2. How many electrons does it take to have

3C of charge?

27

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electricity

Electrical Force

Electrical forces act between charges

kQ1Q2

Felectrical

D

Q1 and Q2 = charge on the objects (in C)

D = distance between objects (in meters)

k = a constant = 8.99 x 109 N m2/coul2

The strength of the electrical force

decreases as the distance between the

charged objects increases

Basic Electrical Components and

Instuments

Resistors

Resistors resist, or limits, electrical current in a circuit.

Capacitors

Capasitors store electrical charge; they are used to

block direct current (dc) and pass alternating current

(ac).

Inductors

Inductors, also known as coils, are used to store

energy in an electromagnetic field; they serve many

useful functions in an electrical circuit

Transformers

Transformers are used to magnetically couple ac voltages from one

point in a circuit to another, or to increase or decrease the ac

voltage. Companies such as TNB use huge transformers to change

voltages for high-voltage transmission lines.

Electronic Instruments

There are four basic electronic instruments normally found in

laboratory and will be use throughout the lab session for this course.

These instruments include:

circuits.

Function generator provide electronic signals.

Multimeter with its voltmeter, ammeter and ohmmeter functions for

measuring voltage, current and resistance, respectively

Oscilloscope observe and measure ac voltages.

Voltage

Voltage is the electrical force that moves

electrons through a conductor. The

pressure also known as EMF (Electro

Motive Force) that pushes electrons.

Voltage is expressed as;

W

V

Q

V = voltage in volts (V)

W = energy in joules (J)

Q = charge in coulombs (C)

One volt is the potential difference

(voltage) between two points when one

joule of energy is used to move one

coulomb of charge from one point to the

other.

Exercises

Determine the voltage

10J / 1C

5J / 2C

100J / 25C

If 50J of energy are available for every

10C of charge, what is the voltage?

500J of energy are used to move 100C of

charge through a resistor. What is the

voltage across the resistor?

Voltage Source

Battery: A battery is a type of voltage source that

convert chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery

consists of one or more electrochemical cells that are

electrically connected.

four basic components: a positive electrode, a negative

electrode, electrolyte and a porous separator.

- Porous separator +

Electrolyte

Solar cells: The operation of solar cells is based on

the photovoltaic effect (light energy is converted directly

into electrical energy). It has 2 layers of different types of

semiconductive materials joined together to form a

junction. When one layer is exposed to light, many

electrons acquire enough energy to break away from

their parent atoms and cross the junction, and thus a

voltage is developed.

Generator: Electrical generators convert

mechanical energy into electrical energy using a

principle called electromagnetic induction. A conductor

rotated through a magnetic field, and a voltage is

produced across the conductor.

Electronic power supply: Electronic power

supply does not produce electrical energy from some

other from energy. They simply convert the ac voltage

from wall outlet to a constant (dc) voltage.

Measuring instrument: A VOLTMETER

Current

Current is the movement or flow of charge

(electrons) from the negative end of the

conductor to the positive end

the number of electrons (amount of charge) that

flow past a point in a unit of time

I = current in Ampere (A)

Q

I Q = charge of the electrons in coulombs (C)

t = time in seconds (s)

t

One ampere (1A) is the amount of current that exists

when a number of electrons having a total charge (1C)

move through a given cross-sectional area in one

second.

Electricity with electrons flowing in only one direction is

called Direct Current (DC). It flows in one direction,

positive to negative, steadily. A graph of a DC voltage or

current would look like a flat horizontal line.

Electricity with electrons flowing back and forth, negative

- positive- negative, is called Alternating Current, or AC.

It literally changes direction at a certain rate, called its

frequency, measured in Hertz.

Ordinary household electricity in Malaysia is 240 VAC,

50 Hz. A graph of 240 VAC is a sine wave. AC can be

used at it is in light bulbs and motors, but for electronic

devices, it must be stepped down to a lower voltage and

then converted to DC. For example, the CPU in many

computers typically takes 3.6 volts DC.

Exercises

10C of charge flow past a given point in a

wire in 2s. What is the current in amperes?

If there are 8A of direct current through the

filament of a light bulb, how many

coulombs have moved through the

fillament in 1.5s?

Resistance

Resistance, R, is the force that reduces or stops

the flow of electrons.

Opposite to current and measured in Ohms (W)

The schematic symbol is shown below

The unit is in Siemens (S)G 1

R

Measuring instrument: Ohmmeter

Resistor Colour Codes

Color Digit Multiplier Tolerance

Black 0 10 0

Orange 3 10 3

Resistance value, first three bands:

First band 1st digit Yellow 4 10 4

Second band 2nd digit

*Third band multiplier (number of Green 5 10 5

zeros following the 2nd digit) Blue 6 10 6

Violet 7 10 7

Gray 8 10 8

White 9 10 9

Fourth band tolerance

Silver 10% 10 -2 10% (four band)

No band 20%

* For resistance values less than 10W, the third band is either gold or silver. Gold is for a multiplier of 0.1 and silver is for

a multiplier of 0.01.

What is the resistance and the tolerance?

Alphanumeric Labeling

Two or three digits, and one of the letters R, K,

or M are used to identify a resistance value.

its position is used to indicate decimal point

position.

Power

When current is forced through a resistance,

work is said have been done. Power is the rate

of working, represented by "P". Energy is the

capacity to do work.

Power is energy per time or the rate of working,

represented by "P". The standard unit used in

electricity is the Watt (W) = 1 Joule / second.

The amount of power consumed by an electrical

device is the rate at which it dissipates energy.

2

V

P IV I R

2

R

Basic Circuit Measurement

Multimeter

Analog Multimeter

Digital Multimeters (DMM)

Meter symbols

Measuring Current

Most analog ammeters have a number of

possible settings for the maximum possible

current that can be measured; for example: 2 A,

200 mA, 20 mA, 2 mA. You should always start

by turning the setting to the highest possible

rating (for example, 2 A). If the ammeter reading

is too small from the selected scale, then you

can reduce the scale to get the reading. It is

important not to overshoot the maximum value

that can be read.

For example, if the current is about 75 mA, then

the ammeter would be set to the 200 mA scale

for the most accurate reading. Setting to the

20 mA scale would overload the ammeter and

most likely open its internal fuse.

Measuring Voltage

Measuring Resistance

Measured Numbers

Error : The difference between the true value

and the measured value

Accuracy : The degree to which a measured

value represents the true or accepted value of a

quantity. A measurement is said to be accurate if

the error is small.

Precision : The repeatability or consistency of a

measurement

Resolution

The smallest increment of quantity that the

meter can measure. The smaller the

increment, the better the resolution.

0.01V

0.001V

Chapter 1: Introduction 53

to Electricity

Passive Components

Passive components:

Components that do Color bands

Resistance material

(carbon composition)

Leads

current

Examples

Resistors

Capacitors Foil

Mica

Foil

Inductor Mica

Foil

Mica

Mica capacitor_

Foil

Transformer

Tantalum electrolytic

capacitor (polarized)

54

Active Components

The components that have their own

power source.

Passive components are used in

conjunction with active components to

form an electronic system

Voltage and current sources

Battery, Generator, Fuel cell

Transistor

Integrated Circuit (IC)

Electrical Safety

Electrical shock :when voltage is applied across two

points on human body , it caused current to flow through

the body

The severity of the resulting electrical shock depends on

the amount of voltage and the path that the current takes

through the body

Effects of current on the human body:

Depends on voltage and body resistance.

Body resistance:

Typically between 10k and 50k

The moisture of the skin and body mass also affects

the resistance between two points

Chapter 1:

Electrical Safety

Avoid contact with any voltage source. Turn off

power before you work on circuits when touching

circuit parts is required.

Do not work alone. A telephone should be available

for emergencies.

Remove rings, watches, and other metallic jewelry

when you work on circuits.

Always wear shoes and keep them dry

Do not stand on metal or wet floor

57

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